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研究生:陳育閔
研究生(外文):Yu-min Chen
論文名稱:無線感測器網路節能策略的研究
論文名稱(外文):The Investigation of Power-Saving Strategies of Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:竇奇
指導教授(外文):Chie Dou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:49
中文關鍵詞:無線感測器網路生命週期蜂巢式細胞控制中心叢集頭轉傳跳躍傳送。
外文關鍵詞:coverage timeCluster Headcellular systemWireless Sensor Networksmulti-tier hopping scheme.single-tier hopping schemeSink
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在現今的無線通訊科技當中,人們一直致力於追求高速傳輸速率以及可以容納更大量的使用者的通訊頻寬;但是對於小體積、低價位、低功耗、高容忍度和訴求以最低成本來建構最高效益的無線感測器網路而言,無非是一種極大的挑戰。本篇論文的主題,即是從節能的角度來探討如何延長無線感測器網路生命週期的問題。
本論文在無線感測器網路節能策略的模擬研究上,以蜂巢式細胞的方式來架構環境,將細胞的中心點當成控制中心,在固定的半徑範圍內將細胞切分數環(tiers),而將每一環建置為多個具蜂巢式形狀、且大小相同的無線感測器合作性叢集,藉此研究每一蜂巢式細胞內的叢集頭(Cluster Head)之間以及叢集頭與控制中心之間的傳輸功率消耗情形。在模擬資料傳輸時,我們首先利用最短路徑的資料傳送方式,將資料轉傳到下一環的叢集頭,然後逐次的將資料傳送到控制中心,藉此觀察出轉傳機制所造成內環叢集頭快速消耗功率的情形。接著我們再提出跳躍傳送資料的方式,讓外環的叢集頭能夠透過跳躍的路徑將資料傳送到內環或控制中心,來改善內環叢集頭過早耗盡功率的情況。模擬結果發現,當無線通道環境狀況好的時候跳傳比轉傳多出了117天的生命週期;然而,當無線通道環境狀況變差時,轉傳卻比跳傳多出了96天。這是因為當無線通道環境變差時,使用跳傳所導致傳輸距離的增加,將使得無線傳輸的功率消耗快速增加。
In the wireless communication technology today, a large number of people have been devoted to pursuing high-speed data transfer rate and a larger bandwidth efficiency. But it is a great challenge to build an effective Wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs)that is cheaper, low power consumption and higher failure tolerance. This thesis focus on the power-saving issue in order to increase the coverage time of the WSNs.
In this thesis, the simulation model of the WSN is built on the hexagonal cell in the cellular system. The Sink of the WSN is located in the center of the cell. We divide the coverage area of the cell into a number of tiers (in this thesis four tiers) with each tier consists of several small hexagonal cell with the same size. Each small cell is regarded as a cooperation cluster with a Cluster Head (CH) located in the center of the small cell. Wireless sensors are assumed to be uniformly distributed within the small cell and the collected data are relayed to the corresponding CH firstly, and then delivered to the Sink via the CHs within the inner tiers. During the simulation, we first consider relaying the data to the Sink by selecting the shortest path and the gap between each hop can be only one tier, i.e., single-tier hopping scheme. We then propose a multi-tier hopping scheme, that is, the gap between each hop can be more than one tier. The coverage time of the WSN is compared between the single-tier hopping and multi-tier hopping schemes under different wireless channel conditions. Simulation results show that when the wireless channel condition is good, the coverage time of the multi-tier hopping scheme is longer than that of the single-tier hopping by 176 days. On the contrary, when the wireless channel condition is poor, the coverage time of the multi-tier hopping scheme is sorter than that of the single-tier hopping by 96 days. These results are due to the relationship between the transmission power and the transmission distance is much affected by the wireless channel conditions. When the channel condition is poor, the power consumption of the Cluster Heads increases sharply by using multi-tier hopping scheme.
中文摘要 i
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
一、緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 1
1.3 研究方法及內容 2
1.4 各章提要 2
二、無線感測器的現況與發展 3
2.1 無線感測器網路與ZigBee的發展 3
2.2 無線感測器網路的特點 5
2.3 無線感測器網路的節點和結構 5
2.3 ZigBee的技術特性介紹 7
3.1 ZigBee的堆疊層 10
3.2 IEEE 802.15.4 標準 13
3.2.1 IEEE 802.15.4物理層(PHY) 13
3.2.2 IEEE 802.15.4媒體存取控制層(MAC) 15
3.2.3 IEEE 802.15.4網路存取層 15
3.3 IEEE 802.15.4 之多重存取技術 16
3.4 IEEE 802.15.4 於ZigBee上的應用 17
3.4.1 ZigBee的家居科技 18
3.4.2 ZigBee的工業應用 19
四、通道模型與模組建立 20
4.1無線通道模型 20
4.2資料傳輸功率 22
4.2.1資料轉傳傳輸功率 22
4.2.2資料跳傳傳輸功率模型 25
五、模擬分析 28
5.1 環境架構 28
5.2 轉傳路徑及功率消耗 30
5.3 跳傳路徑及功率消耗 35
六、結論與未來研究方向 44
6.1 結論 44
6.2 未來研究方向 45
參考文獻 46
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Computer Society Press, 2005.
[2]I. F. Akyildiz, et al., “A Survey on Sensor Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, pp. 102-114, Aug. 2002.
[3]Zigbee-Alliance Web Site: http://www.zigbee.org/, 2005.
[4]Ed Callaway, et al., “Home networking with IEEE 802.15.4: A developing standard for low-rate wireless personal area networks” IEEE Communication
Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 70-77, Ausust 2002.
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[6]G. Gupta and M. Younis, “Fault-Tolerant Clustering of Wireless Sensor
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(WCNC 2003), New Orleans, 2003.
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[8]K. Sohrabi, et al., “Protocols for self-organization of a wireless sensor network,” IEEE Personal Communications, pages 16-27, October 2000.
[9]J. M. Kahn, et al., “Next century challenges: Mobile networking for smart dust,” in Proc. of the ACM MobiCom’99, Washington, USA, pp. 271-278, 1999.
[10]S. Romaszko, C. Blondia, “(NIAMac) Neighbor and Interference -Aware MAC
Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,”in Proc. of 16th IST Mobile and Wireless Communications Summit, July 2007, pp. 1-5.
[11]A. Koubâa, M. Alves, and E. Tovar, “Modeling and Worst-Case Dimensioning of Cluster-Tree Wireless Sensor Networks: proofs and computation details”, In
RTSS ’06: Pro. of the 27th IEEE International Real-Time Systems Symposium, p.p
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[12]J. A. Gutierrez, et al., “IEEE 802.15.4: A Developing Standard for Low-Power,Low-Cost Wireless Personal Area Networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 15, no. 5,
Sept./Oct.2001, pp. 12-19.
[13]E. Callaway, et al., “Home Networking with IEEE 802.15.4: A Developing
Standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks”, IEEE Communications, Vol. 40, no 8, Aug. 2002, pp. 70-77.
[14]G. Gupta and M. Younis, “Load-balanced clustering of wireless sensor networks,”in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC’03), vol. 3, pp. 1848-1852, May 2003.
[15]A. D. Amis and R. Prakash, “Load-balancing clusters in wireless ad hocnetworks,” in Proc. 3rd IEEE Symposium on Application-Specific Systems and
Software Engineering Technology, pp. 25-32, Mar.2000.
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[17]T. Shu, M. Krunz, and S. Vrudhula, “ Power balanced coverage time optimization for clustered wireless sensor networks,”in Proc. of 6th ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing, Urbana-Champaign, IL,USA, May 2005, pp. 111-120.
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