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研究生:李伊珊
研究生(外文):Yi Shan Li
論文名稱:保健旅遊廣告在推敲可能性模式下之影響途徑
論文名稱(外文):The Influential Paths of Wellness Tourism Advertising under the Elaboration Likelihood Model
指導教授:陳亭羽陳亭羽引用關係
指導教授(外文):T. Y. Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長庚大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:保健旅遊推敲可能性模式廣告主張廣告代言人
外文關鍵詞:wellness tourismElaborate Likelihood Modeladvertising themeadvertising endorser
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
伴隨「保健旅遊」產業的快速發展,加上民眾對旅遊的多樣化需求,傳統單一型態的旅遊活動已無法滿足大眾,隨之興起的是以「休閒觀光」結合「醫療保
健」之旅遊活動。由於消費者旅遊動機之差異性,更顯現出行銷人員在傳達產品訊息的困難度,一直以來,廣告為廠商與消費者之間的重要溝通工具,因此,本研究以「推敲可能性模式」(ELM)為基礎,應用於保健旅遊平面廣告的訊息設計中。配合保健旅遊的動機複雜化,與觀光產品的無形性,因此,本研究以「廣告主張」為中央路徑訊息,目的為找出何種廣告主張最能有效地影響保健旅遊消費意願。再者,「廣告代言人」為廣告效果研究中最常被使用之變數,在訊息傳遞過程中扮演著重要角色,本研究也將之納為周圍路徑訊息,並操弄「專家」與「典型消費者」代言人之訊息組合方式,用以衡量何種廣告代言人對保健旅遊消費意願有較佳的影響效果。
本研究以實驗法進行,目的為驗證廣告主張與廣告代言人對消費意願之主要
效果與交互作用,為一3*2之二因子實驗設計,共有6組實驗廣告,並使用「自覺健康狀況」、「認知需求」、「產品知識」及「產品涉入」為控制變數,排除控制因子對依變數之干擾效果,使實驗結果更為精確。研究對象以25-50歲之女性上班族為主,將受測者隨機分配至不同廣告中,共計發放240份問卷,有效問卷為231份。
研究結果顯示,廣告主張與廣告代言人對保健旅遊消費意願皆有正向顯著地影響,廣告主張效果最佳為養生美容;健康促進次之;心靈實現則未達到顯著差
異水準;而廣告代言人則是以專家能引起較高的保健旅遊消費意願改變量。在交互作用中,以養生美容主張搭配專家代言人獲得最高之消費意願改變量,證實了女性受測者視養生美容為主要參與保健旅遊之動機需求。本研究也進一步分析人口統計變數對消費意願改變量的影響,發現「高年齡層」受測者較「低年齡層」受測者有較高的保健旅遊消費意願。
With rapid growth of wellness tourism and consumers’ various need for tours, the conventional simple tourism fails to satisfy consumers. The tourism combining recreational tourism and medical wellness gets more and more prevalent. Due to the difference between travel motivations of different consumers, it is difficult for
marketers to convey the product message. Since the advertisement has been a pivotal communication between the business and the consumer, this study designs the print
advertisement for wellness tourism based on the Elaborate Likelihood Model (ELM).
Considering the complex motivations of wellness tourism and the intangibility of travel products, this study views the advertising theme as a central route to figure out which advertising theme can have an impact on the purchase intention of wellness tourism. The advertising endorser which plays a crucial role in the process of message communication is an essential variable in the research of advertising effect. The advertising endorser is regarded as a peripheral route in this study. In order to measure the effect of advertising endorsers on the purchase intention of wellness tourism, the combination of expert and typical consumer is manipulated in the advertising message.
The 3×2 factorial design was employed to examine the main effect and interactive effect of advertising theme and endorser on the purchase intention. To obtain precise outcomes with any moderating effect as possible as we can, four control variables were given in advance, including perceived health status, need for cognition, product knowledge, and product involvement. The females aged 25-50
were enrolled to be the subjects and distributed to different advertisement in this experiment. The final valid samples amounted to 231 out of 240.
The results show that the advertising theme and endorser have a significantly positive effect on the purchase intention of wellness tourism, respectively. The best
effect of advertising themes goes to “health preserving and cosmetology”; the second best is “health promotion”; “self-actualization” does not gain a prominent effect. Compared with the typical consumer, the expert endorser can elicit more purchase intention. In the aspect of interaction, a combination of “health preserving and cosmetology” and “expert endorser” attracts relatively higher purchase intention.
目錄
指導教授推薦書 .............................................................................................................
口試委員會審定書 .........................................................................................................
授權書 ......................................................................................................................... iii
誌謝 .............................................................................................................................. iv
中文摘要 ....................................................................................................................... v
英文摘要 ....................................................................................................................... vi
第一章 緒論 ................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 ................................................................................................. 1
1.2 研究目的與內容 ................................................................................................. 2
1.3 研究範圍 ............................................................................................................. 3
1.4 研究流程 ............................................................................................................. 3
第二章 文獻回顧 ......................................................................................................... 5
2.1 保健旅遊相關文獻 ............................................................................................. 5
2.1.1 健康與保健 ................................................................................................. 5
2.1.2 保健旅遊之分類與定義 ............................................................................. 5
2.1.3 保健旅遊推展問題 ................................................................................... 12
2.2 推敲可能性模式 ............................................................................................... 13
2.2.1 理論背景介紹 ........................................................................................... 13
2.2.2 中央與周圍路徑 ....................................................................................... 14
2.2.3 ELM 理論架構 ........................................................................................... 15
2.2.4 ELM 之實證研究 ....................................................................................... 16
2.3 旅遊動機 ........................................................................................................... 19
2.4 廣告代言人 ....................................................................................................... 22
2.5 消費意願 ........................................................................................................... 23
第三章 研究方法 ....................................................................................................... 25
3.1 研究架構與假說 ............................................................................................... 25
3.1.1 研究架構 ................................................................................................... 25
3.1.2 研究假說 ................................................................................................... 26
3.2 研究變數之定義、操弄與衡量 ....................................................................... 30
3.2.1 自變數之定義與操弄 ............................................................................... 30
3.2.2 依變數的衡量 ........................................................................................... 32
3.2.3 控制變數的定義與操弄 ........................................................................... 33
3.3 研究設計 ........................................................................................................... 39
3.3.1 實驗設計 ................................................................................................... 39
3.3.2 實驗廣告設計 ........................................................................................... 39
3.3.3 實驗對象 ................................................................................................... 46
3.3.4 實驗步驟 ................................................................................................... 46
3.4 問卷設計 ........................................................................................................... 46
3.5 統計方法 ........................................................................................................... 48
第四章 研究結果討論 ............................................................................................... 50
4.1 樣本結構分析 ................................................................................................... 50
4.2 信效度分析 ....................................................................................................... 52
4.3 控制變數檢驗 ................................................................................................... 53
4.4 研究資料分析 ................................................................................................... 55
4.4.1 假設驗證 ................................................................................................... 55
4.4.2 自變數主要效果分析 ............................................................................... 60
4.5 人口統計變數對消費意願改變量之影響效果 ............................................... 62
4.6 研究結果彙整與討論 ....................................................................................... 73
第五章 結論與建議 ................................................................................................... 79
5.1 研究結論與理論貢獻 ....................................................................................... 79
5.2 研究限制與後續研究建議 ............................................................................... 81
參考文獻 ..................................................................................................................... 84
附錄A 保健旅遊發展歷程摘要 ................................................................................ 93
附錄B 前測問卷 ........................................................................................................ 96
附錄C 正式問卷-1 .................................................................................................... 99
附錄C 正式問卷-2 .................................................................................................. 105
表目錄
表2.1 保健旅遊的定義 ................................................................................................. 8
表2.2 國人旅遊目的之調查 ....................................................................................... 12
表2.3 國內應用ELM 之相關文獻 ............................................................................ 17
表3.1 廣告主張的操作性定義 ................................................................................... 31
表3.2 廣告實驗設計組合 ........................................................................................... 39
表3.3 廣告代言人採納表 ........................................................................................... 43
表3.4 統計分析方法表 ............................................................................................... 49
表4.1 各組別樣本數 ................................................................................................... 50
表4.2 樣本結構分佈 ................................................................................................... 51
表4.3 正式問卷信度結果 ........................................................................................... 53
表4.4 廣告類型的卡方檢定 ....................................................................................... 53
表4.5 控制變數總平均 ............................................................................................... 54
表4.6 控制變數的單一樣本T 檢定 .......................................................................... 54
表4.7 廣告主張對消費意願之成對樣本統計量 ....................................................... 56
表4.8 廣告代言人對消費意願之成對樣本統計量 ................................................... 57
表4.9 廣告主張與廣告代言人對消費意願之二因子變異數分析 ........................... 58
表4.10 廣告主張與廣告代言人對消費意願之整體平均數 ..................................... 59
表4.11 廣告主張對消費意願之單純主要效果分析 ................................................. 60
表4.12 廣告主張對消費意願之整體平均數 ............................................................. 60
表4.13 廣告代言人對消費意願之多重比較 ............................................................. 61
表4.14 廣告代言人對消費意願之單純主要效果分析 ............................................. 61
表4.15 廣告代言人對消費意願之整體平均數 ......................................................... 62
表4.16 廣告代言人對消費意願之之多重比較 ......................................................... 62
表4.17 年齡對消費意願改變量之迴歸分析摘要表 ................................................. 63
表4.18 年齡層對消費意願改變量之單因子變異數檢定 ......................................... 63
表4.19 年齡層在健康促進主張下之單因子變異數檢定 ......................................... 64
表4.20 年齡層在養生美容主張下之單因子變異數檢定 ......................................... 64
表4.21 年齡層在心靈實現主張下之單因子變異數檢定 ......................................... 65
表4.22 年齡層在專家代言人下之單因子變異數檢定 ............................................. 65
表4.23 年齡層在典型消費者代言人下之單因子變異數檢定 ................................. 66
表4.24 婚姻對消費意願改變量之迴歸分析摘要表 ................................................. 66
表4.25 婚姻與年齡的交叉表 ..................................................................................... 66
表4.26 職業對消費意願改變量之迴歸分析摘要表 ................................................. 67
表4.27 職位對消費意願改變量之迴歸分析摘要表 ................................................. 68
表4.28 所得對消費意願改變量之迴歸分析摘要表 ................................................. 68
表4.29 所得群對消費意願改變量之單因子變異數檢定 ......................................... 69
表4.30 國內旅遊頻率對消費意願改變量之迴歸分析摘要表 ................................. 70
表4.31 國內旅遊頻率群體對消費意願改變量之單因子變異數檢定 ..................... 71
表4.32 國外旅遊頻率對消費意願改變量之迴歸分析摘要表 ................................. 71
表4.33 國外旅遊頻率群體對消費意願改變量之單因子變異數檢定 ..................... 72
表4.34 參與旅遊動機對消費意願改變量之迴歸分析摘要表 ................................. 72
表4.35 研究假設驗證表 ............................................................................................. 73
表4.36 人口統計變數整體迴歸效果之變異數檢定 ................................................. 76
表4.37 人口統計變數分組後之單因子變異數檢定 ................................................. 76
圖目錄
圖1.1 研究流程圖 ........................................................................................................ 4
圖2.1 健康旅遊綜合服務分類 ..................................................................................... 9
圖2.2 保健發展模式構面 ........................................................................................... 10
圖2.3 健康旅遊分類活動 ........................................................................................... 11
圖2.4 可能性推敲模式概念圖 ................................................................................... 16
圖3.1 研究架構 ........................................................................................................... 26
圖3.2 廣告底圖設計 ................................................................................................... 40
圖3.3 整體版面配置圖 ............................................................................................... 41
圖3.4 操弄變數配置圖 ............................................................................................... 41
圖3.5 健康促進主張 ................................................................................................... 42
圖3.6 養生美容主張 ................................................................................................... 42
圖3.7 心靈實現主張 ................................................................................................... 42
圖3.8 專家代言人 ....................................................................................................... 44
圖3.9 典型消費者代言人 ........................................................................................... 44
圖3.10 專家健康促進廣告 ......................................................................................... 44
圖3.11 消費者健康促進廣告 ..................................................................................... 44
圖3.12 專家養生美容廣告 ......................................................................................... 45
圖3.13 消費者養生美容廣告 ..................................................................................... 45
圖3.14 專家心靈實現廣告 ......................................................................................... 45
圖3.15 消費者心靈實現廣告 ..................................................................................... 45
圖4.1 交互作用表(廣告主張/廣告代言人) ............................................................... 59
圖4.2 交互作用表(廣告代言人/廣告主張) ............................................................... 59
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