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研究生:蔡怡君
研究生(外文):Yi-Jyun Tsai
論文名稱:不同地區懸浮微粒成分特徵之觀測與模擬分析研究
論文名稱(外文):The particle constituents observation and model analyses in different areas
指導教授:張艮輝張艮輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ken-Hui Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:環境與安全工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:162
中文關鍵詞:懸浮微粒水溶性離子金屬元素
外文關鍵詞:particulate、water-soluble ions、metal element
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台灣地區因工業發展及都市化之發達,工廠大量設立,商業活動頻繁,導致國內空氣污染日益嚴重,近幾年來有逐漸改善的情況,然而空氣品質不良時仍以PM10指標污染物所佔比例仍高。雲林縣離島六輕工業區之空氣污染物排放量大,並具有造成二次反應性污染物及衍生性懸浮微粒等污染物產生的可能性,加上工業區內因開發而引起周邊交通運輸系統的改變等因素,使得當地及附近地區因污染物排放而出現空氣品質劣化的情形。另外台灣的污染不僅是本身造成,近年來境外傳輸所造成的污染影響備受重視,例如沙塵暴等都對台灣空氣品質造成相當的影響。大氣懸浮微粒對區域能見度、空氣品質、及人體健康效應會造成嚴重傷害或影響(Sisler and Malm, 1994)。
本研究在雲林縣台西鄉及嘉義縣梅山鄉碧湖村進行觀測並搭配模擬分析進行研究,利用MOUDI及低流量採樣器Omni於2008年3月與5月期間同步進行觀測,三月份於碧湖採樣連續五天,恰為沙塵暴期間,使得濃度上升明顯,最高值在3月6日達到162.9μg/m3,沙塵暴來襲,NO3-為主要污染物。另外本研究也在中國鄭洲大學進行了五天的密集採樣,碧湖、台西及鄭州大學粒徑分布皆以細粒徑(PM2.5)為主,所佔比例平均都高於60%,並且分析懸浮微粒成分,利用離子層析儀(IC)分析水溶性離子成分,共有八種離子(Cl﹣、NO3﹣、SO42﹣、NH4﹢、Na﹢、K﹢、Mg2﹢及Ca2﹢),在台西地區的水溶性離子成分中,Na+與Cl-佔PM10的比例分別為5.3%及4.9%,比碧湖(1.5%與1.3%)高3至4倍,原因為台西地區靠海,受到海水飛沫影響。
鄭州大學PM1、PM2.5、PM10的平均硫轉化率(SOR)依序為0.14、0.16及0.18;平均氮轉化率(NOR)分別為0.17、0.21及0.23,各粒徑皆顯示硫酸鹽為當地污染,而硝酸鹽除了當地污染,部份污染為外地傳輸所造成。台西國中SOR值依序為0.25、0.29及0.30,NOR值為0.03、0.10及0.20,PM1之硫酸鹽及硝酸鹽為當地污染,PM2.5及PM10則有部份傳輸造成的污染。而微粒的N.R值皆小於1,微粒為酸性。
將MOUDI的PM10採樣結果與Omni的PM10採樣結果進行比較,在PM10濃度部分相關係數r=0.720,呈現中度相關,在水溶性離子部分,之間的相關性以NH4+最好,相關係數高達0.980,相關性最低的為Ca2+(r=0.469)。
金屬元素分析部份,利用感應偶合電漿原子發射光譜儀(ICP)進行分析,分析Al、Fe、Mg、Ca、Sr、Ba、Ni、Zn、Mn、Cu、Cd、In、Tl、Cr及Pb等15種金屬元素,於碧湖及台西PM10微粒中,主要的金屬元素成分為Zn、Fe、Al、Ca,台西的總金屬濃度佔其PM10比例為7.9%,碧湖為3.6%。藉由瞭解這些微粒中的主要成分,進而針對可能污染源進行管制,達到改善空氣品質。
Because of the industrial development and the urbanization in Taiwan, plenty of factories established and frequently business activities cause the severe air pollution. Even though the air pollution is improved in these years, the percentage of PM10 is still high while the air quality is bad. The No.6 Naphtha Cracking Project in Yunlin discharges a big amount of air pollutant and cause the possibility of the produce of secondary aerosols. In addition, the change of the transportation system nearby the industrial park causes the air pollution in the local and nearby areas. The air pollution in Taiwan is not only caused by the industry in Taiwan itself but also from outside of Taiwan, for instance, the send storm. Atomosphere aerosol can have a pronounced effect on visibility, air quality and human health.(Sisler and Malm, 2004). This research was tested by observation and model analyses in Taisi and Bihu in Chiayi. I used Micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDI) and Omni to sample the air quality during March and May, 2008, and there were continuous five days in March. During this five days was also dust storm period, and the density was significant. The highest value in this period was 162.9μg/m3 on March 6th and NO3- was the main pollutant. The data in this research also included the samples which were taken in Zhengzhou University for five days. The size distribution was mainly PM2.5 in Bihu、Taisi and Zhengzhou University, and the percentage were all higher than 60%. After IC analyzed water-soluble, there were total eight ions (Cl﹣, NO3﹣, SO42﹣, NH4﹢, Na﹢, K﹢, Mg2﹢ and Ca2﹢). In Taisi area, the percentage of PM10 of Na+ and Cl- were 5.3% and 4.9% which were higher three to four times than the value in Bihu (1.5% and 1.3%) because Taisi area was nearby sea and the values were effected by the sea mist.
The Sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR) of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in Zhengzhou University were 0.14, 0.16 and 0.18, and the Nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) were 0.17, 0.21 and 0.23, which presented sulfate was the local pollutant, and nitrate was not only local pollutant but also form outside areas. The SOR of Taisi junior high school were 0.25, 0.29 and 0.30, and the NOR were 0.03, 0.10 and 0.20, and which presented the PM1 of sulfate and nitrate were all local pollutant, and part of PM2.5 and PM10 were from outside areas, and the N.R values of the particle were all lower than one, which were acid.
Compare the PM10 of MOUDI to Omni, the correlation of density was 0.720 which was middle-related; for the correlation of water-soluble ions, NH4+ was the highest which was 0.980, and Ca2+ was the lowest.
For the element analysis, I used ICP to analyzed Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, In, Tl, Cr and Pb. The main elements of PM10 in Bihu and Taisi were Zn, Fe, Al and Ca. The percentage of total element density of PM10 in Taisi was 7.9%, and the vale in Bihu was 3.6%. We can control the possible pollutant by understanding the elements of these particles to improve the air quality.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
致謝 vi
目錄 vii
表目錄 x
圖目錄 xi

一、前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2

二、文獻回顧 3
2.1 懸浮微粒定義與來源 3
2.2 環境中氣膠的組成及來源 3
2.3 懸浮微粒質量濃度 4
2.3.1各國質量濃度標準 4
2.3.2懸浮微粒相關研究 6
2.4 水溶性離子相關研究 8
2.4.1懸浮微粒的S.O.R及N.O.R 10
2.4.2懸浮微粒的酸鹼度 13
2.4.3水溶性離子當量濃度與A/C值 13
2.5 懸浮微粒中重金屬成分 15
2.6 成份污染來源 16
2.6.1水溶性離子可能污染來源 16
2.6.2金屬元素可能污染來源 17
2.7 沙塵暴 18
2.7.1沙塵暴定義 18
2.7.2沙塵暴成因 19
2.7.3沙塵暴之相關研究 20
2.8 逆軌跡之相關研究 22

三、研究方法 24
3.1 採樣地點 26
3.1.1 嘉義縣梅山鄉碧湖茶園 26
3.1.2 雲林縣台西鄉台西國中 27
3.1.3 中國河南省鄭州市鄭州大學 28
3.2 採樣時間 29
3.3 採樣設備 29
3.3.1 三維超音波風速計 29
3.3.2 低流量採樣器(Omni) 30
3.3.3 微孔均勻沉降衝擊器(MOUDI) 31
3.4 分析方法 32
3.4.1 模式模擬分析 32
3.4.2 懸浮微粒質量濃度秤重分析 33
3.4.3 水溶性離子成分分析 33
3.4.4 金屬成分分析 35
3.4.5 實驗驗證 35

四、結果與討論 36
4.1 懸浮微粒之質量濃度 36
4.1.1 懸浮微粒質量濃度秤重分析 36
4.1.2與環保署測站監測值比較 44
4.1.3 與WHO建議值比較 48
4.1.4 MOUDI與Omni濃度比較 48
4.2 水溶性離子 49
4.2.1水溶性離子組成濃度 49
4.2.2懸浮微粒之SOR、NOR及N.R 67
4.2.3陰陽離子當量濃度(A/C)比 71
4.2.4主要離子相關性 74
4.2.5 MOUDI與Omni水溶性離子之比較 77
4.3 金屬元素 81
4.4 沙塵暴與非沙塵暴期間比較 85
4.5 不同月份與季節性分析 89
4.6 不同地區之比較分析 93
4.7 模式模擬結果分析 101

五、結論與建議 102
5.1 結論 102
5.2 建議 104

六、參考文獻 105
六、參考文獻
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