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研究生:王思佳
研究生(外文):Sy-gia Kiong
論文名稱:探討產品的Affordances-以數位相機為例
論文名稱(外文):Affordances of Product: Using Digital Cameras as Example
指導教授:李傳房李傳房引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang-franw Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:工業設計系碩士班
學門:設計學門
學類:產品設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:產品設計數位相機Affrodance
外文關鍵詞:AffrodanceProduct DesignDigital Camera
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探討產品所呈現Affordance的形式與如何將Affordance概念應用至產品設計之中為本研究的目的。為了將Affordance概念應用介面日趨複雜的人造產品中,本研究將以硬體與軟體介面的功能呈現較平均且形式多樣的數位相機作為此次研究的實驗載具。
  
研究主要可分為(一)現況分析與(二)使用性實驗兩個階段進行。(一)現況分析:根據Gaver(1991)所提出Affordance與知覺訊息的理論架構以及Hartsan(2003)對於Affordance的分類方式所彙整適用於產品設計中的Affordance詮釋方式,做為此次現有產品分析的基準,進行現有產品分析。此階段主要目的是理解Affordance在產品中的呈現形式。並根據此分析結果,篩選4台Affordance呈現形式具代表性的數位相機進行第二階段的使用性實驗。(二)使用性實驗:邀請30位對該4台數位相機沒有任何使用經驗的年輕受測者進行測試,並要求受測者以直覺反應實際操作這4台數位相機。之後,受測者將以是否能直覺性操作的角度,各別填寫使用者滿意度問卷。此階段主要目的為驗證使用性實驗所得出的數據資料與第一階段現況分析的結果是否產生對 應關係。
  
研究結果顯示,本研究所提出的理論架構,能有效的界定產品部件所呈現Affordance形式的屬性,能幫助設計師理解產品操作問題的原因。此外,本研究的成果有:(一)理解Perceptible Affordance、False Affordance 與Hidden Affordance的形成原因、(二)其應用於產品設計中的利與弊;以及(三)有助於使用者與產品之間互動的應用方式。

關鍵詞: Affordance、產品設計、數位相機
To study the Affordances situation which presented by product and how to apply Affordance concept to product design are the research’s purposes. In order to apply Affordance concept to the complexity interface of man-made products, this study decided the digital cameras which included variety of hardware and software interface features, as the experimental product.
  
The research could be divided into (a) the status of analysis and (b) the usage of the experiment two stages. (a) Status analysis: According to Gaver (1991) the relation of Affordance and perceived information theory combine with the summarized of the Affordance and their perceived information relationship on the basis of this study to analysis of existing products. The main purpose of this stage is to understanding the Affordances situation which presented by product. Based on this analysis result, have to select four digital cameras which show a representative Affordance situation for the use of the second phase of the experiment. (b) The usage of the experiment: to invite 30 young subjects who do not have any experience with the 4 digital cameras and requested the subjects were instinctively react to actual operation of the four digital cameras. After each usage test of digital camera, the subjects were required to fill out the user satisfaction questionnaire base on their intuitive operation point of view. The main purpose of this stage in order to verify the use of experimental data derived from the first stage and the status of whether the results of a correspondence between. 
  
The results of this study show that, the Gaver (1991) theoretical framework, not only can effectively define the property of components Affordance situation of products, but also can help designers to understand the reasons for the product operational issues. Finally, the results of this study included: (a) Understand the reasons of Perceptible Affordance, False Affordance Hidden Affordance formated, (b) the advantages and disadvantages when applied to product design, and (c) contribute to the application of intuitive operation ways.
 
Key words: Affordance, Product Design, Digital Camera.
目錄

中文摘要 ---------------------------------------------------------i
英文摘要----------------------------------------------------------ii
誌謝 -------------------------------------------------------------iv
目錄--------------------------------------------------------------v
表目錄------------------------------------------------------------viii
圖目錄 -----------------------------------------------------------x

第一章 緒論 -----------------------------------------------------1
1.1 研究背景 ----------------------------------------------------1
1.2 研究動機與目的 ---------------------------------------------1
1.3 研究限制與架構 ----------------------------------------------3
1.3.1 研究限制 --------------------------------------------------4
1.3.2 研究架構 --------------------------------------------------4

第二章 文獻探討 -------------------------------------------------6
2.1 Affordance理論之起源 ----------------------------------------6
2.2 Affordance理論於設計領域之應用 ------------------------------9
2.2.1 Physical Affordance --------------------------------------15
2.2.2 Conventional Affordance ----------------------------------16
2.3 Affordance與知覺訊息 ----------------------------------------17
2.4 小結 --------------------------------------------------------26

第三章 現有產品Affordance之分析----------------------------------27
3.1 分析方法 ----------------------------------------------------27
3.2 分析結果 ----------------------------------------------------29
3.3 小結 --------------------------------------------------------33

第四章 研究設計 -------------------------------------------------35
4.1 研究流程 ----------------------------------------------------35
4.1.1 現有產品的分析 --------------------------------------------36
4.1.2 使用性實驗 ------------------------------------------------36
4.1.3 受測對象 --------------------------------------------------37
4.2 研究分析 ----------------------------------------------------37
4.2.1 數位相機現況分析 ------------------------------------------37
4.2.2 使用性問卷調查-李克尺度法(Likert Scale)-----------------38
4.2.3 實驗數據分析 ----------------------------------------------38

第五章 研究結果與討論 -------------------------------------------40
5.1 產品Affordance分析 ------------------------------------------40
5.2 使用者滿意度與操作問題分析 ----------------------------------51
5.2.1 使用者滿意度與操作問題分析結果 ----------------------------51
5.2.2 小結 ------------------------------------------------------55
5.3 Affordance的變異數分析顯著性差異的比較 ----------------------56
5.3.1 比較產品中Affordance的顯著性分析結果 ----------------------57
5.3.2 小結 ------------------------------------------------------62
5.4 比較產品中各部件的Affordance --------------------------------63
5.4.1 比較產品中各部件的Affordance分析結果 ----------------------63
5.4.2 小結 ------------------------------------------------------68
5.5 綜合討論 ----------------------------------------------------69
5.5.1 Affordance與其知覺訊息的理論架構與使用性實驗結果之對應關 --69
5.5.2 彙整各類Affordance的形成原因-------------------------------70
5.5.3 探討將Affordance概念延伸至其他產品的可能性 ----------------73

第六章 結論與建議 -----------------------------------------------79
6.1 結論 --------------------------------------------------------79
6.2 後續研究與建議 ----------------------------------------------79

參考文獻 ---------------------------------------------------------81
中文部份 ---------------------------------------------------------81
英文部分----------------------------------------------------------81
附錄一 -----------------------------------------------------------84
自傳 -------------------------------------------------------------86
參考文獻
中文部份
1.陳力豪、李傳房,2007 ,Affordance 概念在產品設計應用之探索, 2007設計研究論壇, 國立雲林科技大學,雲林,pp..95-100。

2.陳力豪、李傳房、何明泉,2007 ,探討Affordance 概念在產品設計應用,科技學刊,第16卷科技類第2期,pp.143-151。

3.游曉貞、邱上嘉,2007,互動承擔設計模型之建構,國立雲林科技大學設計研究所,博士論文,pp. 31-52。

4.游曉貞、邱上嘉、陳國祥,2006,Affordance的設計應用之探討,科技學刊第15卷科技類第3期,pp. 241-251。

5.游曉貞、陳國祥,2001,正規劃承擔特質描述語法與產品設計之初探,銘傳大學2001年設計學院學術研討會論文集,pp.195-220。

6.游曉貞、陳國祥、邱上嘉,2006,直接知覺在產品設計應用之審視,設計學報第11卷第3期,pp.13-26。

7.黃啟梧、高漢清,1999,造形字彙對產品易用性的影響,中華民國設計學會第四屆學術研究結果研討會,pp.161-164。

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英文部分
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5.Djajadiningrat, T., K.Overbeeke and S.Wensveen, 2002, “But How,Donald, tell Us How?: On the Creation of Meaning in Interaction Design through Feedforward and Inherent Feedback”, in N. MacDonald(ed.), DIS2002: Serious Reflection on Designing Interactive Systems . ACM, New York, pp.285-291.

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8.Gibson, J., 1966, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, p 285.

9.Gibson, J., 1976, “The Theory of Affordances and the Design of the Environment”, in E. Reed and R. Jones(eds.)(1982), Reasons for Realism: Selected Essays of James J. Gibson, Hillsdales, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp.413-416.

10.Gibson, J., 1977, The theory of Affordances, in R.E.Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving, Acting, and Knowing: Toward an ecological psychology, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Hillsdale, pp. 67-82.

11.Gibson, J., 1979a, The Ecological Approach to VisuaI Perception, Honghton Mifflin in Company, Boston, pp1, 127-129, 134, 137-139, 142-143, 223, 212-250.

12.Gibson, J., 1980, “A Prefatory Essay on the Perception of Surfaces Versus the Perception of Makings on a Surfaces”, in M. Hagen(ed.), The Perception of Pictures, Volume I: Alberti’s Window, New York: Academic Press, pp. xi-xvii.

13.Gibson, J.,1979b A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art, in The Purple Perils:A Selection Of James J.Gibson''s unpublished essays on the psychology of perception (Unpubl ished manuscripts), Cornell University, pp.110-121.

14.Hartson, H.R., 2003, “Cognitive, Physical and Perceptual Affordances in Interaction Design”, Behaviour and Information Technology(vol.22, no.5), pp.315-338.

15.Krampen, M, 1995, “Semiotics in Architecture and industrial/Product Design”, in V. Margolin and R. Buchanan (eds.), The Idea of Design: A Design Issues, The MIT Press, pp.89-103.
16.Krippendoff, K., 1990, Product Semantics: A Triangulation and Four design Theories, in Product Semantics’89:proceedings from the Products Semantics''89 Conference, Vakeva, S.(Ed), 16 – 19 May 1989 at the University of Industrial Art Helsinki UIAH, pp.a1-a23 .

17.Krippendorff , K., 1995 , “On the Essential Contexts of Artifacts or On the Proposition ” “Design is Making Sense (of things)” in V. Margolin and R. Buchanan(eds.),The Idea of Design :A Design Issues, The MIT Press, pp.156-184.

18.Krippendorff, K., 1989, On the essential contexts of artifacts or on the proposition that“design is making sense (of things)”Design Issues,Vol.5, No.2, pp.9- 38.

19.McGrenere, J. and Ho, W., 2000, Affordances:clarifying and evolving a concept in Proccedings of Graphics Interface 2000, Montreal, pp.179-186.

20.Murphy, R.R., 1999, Case studies of applying gibson''s ecological approach to mobile robots,IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part A:Systems and Humans, Vol.29, No, 1, pp.105-111.

21.Neisser, U., 1976, Cognition and Reality, San Fransisco: W.H.Freeman, pp37-54.

22.Neisser, U., 1999, Ecological Approaches to Cognition: Essays in Honor sf Ulric Neisser, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. NJ, USA, pp317-354.

23.Norman, D.A., 1988, The Psychology of Everyday Things. Basic Books Inc., New York, pp317-354.

24.Norman, D.A., 1990, The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Basic Books Inc, pp17-35.

25.Norman, D.A., 1999a, Affordance, conventions, and design, Interactions, 6(3), pp.38-42.

26.Norman, D.A., 1999b, Affordance and Design,, http://www.jnd. org/ dn. Mss / Affordances-and - design.html(last visited:8/14/2005).

27.Rogers, Y. and Sharp, H., 2002, INTERACTION DESIGN beyond human-computer interaction, New York, pp.25-35.

28.Torenvliet. G., 2003, “We Can’t Afford It! The Devaluation of a Usability Term”, Interactions (vol.10, no.4, July/Augus)t, pp12-17.

29.Turner, P., 2005, Affordance as context, Interaction with Computers 17, pp.787- 800 .

30.Turner, P., Turner, S., 2002, An Affordance-based framework for CVE evalution, People and Computer XVII-The Proceedings of the Joint HCI-UPA Conference 2002, pp.89-104.

31.Turvey, M.T., 1992, “Affordances and Propective Control: An Outline of the Ontology”, Ecological Psychology(vol.4), pp.173-187.

32.Warren, W.H. and S. Whang, 1987, “Visual Guidance of Walking through Apertures: Body-Scaled Information for Affordances”, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance(vol. 13, no.3), pp..31-83.

33.Warren, W.H., 1988, “Action Modes and Laws of Control for the Visual Guidance of Action”, in O.G. Meijer and K. Roth(eds.), Complex Movement Behaviour: The motor- action controversy, Elservier Science Publishers, pp..339-380.  

34.You, H.C. and Chen, K.S., 2003, “A Comparison of Affordances Concepts and Product Semantics”, Bulletin of 6th Asian Design Conference 2003, Tsukuba, Japan, October 14-17, CD-ROM., pp117-154.
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