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研究生:鄭淳恩
研究生(外文):Chun-en Cheng
論文名稱:台灣學生英語拼字知識:由位置限制律與順序相依律談起
論文名稱(外文):Chinese EFL learners’ spelling knowledge: position constraints and sequential dependencies
指導教授:胡潔芳胡潔芳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chieh-fang Hu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:臺北市立教育大學
系所名稱:英語教學系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:位置限制律順序相依律「聲音前後位置」英文拼字知識中國學生學習外語之拼字知識閱讀經驗
外文關鍵詞:context-sensitive spelling knowledgeposition constraintssequential dependenciesreading experiencechinese EFL learners'' spelling knowledge
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外語學習者要培養熟練的英語拼字技巧,必須習得字母與聲音之間的複雜對應關係,這複雜的對應關係往往受到「聲音前後位置」的影響而產生變化,超越了簡單的一對一字母與聲音的對應。本研究檢驗兩項有關「聲音前後位置」英文拼字知識的發展:「位置限制律」及「順序相依律」。研究對象包括三組母語為中文的英文學習者(四年級生、六年級生、主修英語的大學生)。「位置限制律」藉由兩項測驗(雙字母拼字測驗、雙字母選擇測驗)來檢視:學習者是否會在拼字過程中使用雙字母來拼音,以及是否會選擇含有雙字母字尾的拼字選項(e.g., baff vs. bbaf)。「順序相依律」則藉由另兩項測驗(母音子音拼字測驗及母音子音選擇測驗)檢視:學習者拼子音時,是否使用多個子音字母(例如-tch),來拼位於短母音之後的子音,以及是否傾向於選擇含有多個子音字母的拼字,做為拼短母音之後的子音的選項(yach vs. yatch or yoach vs. yoatch)。本研究結果發現:四年級的英文學習者在拼字時,已開始會考慮「聲音前後位置」的關係;這種考慮「聲音前後位置」的英文拼字知識隨年齡增長而更強固。本研究指出:學校英語教學雖然沒有直接教授給學生「聲音前後位置」的拼字知識,這種知識仍有可能藉由學習者本身的閱讀經驗累積而逐漸發展成熟。
To develop proficient spelling skills in English, one needs to learn about the sophisticated associations between letters and sounds, which goes beyond simple one-to-one correspondences by taking context into consideration. The study examined the development of two types of context-sensitive spelling knowledge, knowledge of position constraints and knowledge of sequential dependencies, in three groups Chinese EFL learners (fourth graders, sixth graders, and college English majors). Knowledge of position constraints was assessed by a doublet production task and a doublet choice task, which examined whether the participants included double letters in their spelling and whether they preferred spelling choices with final doublets rather than the ones with initial doublets (e.g., baff vs. bbaf). Knowledge of sequential dependencies between vowels and consonants was examined by a production task, which was designed to see whether the participants spelled coda with extended consonant letters such as –tch when they heard the coda preceded by a short vowel but not when they heard it preceded by a long vowel. A choice task was also included to see whether the learners’ choices of preferred consonantal spellings were affected by the preceding vowel (yach vs. yatch or yoach vs. yoatch). The results revealed that the Chinese EFL learners at the age of fourth grade had already developed the context-sensitive spelling knowledge. There was also a developmental trend found in the three groups of the participants, in which both types of context-sensitive knowledge developed saliently from the elementary school ages to the college ages. The findings suggested that context-sensitive spelling knowledge, though not directly taught in school, may develop implicitly and progressively with accumulation of literacy experience in Chinese EFL learners.
Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………………....iii
Tab1e of Contents…………………………………………………………………….v
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………………...ix
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………...x
Chinese Abstract …………………………………………………………………….xi
English Abstract ……………………………………………………………………xii
Chapter 1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………...1
1.1 Rationale …………………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Hypothesis and Predictions ……………………………………………………….6
1.3 Definition …………………………………………………………………………8
1.4 Organization …………………………………………………………………….9
Chapter 2 Literature Review….……………………………………………………11
2.1 The Development of Spelling Knowledge ………………………………………11
2.2 Context-free Spelling Knowledge ……………………………………………….13
2.2.1 Spelling by letter-sound correspondence ………………………………...15
2.2.2 Spelling by analogy ....……………………………………………………17
2.3 Context-Sensitive Spelling Knowledge ...……………………………………….19
2.3.1 Knowledge of position constraints in double letters ……………………..22
2.3.2 Knowledge of sequential dependencies in spelling consonants ………….26
2.4 Phonics Instruction in Taiwan’s Elementary School …………………………….31
2.5 The Current Study…..…………………………………………………………32
Chapter 3 Method ………………………………………………………………….34
3.1 Participants ………………………………………………………………………34
3.2 Materials and Procedures ………………………………………………………..35
3.2.1 Experimental measures ………..………………………………………….36
3.2.2 Background measures ……………………………………………………45
3.3 Scoring Procedures ………………………………………………………………49
3.4 Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………….55
Chapter 4 Results …………………………………………………………………..59
4.1 Preliminary Analysis …………………………………………………………….59
4.1.1 Descriptive statistics………………………………………………………59
4.2 Experimental Results……………………………………………………………..62
4.2.1 Knowledge of position constraints……………………………………….62
4.2.2 Knowledge of sequential dependencies…………………………………..65
4.2.3 The developmental trend of the context-sensitive spelling knowledge…..71
4.3 Correlational Analyses Between the Word Recognition Test and the Experimental
Measures ……………………………………………………………………………..77
Chapter 5 Discussion …………………………………………………….................81
5.1 Knowledge of Position Constraints………………………………………………82
5.2 Knowledge of Sequential Dependencies…………………………………………86
5.2.1 Dependencies of onset spelling on following vowels ……………………86
5.2.2 Dependencies of coda spelling on preceding vowels …………………….88
5.3 The Development of Context-Sensitive Spelling Knowledge……...……………92
5.4 Significance of the study ………………………………………………………...95
5.5 Limitation of the study…...………………………………………………………98
Appendixes ……………………………………………………………………….....99
A. Doublet Production Task …………………………………………………………99
B. Doublet Choice Task……………………………………………………………100
C. Vowel-Consonant Production Task (the onset condition)………………………..101
D. Vowel-Consonant Production Task (the coda condition) ……………………….102
E. Vowel-Consonant Choice Task (the onset condition) …………………………...103
F. Vowel-Consonant Choice Task (the coda condition)……………………………..104
G. Word Recognition Test …………………………………………………………..105
H. Letter-Sound Knowledge Test …………………………………………………..106
I. Sound Discrimination Test ……………………………………………………….107
References ………..………………………………………………………………..108
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