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研究生:陳正聲
研究生(外文):Cheng-Sheng Chen
論文名稱:CNC立式銑床機柱結構特性與線軌預力效應之研究
論文名稱(外文):The effect of the linear guide on the vibration characteristics of a CNC vertical milling machine tool.
指導教授:洪瑞斌洪瑞斌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jui-Pin Hung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立勤益科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:線性滑軌接觸剛性動態特性
外文關鍵詞:Vertical milling machine toolLinear guideContact stiffnessDynamic characteristics
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本研究旨在探討CNC立式機柱主軸結構之動靜態特性以及線性滑軌預壓力之影響。在立式機柱上,刀具主軸係使用線性滑軌與滾珠螺桿裝置結合於機柱本體,而達到Z軸向定位之切削動作。因此,線性滑軌預壓將直接影響機柱與主軸動靜態特性以及加工性能。為評估線軌之影響,本研究應用赫茲接觸理論計算線性滑軌鋼珠滾動介面之接觸剛性,並導入機柱主軸結構之有限元素模型中,進行靜剛性與動態特性分析。為驗證分析結果,研究中製作機柱主軸原型機台,分別裝置不同預壓線軌,進行靜剛性與動態實驗。
研究結果發現:(1)線軌預壓等級對刀具主軸靜剛性之影響並不顯著,而其影響程度隨著線軌跨距之改變而有所差異。(2)在機柱結構模態分析方面,滑塊預壓等級對於機柱結構之低頻振形影響不大,但是以主軸為主體之振動模態,則屬於高頻振動,其振動頻率與線軌預壓有關。有限元素分析與振動實驗數據均顯示,高預壓(ZB)與低預壓(Z0)線軌對此振頻之影響,相差達12%。此外,機柱振動頻率亦隨主軸之定位高度而改變,其中機柱彎曲振動較為顯著,頻率變化高達19.2%。(3)動剛性分析:當外力激振頻率為960~1080Hz區間時,將使機柱結構在主軸端產生最大變形,此時具有最小動剛性。
本研究獲得結果將是衡量立式結構動態性能的重要依據。要如何提高整機的性能及剛度值,則可藉由本研究所提出分析模式作更深入探討。

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of the linear guide on the vibration characteristics of a CNC vertical milling machine tool. It is known that in the linear-bearing mechanisms such as linear guide, there exists rolling interfaces with different levels of contact stiffness at the ball grooves, which can cause the spindle system to exhibit different dynamic characteristics and hence affect its machining performance. To achieve a well designed machine tool structure, the effect of the preload and mounted configuration of linear guide as well as the height of spindle positioned on vertical column should be adequately evaluated. To this purpose, a finite element model of a vertical spindle column structure was created for static and dynamic analysis. As a validation of the proposed model, a prototype of a vertical column structure was fabricated for static and vibration test.
Both the finite element predictions and experimental measurements show that (1) the linear guide with higher preload caused the vertical column to vibrate at higher frequencies. It is noted that a significant variation approximately 12% occur at the vibration of higher mode, which are associated with the vibration of the spindle, rather than the vertical column, and the mounted span of linear guides slightly affect the vibration characteristic of the vertical column, (2) the frequencies of lower vibration modes vary with the spindle positioning on the vertical column, a variation about 13~19%. (3) The vertical structure shows a lower dynamic stiffness when the external force excites at the frequency in the range of 960~1080Hz, which corresponding to the natural modes of the spindle system.
It is obviously that current results provide valuable information for the design of machine tool.

中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
目 錄 III
表 目 錄 V
圖 目 錄 VI
符 號 說 明 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 相關文獻 2
1.3 研究目的與內容 6
第二章 相關理論 8
2.1 赫茲接觸理論 8
2.2 線性滑軌滾動介面之接觸剛性 10
2.3 結構模態分析 14
2.4 結構動剛性分析 15
第三章 立式機柱原型機台與分析模型 17
3.1 CNC立式機柱原型機台 17
3.1.1 機柱結構本體與關鍵組件 17
3.1.2 機電控制系統 20
3.2 有限元素實體模型 21
3.2.1 網格模型 21
3.2.2 滾動介面模擬 22
第四章 機柱結構靜剛性分析 28
4.1 前言 28
4.2 結構靜剛性實驗 28
4.2.1 實驗裝置與儀器 28
4.3 有限元素靜剛性分析 32
4.4 結果與討論 32
4.4.1線軌跨距效應 34
4.4.2 線軌預力效應 37
第五章 機柱結構振動特性分析 38
5.1 有限元素模態分析 38
5.2 振動實驗 40
5.3 結果與討論 44
5.3.1 預力效應 45
5.3.2 跨距效應 49
5.3.3 主軸頭定位點之影響 50
第六章 CNC立式機柱動靜態分析 57
6.1 前言 57
6.2 有限元素模型建構 57
6.3 有限元素模型與收斂分析 59
6.4 有限元素模型之邊界條件 60
6.5主軸箱靜剛性 63
6.6 立柱靜剛性 65
6.7 主軸/立柱結構靜剛性分析 67
6.7.1 線軌預力效應 68
1.X軸向靜剛性分析 68
2. Y軸向靜剛性分析 69
3. Z軸向靜剛性分析 69
6.8 結構模態分析 70
6.8.1主軸箱與立柱之模態分析 70
6.8.2 主軸箱與立柱組合模式之模態分析(預力效應) 72
6.8.3 主軸頭定位點之影響 73
第七章 結論與未來展望 76
7.1結論 76
7.2未來展望 77
參考文獻 78


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