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研究生:許瓊文
研究生(外文):Chiung-Wen Hsu
論文名稱:中文語言產製之音韻登錄單位
論文名稱(外文):Units of Phonological Encoding in Mandarin Speech Production
指導教授:麥傑麥傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):James Myers
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:語言所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:154
中文關鍵詞:遮蔽刺激唸字作業漢語語言產製音韻登錄音韻詞音節構詞-句法結構圖-詞干擾作業
外文關鍵詞:picture-word interferenceMandarinmasked primingmorphsyntactic structuresyllablephonological encodingphonological wordspeech production
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本論文的主旨在於探討中文語言產生的音韻登錄單位。Levelt et al. (1999)的研究指出音韻詞為音韻登錄的單位。但是許多中文語言產製的研究指出,音節不僅存在,而且在語言產製中也扮演重要的角色。因此,本論文旨在探討在中文語言產製中,音韻詞是否在音韻登錄的後期運作,也就是音韻詞是否為送至發音層次的音韻登錄單位;而非探討中文的音韻登錄單位是音節或是音韻詞。因此,考慮到音韻登錄中各個層級的差異性,本論文操控反應時間的長度、採用不同的實驗作業,以及藉由測試不同構詞-句法結構的中文詞(組)來探討中文語言產生的音韻登錄單位。
本論文進行五個實驗,分別測試在中文詞以及中文詞組的語言產製中,中文音韻登錄單位是否會受到音節、音韻詞、構詞-句法結構,以及反應時間限制的影響。實驗一與實驗二採用圖-詞干擾作業來探討中文詞的語言產製中音韻登錄單位的議題。實驗一與實驗二顯示當干擾詞與圖片名稱的第一音節相同或是最後的音節相同時,會產生促發效果,但是促發效果並不會因為目標詞的構詞結構(單一詞素或複合詞)而有所不同。實驗三進一步採用遮蔽刺激物的唸詞作業重製實驗一和實驗二的結果,顯示第一音節與最後音節相同時皆有促發效果。
本論文進一步採用遮蔽刺激的唸字作業,實驗四與實驗五探討中文詞組的語言產製中音韻登錄單位的議題。實驗四、五利用不同色的字形引導出兩種句法結構的中文詞組(如:紅花 [A N] 或 紅的花 [A de N])。實驗四發現,當兩種句法結構的詞組同時測試時,反應時間的限制增加實驗作業的困難度,結果顯示目標詞與促發詞的第一音節相同時或最後音節相同時,皆有促發效果。但是,對於[A de N]類型的目標詞組,最後音節的促發效果較弱。實驗五發現,當兩種句法結構的中文詞組分別測試時,目標詞組與刺激詞組共享第一音節或是共享最後音節皆沒有產生促發效果。重要的是,在實驗一到三以及實驗五中,作答時間的限制只會加速的唸名速度,但並不會影響促發效果。
整體而言,本研究發現,音韻詞中任一音節的共享皆會影響反應時間,但是反應時間的限制並不會縮減促發效果成只有共享第一音節的時候,因此音韻登錄單位不會小於音韻詞,也就是本研究沒有發現音節的促發效果。因此,中文詞與中文詞組的語言產製中,在音韻登錄的最後階段裡最小的處理單位應是一個音韻詞。即使最後階段的登錄單位大於一個音節,然而音節的處理極有可能在音韻登錄的前期。
The thesis investigates the units of phonological encoding in Mandarin speech production. According to Levelt, Roelofs, & Myers (1999), phonological words are the units for phonological encoding. But, obviously syllables are psychologically real and play an active role in Mandarin production (Chen, Chen, & Dell, 2002; Chen, Lin, & Ferrand, 2003). In the present study, instead of deciding between syllables and phonological words as units of phonological encoding, we test the possibility that phonological words are involved at the latter stage that sent units to articulatory buffer. Thus, the sub-stages of phonological encoding are taken into consideration. The present study sets out to provide more evidence on issues that how and when syllables and phonological words are used, by testing words with different morphosyntactic structures with different tasks and with time manipulation.

Five experiments are tested whether the units of phonological encoding in Mandarin words and phrases are influenced by the phonological facilitation which is caused by syllables, phonological words, morphosyntactic structures, and the response time limitation. Exps. 1 and 2 used a picture-word interference task and found that picture naming latencies were shorter when word distractors shared the initial and final syllable with the picture name, regardless of morphological structure (i.e., monomorphmic word vs. true compound). Exp. 3 replicates the result of Exps. 1 and 2 with the word naming task with masked priming.

Exps. 4 and 5 used the color + word naming task with masked priming to test colored words to elicit adjective + noun conbinations with two kinds of syntactic structures (i.e., 紅花 [A N], “red flower” vs. 紅的花 [A de N], “red flower”). When materials were mixed in Exp. 4, the response time limitation increased the task demand, showing that latencies were shorter when initial- and end-syllable are shared between the prime and the target in the time limitation condition, but weak end-facilitation for A de N. Null results of phonological facilitative effects were found in no time limitation condition of Exp. 4 and in Exp. 5. Crucially, in Exps. 1 to 3 and Exp. 5 the response time limitation accelerated the response latencies, but did not alter the priming effects.

To sum up, the present study finds that overlapping in phonological words is influential on the response latencies and the response time limitation did not reduce the unit of phonological encoding to syllable, suggesting that a single phonological word is more likely the unit at later stage of phonological encoding in Mandarin production of words and phrases. But, it''s possible that the syllable involves in the earlier mapping stage of phonological encoding in Mandarin speech production.
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Phonological encoding in speech production 1
1.2 Motivations of the present study 2
1.3 Goals of the present study 3

Chapter Two Phonological encoding in speech production 5
2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Lexical access of speech production 6
2.2.1 Theory of production and WEAVER++ (Levelt et al., 1999) 6
2.2.2 Node Structure Theory (MacKay, 1987; Santiago et al., 2000) and Parallel Distributed Processing (Dell et al., 1993) 11
2.2.3 Discrepancies in theorizing phonological encoding in speech production 14
2.3 The role of phonological words and segments in speech production 15
2.3.1 Phonological words as minimal units 16
2.3.1.1 What is a phonological word? 16
2.3.1.2 The role of phonological words in speech production 18
2.3.2 Phonological segments as minimal units 23
2.3.3 Stage of phonological encoding the phonological words or syllables involve at? 27
2.4 Phonological encoding in Mandarin speech production 29
2.4.1 Phonological words in Mandarin 31
2.4.2 Units of phonological encoding in Mandarin: phonological word, syllable, or both? 33
2.5 Morphological structure in Mandarin speech production 38
2.6 PWI and masked priming 44
2.7 Discussion and preview 45

Chapter Three Mandarin word production 47
3.1 Overall introduction 47
3.2 Experiment 1: PWI task in Mandarin disyllabic word production 49
3.2.1 Picture-word interference paradigm 49
3.2.2 Experiment 1 51
3.2.3 Method 52
Participants 52
Materials 52
Design 55
Apparatus 55
Procedure 56
3.2.4 Results 57
3.2.5 Discussion 61
3.3 Experiment 2: Replication of Experiment 1 64
3.3.1 Method 65
Participants 65
Materials 65
Design 69
Apparatus 70
Procedure 70
3.3.2 Results 71
3.3.3 Discussion 76
3.4 Experiment 3: Masked priming 79
3.4.1 Word naming task with masked priming 80
3.4.2 Experiment 3.1 83
3.4.2.1 Method 84
Participants 84
Materials 84
Design 84
Apparatus 85
Procedure 85
3.4.2.2 Results 86
3.4.2.3 Discussion 89
3.4.3 Experiment 3.2 91
3.4.3.1 Method 92
Participants 92
Materials 92
Design 92
Apparatus 92
Procedure 93
3.4.3.2 Results 94
3.4.3.3 Discussion 97
3.5 Interim discussion 100

Chapter Four Mandarin production of words and phrases 103
4.1 Overall introduction 103
4.2 Experiment 4: Masked priming: mixed adjective + noun conbinations 107
4.2.1 Method 108
Participants 108
Materials 109
Design 113
Apparatus 113
Procedure 113
4.2.2 Results 115
4.2.3 Discussion 119
4.3 Experiment 5: Replication of Experiment 4 with separate materials 122
4.3.1 Method 123
Participants 123
Materials 123
Design 123
Apparatus 124
Procedure 124
4.3.2 Results 125
4.3.3 Discussion 127
4.4 Interim discussion 129

Chapter Five General discussion 131
5.1 Summary of the present study 131
5.2 General discussion 134
5.3 Implications for further studies 139

References 141
Appendix I 149
Appendix II 151
Appendix III 153
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