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研究生(外文):Hsu-Ping Chen
指導教授(外文):Pi-Chung Sun
外文關鍵詞:negative information disclosureproduct knowledgeproduct harmethical evaluation
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早期倫理道德行為的調查主要集中建立大眾對於法律、醫療、會計和行銷社群等專業之信心。但是,最近像Enron、Tyco和 Worldcom公司爆發企業的醜聞,開始負面地衝擊到大眾對自我規範專業能力的知覺。因此,對企業而言,建立一個倫理規範的標準架構是很重要的,充份瞭解消費者對企業行為的倫理評價也是重要的。早期的研究也發現不管產品種類為何,行銷有害產品是被認為不道德的 (Nwachukwu et al., 1997; Smith and Cooper-Martin, 1997)。其有害性的產品是被定義為:任何被認為對意圖用途是不安全或不合適的產品 (Smith and Cooper-Martin, 1997)。當消費者不能去辨認或誤認產品有害的程度或是消費者弱勢的程度,消費者可能甚至無法去確認道德的問題是存在的,導致一個無法連貫的倫理評之過程。過去國外學者在研究倫理議題上尚未考慮到消費者的產品知識與廠商的負面訊息揭露等影響因素。因此本研究將主要在探討加入產品知識、與負面訊息揭露作為干擾變數時,產品有害性是否對廠商倫理評價有顯著之影響。
本研究所採用3×2×2實驗設計模式為受測者間因子實驗設計,主要在衡量變數的個別主效果,及測量變數間的交互效果。並以問卷調查的方式,採用便利抽樣的方式來進行抽樣。主要以女性消費者為受測對象,共回收有效問卷387份,有效回收率86%。最後將所收集的問卷再以SPSS 14.0 軟體進行MANOVA分析與迴歸分析來做檢定,了解不同變數之間所造成之效果是否有明顯差異。
Early examinations of ethical behavior largely focused on the need to establish public confidence in such profession as the legal, medical, accounting, and marketing communities. Yet, recent corporate scandals brought to light by the implosion of firms such as Enron, Tyco, and Worldcom have again negatively impacted public perceptions of a profession’s ability to self-regulate. A normative prescriptive framework for ethical conduct on the part of the business community is vital and an adequate understanding of ethical evaluation of corporate behaviors by consumer is imperative. Nwachukwu et al., Smith and Cooper-Martin indicated that earlier studies have implied that despite product category, the marketing of more harmful product to any group was generally considered to be unethical. Smith and Cooper-Martin argued that harmful products have been defined as any product that is known to be unsafe and/or unfit for its intended use. When the consumer is unable to identify or incorrectly identifies either the level of product harm or the degree of consumer vulnerability, the consumer may not even recognize that a moral issue is present, resulting in a flawed ethical evaluation process. There are few studies considered the effects of the product harm, product knowledge and negative information on firms’ ethical evaluation. For this reason, the main purpose of this study is to explore the effects of product knowledge and negative information, in addition to product harm, on firms’ ethical evaluation. Especially, the moderating effects of product knowledge and negative information on the relationship between product harm and firms’ ethical evaluation will be examined.
In this study a 3×2×2 between-subject design with three level of product harm (harmless, less harmful & more harmful), two level of product knowledge (low knowledge & high knowledge), and two treatments of negative information (disclosure & undisclosure) is used to test research hypotheses. The data is collected by convenient sampling from female consumers and there were 387 effective questionnaires with an effective response rate of 86 percent. This study adopted SPSS 14.0 for windows to testing hypothesis of this study.
The result of this study reveals that:
1. The level of product harm influences the firms’ ethical evaluation. Product harm will reduce the firms’ ethical evaluation.
2. The degree of subjective product knowledge influences the firms’ ethical evaluation, while it does not influence the relationship between the product harm and firms’ ethical evaluation. The degree of objective product knowledge does not influence the firms’ ethical evaluation.
3. The disclosure of negative information reduces ethical evaluation.
4. The level of firms’ ethical evaluation positively influences purchase intention.
Key words: Product Harm, Product Knowledge, Negative Information Disclosure, Ethical Evaluation
Chapter 11
1.1 Research Background and Motive1
1.2 Research Objectives3
1.3 Research Procedure4
Chapter 2 5
2.1 Product Harm5
2.2 Product Knowledge7
2.3 Negative Information8
2.4 Ethical Evaluation10
2.5 Purchase Intention11
Chapter 313
3.1 Research Framework13
3.2 Research Hypotheses14
3.3 Operational Definitions of Variables and Measurement18
3.4 Experiment Design20
3.5 Questionnaire Design and Data Collection21
3.6 Prestest Process and Results22
3.7 Statistic Analysis Method25
Chapter 4 26
4.1 Data Description26
4.2 Reliability Analysis and Validity Analysis31
4.3 Hypothesis Tests35
Chapter 5 76
5.1 Conclusions78
5.2 Managerial Implication79
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research79
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