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研究生:雷穎純
研究生(外文):Ying-Chun Lei
論文名稱:批評對團體創意表現的影響:不同文化的比較
論文名稱(外文):The influence of Criticism in Group Creativity:A Cultural Comparison
指導教授:劉世南劉世南引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:勞工所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:集體主義文化腦力激盪批評建設性建議團體創意
外文關鍵詞:BrainstormingCriticizeconstructive criticismGroup Creativitycollectivistic cultures
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本研究旨在探討批評對於創意表現的影響,是否會受到東方集體主義文化效應的影響,與西方個人主義文化表現有所差異。過去Nemeth等人(2004)比較「鼓勵批評」團體和「禁止批評」的腦力激盪團體,結果發現兩種情況的創意數量相當,並且鼓勵批評團體在團體進行後所填寫的未表達點子與新想到點子,高於禁止批評的腦力激盪團體。他們解釋是因為鼓勵批評,反而營造各言爾志的開放氣氛而解除了對他人負面評價的害怕,並且他人的異議刺激成員的認知想像。他們同時比較美國與法國的參與者,發現沒有顯著的差異。本研究認為,美法兩國的文化都比較接近個人主義的獨立文化,故批評有增進團體創意的正面效果。因此,本研究指出在台灣集體主義文化下可能存在不同的批評效果。本研究實驗一操弄批評後發現,台灣對於批評是壓抑的,因為會破壞和諧。實驗二操弄對事不對人的建設性建議,發現對事不對人的建議並沒有降低創意表現的抑制作用,反而認知激化個人創意行為的表現。本研究認為,在東方集體主義文化下,華人需用正面的方式,鼓勵其表達對事不對人的真誠建議(即建設性的批評),才較為人所接受的。最後,並進一步討論,東西方文化對於不同指示團體之間表現的差異以及在團體實驗操弄批評效果之文化差異的限制。
The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of “criticizing their own and others’ ideas” on group creativity in a collectivistic culture. In study by Nemeth et al., (2004), they compared performance from groups given the encouragement to debate – even to criticize, and groups given the advice not to criticize (traditional brainstorming instructions). Their results showed that group productivity of idea generation in both conditions is close. However, the “debate” groups scored higher in the amount of unexpressed ideas and new ideas after the group session than the “brainstorming” groups. They suggested that the encouragement to debate liberates participants from evaluation apprehension and thus stimulates creative cognition in a group. They also found no significant performance gap from groups in the U.S. and in France. Both the U.S. and France are believed to be influenced mainly by individualistic cultures. This study, conducted among university students in Taiwan where people are broadly influenced by collectivistic cultures, attempts to document potential differences in results through the matching experiments done by earlier studies. In the first experiment, we evaluated the effect of “unrestrictive criticism” on group creativity. Findings showed that criticism causes the participants, all university students in Taiwan, more inhibited to express ideas. In the second experiment, we instructed participants to exercise only constructive criticism and avoid personal attack and then measured the group creativity. The results showed that positive attitude with constructive criticism has no effect in blocking group creativity but rather encourages group participants to freely express new ideas. These experimental results suggest that a more positive and sensitive approach is more acceptable by Asian or the countries under influence of collectivistic cultures. Constraints in experiments and implications of findings are also discussed.
摘要 I
Abstract II
目 錄 III
表目錄 V
圖目錄 VI
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
第一節 團體行為的特性 4
第二節 影響團體創造力的因素 5
第三節 腦力激盪法(Brainstorming) 9
第四節 批評與團體創意表現 11
第五節 不同文化在批評觀點上的差異 12
第三章 實驗一 15
第一節 實驗一實驗設計 16
第二節 實驗一預測結果與理由 20
第三節 實驗一結果分析與討論 21
第四章 實驗二 30
第一節 實驗二的實驗設計 31
第二節 實驗二預測結果與理由 37
第三節 實驗二結果分析與討論 39
第五章 綜合討論與建議 45
第一節 與西方比對結果與討論 45
第二節 研究限制 50
第三節 未來研究方向與建議 51
參考文獻 54
附錄一:實驗一實驗材料 58
附錄二:實驗一答題紙 63
附錄三:實驗一操弄檢核量表 73
附錄四:實驗一結果所得數據 74
附錄五:實驗二實驗材料 75
附錄六:實驗二答題紙 78
附錄七:實驗二操弄檢核量表 90
附錄八:實驗二結果所得數據 91
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