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研究生:布萊得雷
研究生(外文):Brad Hunter
論文名稱:美國式與中國式跨文化商業行為研究:由銷售管理觀點比較
論文名稱(外文):Cross-Cultural Behavior within the American and Chinese Buyer/Seller Relationship: A Sales Management Perspective
指導教授:鍾從定鍾從定引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsung-Ting Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:企業管理系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:英文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:商業行為跨文化
外文關鍵詞:Cross-CulturalBusinessBehavior
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近年來隨著台灣與中國大陸經濟的蓬勃發展,眾多美國籍的多國籍零售企業把版圖逐漸擴張至台灣與中國大陸,許多研究報告均針對文化影響力於跨文化、買賣雙方關係中所扮演之角色進行探討。研究中也分析了文化差異性,同時指出欲在台灣及中國進行貿易時,對於這兩個國家的文化必須有進一步的了解與認識。然而,在「組織行為理論」的研究中,跨文化商業行為,特別是針對眾多在台灣與中國大陸展開營運的美國籍多國籍企業,卻尚未獲得完整的研究。因此,本研究將著重於跨文化商業行為中的幾項重要議題,如:跨文化管理、顧客關係管理…等進行探討分析。 本研究以美國及台灣間兩類相似度非常高的產業作為研究對象:(1)半導體產業(2)圖書出版產業。
本研究所使用的研究方法為首先整理出相關文獻裡針對個別文化之買賣關係所建構而成的人際元素;第二,將美國與台灣的文化做系統性比較;第三,本研究根據樣本調查, 結合近期之理論文獻,分析亞洲與美國之間的跨文化差異、買賣關係。近期的文獻認為相對於在美國的買賣關係,在亞洲的買賣關係比較注重人與人之間的接觸與溝通;相反的,研究中也指出,美國式的買賣關係中較以雙方互信關係為基礎,而亞洲人卻非如此。除了上述的研究結果,本研究為使研究結果有更具體之闡述,特別進行了第二項研究。
在第二項研究中,研究人員再一次檢驗第一項研究所做出的結論,也就是台灣式買賣關係因為個人文化不同等因素,喜歡雇用較具人際互動的職員,在職位晉升方面,人際間的互動是極為關鍵的考量因素之一;美國式買賣關係方面,則是較為注重雙方互信關係的建立,無論是僱用職員或是職位遷昇,皆較不重視人際互動關係。在第二項研究中,研究人員在檢驗的過程進行些許的變異測試。第二項研究著重探討台灣式買賣關係如何與中國大陸進行跨文化的溝通,取代在第一項研究中僅著重台灣人如何與台灣人進行互動交流。最後,根據本研究之研究目的,研究二探討美國銷售人員運用互動溝通技巧時,在美國式與台灣式的買賣關係中是如何被台灣買方解讀。研究一之研究目標為圖書出版產業,研究二之研究目標則為半導體產業。
了解如何辨識與測定各項文化因素後,本研究結果提供了幾項建立買賣關係所需事項的相關建議,研究結果亦提出,在買賣關係中,應當呈現買賣雙方彼此行動與態度中的文化認知。
This thesis explores literature pertaining to the interpersonal constructs of buyer-seller relationships associated with individual cultures and, second, illuminates the contrasts, specifically, between US and Taiwanese cultures. Third, the first study conducted this thesis tests, through sample research the current theories discussed in literature involving the dyadic, cross-cultural, buyer-seller relationship, within the context of Asian and American cultures. In summary, the current theories postulate that, in comparison to American buyer-sellers, Asian buyer-sellers exhibit more interpersonal content in light of relationship development than do Americans. Additionally, current theories postulate that American buyer-sellers exhibit more trust based interaction content, than do Asians, in light of relationship development. In the interest of painting a more conclusive picture to this study, a second study has been conducted in thesis.
Study two, retests the findings established in study one, which postulate that Taiwanese buyer-sellers, within their individual culture, do employ more interpersonal interaction within the buyer-seller relationship and respectively, in opposition, that American buyer-sellers place little importance on interpersonal interaction and emphasize more trust building components than Taiwanese buyer-sellers. However, a slight variation is presented in the second study. Instead of retesting the way Taiwanese buyer-sellers interact with each other within Taiwan, this study instead investigates how Taiwanese buyer-sellers cross-culturally, with their Mainland Chinese counterparts. Lastly, Study Two examines, cross-culturally, the trust components employed by Mainland Chinese salespeople as perceived by Taiwanese buyers within the Mainland Chinese and Taiwanese buyer-seller relationship. Study One, centers on the literary materials industry and Study Two, centers on the semiconductor industry.
The knowledge acquired from identifying and testing those factors should then provide insight into the points of emphasis which need be made in teaching relationship selling processes as so the cross-cultural sales person can tailor his sales approach to the methods that best reflect the cultural perceptions of the buyer seller’s actions and attitudes.
Table of Contents
Abstract……………………........................................................................................................i
Authors Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………….......iii
Table of Contents …….………………………………………………………………………iv
List of Figures and Tables………………………………………………………………….viii
Chapter I Introduction to the Study……..…………………………………………………..1
1.1 Research Purpose........................................................................................................1
1.2 Research Objectives……..…………………………………………….....................2
1.3 Research Questions……….……...............................................................................4
1.4 Research Limitations..................................................................................................4
1.5 Research Methodology and Document Resources…………………………………5
1.6 Structure of the thesis……..………………………………………………………..6
1.7 Importance of the Problem…………………………………………………………7
Chapter II Literature Review……………………………………………………………….10
2.1 Dimensions of National Culture ………...................................................................11
2.1.1 Long-term Orientation……………………….………………………......11
2.2 National Culture and its relationship to Organizations and Individuals.…………..12
2.3 Buyer-Seller Relationships ........................................................................................12
2.3.1 Buyer-Seller Relationshipmodels................................................................12
2.3.2 Dwyer, Schurr, and Oh, Model.……………………………………….....12
2.3.3 Wilson (1995) Model .................................................................................13
2.3.4 Buyer-Seller Relationships and the Salesperson.........................................14
2.3.5 Asian versus North American Factors in Buyer-Seller Relationships…...15
2.3.6 National Culture and Buyer-Seller Relationships.……………………….16
2.4 Selling Approach in Buyer-Seller Relationships........................................................18
2.4.1 Relationship Selling.....................................................................................19
2.4.2 Adaptive Selling..........................................................................................22
2.4.3 Selling of Services………...........................................................................25
2.4.4 International Selling Environment .............................................................26
2.4.5 Personal Selling on an International Level..................................................27
2.5 Bonding .…………………………………………………………………………...28
2.5.1 Structural and Social Bonding……………………………………………29
2.5.2 Structural and Social Bonding and National Culture ..................................33
2.5.3 Structural and Social Bonding and Relationship Commitment...................37
2.6 Communication...........................................................................................................39
2.6.1 Communication and National Culture.........................................................44
2.6.2 Other Relevant Communication Studies…..................................................44
2.7 Trust…........................................................................................................................45
2.7.1 Trust and Long-Term Orientation………………………………………..45
2.7.2 Trust and National Culture…. ....................................................................47
2.7.3 Trust and Commitment................................................................................49
2.7.4 Trust and Selling Approach..........................................................................51
2.8 Buyer-Seller Relationship Outcomes…......................................................................52
2.8.1 Relationship Commitment............................................................................53
2.8.2 Relationship Continuum: Discrete versus Relational Transaction...............58
2.8.3 Long-term Orientation of the Buyer............................................................54
2.8.4 Guanxi...........................................................................................................58
2.9 Purchasing Strategies of Buyers .................................................................................64
2.9.1 Selling Strategies..………………………………………………………....72
Chapter III Research Methodology and Results….……………………………………...…..74
3.1 Research Design and Methodology………………………………………………....74
3.1.1 Data Collection: Study One ……………………………………………….74
3.1.2 Preparing the email questionnaires for Study One………………………...74
3.1.3 Response Rate form Study One……………………………………………75
3.1.4 Sample population for Study One………………........................................75
3.1.5 Techniques for Data Analysis Study One and Study Two…...…………....75
3.1.6 Data Analysis: Study One……………….....................................................76
3.1.7 Data Collection: Study two………………...................................................76
3.1.8 Preparing the email questionnaires for Study Two. ………………............77
3.1.9 Response Rate: Study Two..……………..................................................78
3.1.10 Sample Population for Study Two……………..........................................79
3.1.11 Data Analysis for Study Two……………..................................................80
3.1.12 Hypotheses to be tested..…………….........................................................83
Chapter IV Conclusion and Recommendations
4.1 Results and Conclusion………………..........................................................................85
4.2 Summary of hypothesis……………………………………………………………………..91
4.2 Recomendations… …………………………………………………………………………..88
References –Literature and Figures ………………………………………………………….90
Appendix A….………………………………………………………………...........95
The Survey Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………...98
Appendix B…..………………………………………………………………………………..102
Data sets for studies one and two….…………………………………………………..…...107
A. Journal References


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