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研究生:王宜珮
研究生(外文):Yi-Pei Wang
論文名稱:粒線體雌激素受體?瓟梇惜l宮內膜細胞的細胞保護作用
論文名稱(外文):Mitochondrial ERβ mediated cytoprotection in the endometriotic cell
指導教授:高淑慧高淑慧引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:臺北醫學大學
系所名稱:醫學科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:子宮內膜異位症雌激素受體粒線體
外文關鍵詞:endometriosisestrogen receptor beta(ER beta)mitochondria
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子宮內膜異位症是女性常見的疾病,並已被證實是女性不孕有關。迄今,子宮內膜異位症被認為是一種因為荷爾蒙不平衡所引起的疾病,但其真正的致病機制仍未知。子宮內膜異位生長被證實需要高量的雌激素。雌激素被證實可以刺激粒線體呼吸鏈蛋白質的增加,並且影響粒線體DNA的生合成。我們推測粒線體ERβ可以維護並調節粒線體功能,供應子宮內膜異位生長所需,進而增進細胞的存活。在本研究中,我們發現子宮內膜異位症及子宮腺肌症異位處的內膜細胞中,粒線體ERβ含量比正常的子宮內膜組織多出約2.5倍,同時於病灶組織發現粒線體DNA拷貝數(mitochondrial DNA copy number)增加為對照組的3倍。進而推測粒線體雌激素受體?珗鴾l宮內膜細胞(Hec-1A)有細胞保護的作用。我們以diarylpropionitrile (DPN,一種雌激素ERβ agonist)處理子宮內膜細胞,發現DPN可以保護並減緩細胞受粒線體ATP synthase抑制劑oligomycin或粒線體去偶合劑(uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-chorophylhydrazone, CCCP)刺激後所引發的粒線體功能受損及細胞凋亡,都可將細胞存活率恢復至50%。我們發現DPN可以減緩oligomycin 或CCCP所造成的氧化性傷害(oxidative damages)及ATP減量,並維持粒線體膜電位(mitochondrial membrane potential)。我們進一步觀察利用共軛焦螢光顯微鏡觀察到DPN會使ERβ轉位至粒線體並且造成粒線體型態的改變,使細胞呈現大型網狀粒線體分佈,並且可減緩由oligomycin引發的粒線體fragmentation。而DPN的添加處理可增加1.3倍的粒線體DNA拷貝數和mRNA的轉譯效能。此外,我們進一步以粒線體基因免疫沉澱技術(mtDNA immunoprecipitation assay)檢測ER?珙O否與粒線體基因結合,結果顯示ER?珨P粒線體基因D-loop可產生結合,在子宮內膜異位症患者組織中ER?珨P粒線體基因D-loop區域的結合量是對照組的2.6倍;在體外內膜細胞中發現ER??-D-loop的結合量於DPN添加後則增加為對照組的1.3倍。因此我們推測粒線體ERβ可能經由結合到粒線體DNA的D-loop區域進而調控粒線體生合成並提升粒線體功能,進而幫助細胞對抗細胞凋亡。藉由釐清粒線體ERβ在子宮內膜異位症所扮演的角色,希望可作為治療子宮內膜異位症的藥物治療的理論基礎,也可作為未來發展以粒線體ER-β為主要治療標的新子宮內膜異位治療方式之參考。
Endometriosis is a common disorder presented with infertility, and often affects young women in the childbearing age. However, the precise etiology of endometriosis remains elusive. It is generally considered secondary to the hormonal imbalance. Recently, mitochondrial estrogen receptor (mtERβ) was found in several tissues and the putative function is suggested to enhance respiratory chain function of mitochondria. We hypothesize that mtERβ promotes the endometriotic cell survival by enhancing mitochondrial respiration capacity and changing its susceptibility to apoptosis. In this study, we found that the proportion of ERβ inside mitochondria and the mtDNA copy number were 2.5 times and 3 times increased in the endometriotic tissues. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN, an mtERβ agonist) could attenuate the oligomycin (inhibitor of ATP synthase) or mitochondrial uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide m-chorophylhydrazone, CCCP)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the endometriotic cells. The cell viability was maintained to 50% in the cells co-treated DPN and oligomycin or CCCP. MtERβ was found to regulate mitochondrial morphology (fusion and fission). The predominantly large tubular form was observed in the DPN supplemented cells. It was also demonstrated to attenuate the proportion of fragmented mitochondria followed oligomycin treatment. DPN at 10 nM could reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP depletion in the oligomycin-treated Hec-1A cells, maintain mitochondrial membrane potential, regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, increase 1.3 times mtDNA copy number and mRNA transcripts, and decrease cell apoptosis. MtERβ-mediated maintenance of mitochondrial function was suggested to attenuate cell apoptosis induced by proapoptotic stimuli. Furthermore, the interaction of mtERβ and mtDNA was found to be augmented in the endometriotic tisssue. The mitochondrial DNA immunoprecipitation (mtDNAIP)-PCR method was performed to examine the mtERβ and mtDNA interaction. There were 2.6 times or 1.3 times increase augmented interaction found in the endometriotic tissue from the patieuts with adenomyosis or endometriotic cells with treatment of DPN, respectively. The results will unravel the causal role of mtERβ in the regulation of endometriotic cell growth, which may promote the development of mtERβ directed therapies for patients with endometriosis.
目錄 I
表目錄 III
圖目錄 IV
中文摘要 1
Abstract 3
第一章 文獻回顧 7
一、子宮內膜異位症(Endometriosis) 8
1.簡介 8
2.機轉 8
3.子宮內膜異位與荷爾蒙的關係 10
二、雌激素受體(Estrogen Receptor) 10
三、粒線體在細胞中所扮演的角色 12
1.粒線體的功能與構造 12
2.粒線體DNA(mtDNA) 13
四、活性氧分子(Reactive oxygen species, ROS ) 14
第二章 實驗方法 18
藥品試劑 19
一、檢體收集(Tissue collection) 21
二、人類子宮內膜細胞(human endometriotic cell)培養 21
三、細胞蛋白質製備(Preparation of cell lysate) 21
四、粒線體的分離( Mitochondrial fraction) 22
五、粒線體DNA免疫沉澱法(MitoDNAIP) 22
六、蛋白質定量法(Protein assay) 23
七、西方墨點法(Western blotting) 24
1.SDS-PAGE gel preparation 24
2.電泳(electrophoresis) 24
3.轉印(transfer) 25
4.Immunoblot 25
八、Scratch wound assay 25
九、細胞存活率(Cell viability) 26
十、ATP含量測定 26
十一、以Lowry方法測定蛋白質含量 27
十二、測定粒線體DNA拷貝數(mtDNA copy number) 27
1.DNA的抽取與純化 27
2.寡核酸引子(oligonucleotide primer)合成 28
3.聚合酵素鏈鎖反應(polymerase chain reaction, PCR) 28
4. Real-time Quantitative PCR 29
5.電泳(electrophoresis) 29
十三、流式細胞儀(Flow cytometry)分析 29
1.細胞處理 29
2.粒線體數量(mitochondrial mass)偵測 30
3.細胞凋亡(apoptosis)測定 30
4.活性氧自由基(Reactive oxygen species, ROS )的測量 31
5.粒線體膜電位分析 31
十四、雷射共軛焦顯微鏡 32
1.雷射共軛顯微鏡(confocal microscopy) 32
2.Transfection 32
3.螢光染劑及細胞免疫螢光染色 33
十五、統計分析 34
第三章 實驗結果與分析 35
一、子宮內膜異位症及子宮肌腺症異位處的內膜細胞有大量粒線體ER?猁漯穛{ 36
二、DPN對子宮內膜異位細胞(Hec-1A)的移行作用 36
三、Hec-1A細胞中DPN會促使粒線體ER?猁漯穛{量增加 36
四、DPN降低oligomycin或CCCP所造成的細胞傷害 37
五、DPN保護細胞抵抗oligomycin或CCCP所引起的細胞凋亡 37
六、DPN可減少oligomycin或CCCP所誘發的活性氧自由基(ROS)增加 38
七、DPN對oligomycin或是CCCP造成粒線體膜電位降低的影響 39
八、DPN增進經由oligomycin或是CCCP刺激細胞內粒線體的ATP形成能力 39
九、DPN、oligomycin、CCCP對粒線體質量(mitochondrial mass)及粒線體融合(fusion)與分裂(fission)的影響 39
十、子宮內膜異位症及子宮肌腺症異位處內膜細胞與Hec-1A細胞的粒線體DNA copy number大量增生 41
十一、子宮內膜異位症、子宮肌腺症異位處的內膜細胞與Hec-1A細胞粒線體ER?珨P粒線體DNA的交互作用 41
第四章 討論 43
第五章 參考文獻 49

Table 1 Oligonucleotides used in the study. 60

Fig. 1 Membrane structure and intra-organellar organization of mitochondrion. 62
Fig. 2 Histogram of human mitochondrial DNA. 63
Fig. 3 Structure of the human ERβ protein and functional domains. 64
Fig. 4 The chemical structure of diarylpropionitrile (DPN). 65
Fig. 5 Flow chart of experiment ………………………………………………………….66
Fig. 6 Persence of mitochondrial ERβ was demonstrated in the endometiotic tissues. 67
Fig. 7 Effect of estradiol (E2) and DPN (ERb agonist) on cell migration. 68
Fig. 8 Translocation of ER???n into mitochondria by DPN treatment. 69
Fig. 9 Confocal images of ER?? localization followed DPN treatment. 72
Fig. 10 Rescue of the Hec-1A cells from oligomycin or CCCP-induced cell death. 73
Fig. 11 Apoptosis assay by flow cytometry after treatment of the cells with DPN, oligomycin, or CCCP. 74
Fig. 12 Effect of DPN, oligomycin, and CCCP on ROS generation. 75
Fig. 13 Effect of DPN, oligomycin, and CCCP on mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ??). 76
Fig. 14 DPN attenuated the ATP depletion by Oligomycin or CCCP treatment. 77
Fig. 15 Differential effects of DPN, oligomycin, and CCCP on mitochondrial mass. 78
Fig. 16 Confocal images of mitochondrial morphology in the Hec-1A cells treated with DPN, oligomycin, or CCCP. 79
Fig. 17 Determination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in human endometriotic tissues by real-time PCR. 80
Fig. 18 Alteration of mtDNA copy numbers in the DPN, oligomycin, CCCP treatment. 81
Fig. 19 Differential mitochondrial mRNA levels in the DPN, Oligomycin, CCCP-treated Hec-1A cells. 82
Fig. 20 Physical interaction of mitochondrial ERβ with mtDNA. 83
Fig. 21 Physical interaction of mitochondrial ERβ with mtDNA in Hec-1A cell. 84
Fig. 22 The putative role of ERβ on mitochondrial transcription and cell survival/cell apoptosis. 85
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