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研究生:何義傑
研究生(外文):Yi-Jie Ho
論文名稱:二階段式數位影像關
論文名稱(外文):Two-Step Digital Image Correlation Method
指導教授:黃順發黃順發引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:數位影像關係法位移應變量測
外文關鍵詞:strain measuringdigital image correlationdisplacement
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數位影像關係法(Digital Image Correlation,DIC)是ㄧ全區域、非接觸式且非破壞的應變量測方式,此法是利用數值分析比對變形前、後表面影像,以獲得圖面指定搜索區域中(子影像,Cz)欲量測點之相對位移。本文以數位影像關係法為基礎,發展出二階段式的數位影像關係法,於第二階段可配合基因演算一次性的在極小範圍內作七個變數之求解,更可搭配線性四邊形平面元素,直接以四端點的位移量求取應變值。以此二階段式的搜索,不僅改善舊有數位影像關係法搭配基因演算法計算時間過長、收斂速度不易掌握之缺點,搭配線性四邊形平面元素直接以位移求取應變,更能進ㄧ步提升求解速度。實驗方面不僅以大試片貼附應變規的拉伸結果,驗證程式的準確性外,更探討環境誤差、影像擷取設備本身感光誤差對取像的影響,以期能增進影像品質,提升準確性。接著利用MEMS(Micro-Electro-Mechanical System)製程製作微試片,並進行微試片的拉伸,確立數位影像關係法的適用性。
Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method is a full-field, non-contact and non-destructive strain measuring method. In order to get the displacement and strain of a specific subset region (sub-image, Cz), numerical analysis is used to compare the surface digital images before and after deformation. This research, on the basis of the digital image correlation, develops a two-step digital image correlation. At the second step, either to operate in coordination with Genetic Algorithm to get a one-time resolution of seven variables within a minimum scope or to operate in coordination with linear quadrilateral plane element to directly get the strain by using the displacement quantity of four nodes. This two-step search can improve the faults of the other digital image correlation method operated in coordination with Genetic Algorithm, i.e. extremely long calculation time and difficulty in convergence. In the experiment, it not only applies the tensile test of the specimen attached with strain gauge to verify the accuracy of the methods but also invests the influence from the illumination condition and camera, in order to improve the image quality and the deformation accuracy. Subsequently, micro-specimens produced by MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) procedure is tensile tested and their strains are captured by digital image correlation to establish its adaptability.
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
符號說明 ix
第一章 序論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究方向 2
1.3 文獻回顧 2
1.4 論文架構 4
第二章 理論基礎 5
2.1 數位影像關係法 5
2.1.1 影像的前處理 5
2.1.2 子影像的假設與變形理論 6
2.1.3 影像平滑法 9
2.1.4 影像相關性 10
2.1.5 動態亮度值平移處理 10
2.2 基因演算法 11
2.2.1 基因演算法基本架構 12
2.2.2 目標函數與適應函數 13
2.2.3 演化機制 14
2.2.4 控制參數 16
2.2.5 改良型基因演算法 17
2.3 ARGA和DIC的結合 19
2.4 二階段式數位影像關係法 21
2.4.1 線性四邊形平面元素 22
2.4.2 優化程式求解速度 22
2.5 多張影像取亮度平均 23
第三章 實驗方法與步驟 34
3.1 試片前處理 34
3.2 剛體平移實驗 34
3.2.1 試片與實驗設備 34
3.2.2 實驗方法 35
3.3 大試片貼附應變規之拉伸實驗 35
3.3.1 試片與實驗設備 35
3.3.2 實驗方法 36
3.4 微試片拉伸實驗 37
3.4.1 試片製作與設計 37
3.4.2 實驗設備 41
3.4.3 實驗方法 42
第四章 結果討論 54
4.1 誤差分析 54
4.1.2 感光晶片誤差 55
4.1.3 ISO值對感光晶片誤差的影響 55
4.1.4 影像轉換誤差 56
4.2 剛體平移測試 56
4.3 大試片貼附應變規之拉伸實驗 57
4.4 微試片拉伸實驗 59
第五章 結論與建議 96
參考文獻 98
個人簡歷 101
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