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研究生:劉興隆
研究生(外文):Hsin-Long Liu
論文名稱:基於節點剩餘電能之MANET整合路由協定
論文名稱(外文):Integrated Routing Protocol based on Node Residual Energy for MANETs
指導教授:段裘慶段裘慶引用關係
口試委員:黃文增吳和庭辛華昀
口試日期:2008-06-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:電腦與通訊研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:行動隨意網路AODV整合路由協定剩餘電能
外文關鍵詞:MANETAODVIntegrated Routing ProtocolResidual Energy
相關次數:
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  • 下載下載:3
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
行動隨意網路中之節點不需AP即可獲得網路服務,此架構下節點可作為路由器,具有接收及轉送封包能力;然而此類型網路有很多不同類型的限制,其中最大限制就是電池電量問題。
近年來,大部份研究均討論隨意網路路由機制,少有探討關於有線及行動隨意網路整合議題;本研究提出IRP-MANET方案,目的在於整合行動隨意網路及有線網路此兩種不同類型之網路,IRP-MANET將通訊模式分為行動隨意網路內通訊、行動隨意網路外通訊及重疊式行動隨意網路通訊三種通訊方式。當節點有資料要傳送時優先使用隨意路由,如無可用路由時,則透過閘道器轉送。本研究針對AODV+協定作了修改,利用來源節點及目的節點路徑間節點剩餘電能及能量平均值提供路徑選擇的參考,優先選擇剩餘電能較高之節點作為傳輸路徑,以避免低剩餘電能節點失效而造成路徑斷裂,此種路由方式可有效提高資料到達率並降低資料傳遞時間。
本研究以平均傳遞時間、封包傳輸率及路由負載作為效能量測標準,分別針對IRP-MANET與AODV+進行效能量測、分析及比較。由模擬結果可知,IRP-MANET在平均傳遞時間及封包傳輸率方面之效能均較AODV+佳,符合本研究之評估。
本研究預期將IRP-MANET之路由表之單路由改為使用双路由項目方式,節點可在路由表中建立多條通往相同目的節點之高剩餘電能路由,此方式可降低因路由失效而重新執行路由探索所耗費之頻寬及電能,進而提昇網路效能。
Nodes in MANETs can receive the Internet services without APs. Specifically, nodes in the network can act as a router, so each can receive and forward packets. However, there are many restrictions in such a network; one of the major restrictions is the battery energy of nodes.
Recent research has largely devoted to the routing mechanism of MANET but less for integrating MANET with the Internet. IRP-MANET was proposed to integrate MANET with the Internet in the paper. IRP-MANET includes the following scenarios: In-MANET, Inter-MANET, and Overlay-MANET communication scenarios; the scenarios will be elaborated. When a node has data to be sent, it first uses ad hoc routing to send data. If no available route exists, it forwards data to a gateway. The present research modifies the AODV+ routing protocol to record the residual energy of all nodes on the routing paths between source and destination. It will choose the nodes with higher residual energy to avoid node failing, and to increase the ratio of data delivery, and to decrease the propagation time of packets.
The present research makes the ratio of average propagation time(APT), active node ratio(ANR), packet delivery ratio(PDR) and route load(RL) as an efficiency measurement event to evaluate and analyze the performance between IRP-MANET and AODV+. From the experimental results, IRP-MANET has better performance in APT, PDR than AODV+.
We expect to modify the route table of IRP-MANET with two route entries in the future. Nodes can build two routing entries to the destination in routing table. This way can save bandwidth cost and lower propagation delay of route discovery process and promote the performance of IRP-MANET.
中文摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
誌 謝 v
目 錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機 2
1-2 研究目的 2
1-3 論文架構 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
2-1 行動隨意網路及路由協定 4
2-1-1 行動隨意網路協定堆疊介紹 4
2-1-2 隨意路由協定 5
2-1-3 能量感知式隨意路由 11
2-2 行動IP與隨意網路整合方案 12
2-2-1 行動IP協定 12
2-2-2 MIPMANET-針對行動隨意網路設計的行動IP 15
2-2-3 結合行動IP及隨意網路之整合方案 17
2-2-4 MAMIP-隨意網路及IP網路的溝通操作機制 18
2-3 AODV+路由協定 19
2-3-1 AODV+路由探索原理 19
2-3-2 閘道器探索原理 21
第三章 基於節點剩餘電能之MANET整合路由協定 25
3-1 IRP-MANET網路架構 26
3-2 改良式AODV+協定 28
3-2-1 節點能量參數 28
3-2-2 改良式AODV+協定路由原理 28
3-2-3 路由要求訊息處理程序 31
3-2-4 路由回覆訊息處理程序 35
3-2-5 閘道器公告訊息及選擇機制 37
3-3 IRP-MANET通訊模式 39
3-3-1 Intra-MANET通訊模式 39
3-3-2 Inter-MANET傳輸模式 43
3-3-3 Overlay-MANET通訊模式 46
3-3-4 GW廣播方式 49
第四章 效能模擬與分析 51
4-1 系統模擬環境 51
4-1-1 模擬架構及參數 51
4-1-2 模擬計劃 53
4-2 評量因子定義 54
4-2-1 平均傳遞時間(Average Propagation Time, APT) 54
4-2-2 節點存活率(Active Node Ratio, ANR) 55
4-2-3 封包傳輸率(Packet Delivery Ratio, PDR) 55
4-2-4 路由負載率(Route Load Ratio, RLR) 56
4-2-5 閘道器傳送率(Gateway Transmission Ratio , GTR) 56
4-3 效能模擬結果比較 57
4-3-1 有線及多點跳躍方式效能比較 57
4-3-2 IRP-MANET及AODV+協定效能比較 62
4-3-3 不同資料負載量下之IRP-MANET效能分析 75
第五章 結論與未來研究方向 79
5-1 結論 79
5-2 未來研究方向 80
參考文獻 81
附 錄 84
A 模擬系統簡介 84
B 中英專有名詞對照表 88
作者簡歷 90
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[2] T. Clausen et al, “Optimized link state routing protocol,” IETF Internet Draft (work in progress), IETF Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Working Group, Internet Draft, 2003.

[3] D. B Johnson, D. A. Maltz, and Y. C. Hu, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IETF Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Working Group, Internet Draft, Apr. 2003.

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[7] L. Y. Li, F. Zheng, C. L. Li, and P. Y. Yuan, “An Energy Constrained Routing Protocol for MANET,” International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics , vol. 6, pp. 3205-3210, Aug. 2007.

[8] H. C. Wang and Y. H. Wang, “Energy-Efficient Routing Algorithms for Wireless ad-hoc Networks,” IEEE 18th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 2007) , pp. 1-5, Sep. 2007.

[9] L. Cao, T. Dahlberg, and Y. Wang, “Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Ad Hoc Routing Protocols,” IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC 2007) , pp. 306-313, Apr. 2007.

[10] J. Kim and J. Jang, “AODV based Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Maximum Lifetime in MANET,” In Proc. of the Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications and International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services(AICT-ICIW ’06), pp. 77-82, Feb. 2006.

[11] U. Jonsson, F. Alriksson, T. Larsson, P. Johansson, and G. Q. Maguire Jr., “MIPMANET-mobile IP for mobile ad hoc networks,” Mobile and Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHOC), pp. 75-85, Aug. 2000.

[12] Y. C. Tseng, C. C. Shen, and W. T. Chen, “Integrating Mobile IP with Ad Hoc Networks,” Computer, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 48-55, May 2003.

[13] S. Sung, Y. Seo, S. Chu, and Y. Shin, “MAMIP - Interoperation mechanism of ad hoc network and IP network,” Fourth Annual ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science, pp. 133-138, 2005.

[14] C. E. Perkins, “IP Mobility Support for IPv4,” IETF RFC 3344, Aug. 2002.

[15] A. Hamidian, U. Korner, and A. Nilsson, “A Study of Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Network in NS2,” Master Thesis, Lund University, Sweden, Jan. 2003.

[16] A. Hamidian, U. Korner, and A. Nilsson, “Performance of Internet Access Solutions in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Mobility and Wireless in Euro-NGI, Mobile and Wireless Systems, LNCS 3427, pp. 189-201, 2005.

[17] H. El-Moshrify, M. A. Mangoud, and M. Rizk, “Gateway Discovery in Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing for Internet Connectivity,” Radio Science Conference 2007, pp. 1-8, Mar. 2007.

[18] C. E. Perkins, E. M. Royer, S. R. Das, and M. K. Marina, “Performance Comparison of Two On-Demand Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Personal Communications, Feb. 2001.

[19] SBS Implementers Forum, “Smart Battery Data Accurary Testing Guidelines, Revision 2.0,” available at: http://www.sbs-forum.org/, 2003.

[20] H.-L. Liu and C.-C. Tuan, “Routing Mechanism of Static Nodes in Overlay MANET,” In proceeding of the 13th Mobile Computing Conference (MC2007), Changhua, Taiwan, Apr. 20, 2007

[21] Kumar, Rakesh, Misra, Manoj, Sarje, and Anil K., “An Efficient Gateway Discovery in Ad Hoc Networks for Internet Connectivity,” Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications, vol. 4, pp.275-282, Dec. 2007.

[22] ISI “The Network Simulator: ns-2, http://www.isi.edu/nanam/ns/, University of Southern California.

[23] E. Hyytia, H. Koskinen et al., “Random Waypoint Model in Wireless Networks,” Networks and Algorithms: Complexity in physics and Computer Science, Helsinki, Jun. 2005.

[24] The CMU Monarch Project, “The CMU Monarch Project’s Wireless and Mobility Extensions to ns,” Carnegie Mellon University.
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