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研究生:洪桂庸
研究生(外文):Kuei Yung Hung
論文名稱:發展性協調困難孩童之手部動作運用
論文名稱(外文):Hand praxis in children with developmental coordination disorder
指導教授:孟令夫孟令夫引用關係
指導教授(外文):L. F. Meng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長庚大學
系所名稱:臨床行為科學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
論文頁數:145
中文關鍵詞:發展性協調障礙(DCD)物品操弄內容錯誤空間錯誤時間錯誤假裝使用實際使用
外文關鍵詞:DCDdevelopmental coordination disordergesturepantomineerror patterntransitivepraxis
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本研究從動作運用的觀點來探討發展性動作協調障礙(DCD)兒童在物品使用的表現,收取12位DCD兒童,以及依據1:2的比例選取24位年齡、性別配對的正常兒童。將物品操弄的任務屬性分為假裝使用以及實際使用,分析兩組在兩種不同任務屬性的內容、時間與空間錯誤類型。結果發現DCD兒童在兩種任務的內容以及空間錯誤均顯著多於正常組,在時間錯誤個數則無顯著差異;組內比較則發現假裝任務的內容、時間與空間錯誤個數均顯著多於實際使用。DCD兒童在內容、空間錯誤結果顯示即使在DCD在有正確動作概念與認知的前提之下,動作運用能力仍較正常組差。與實際任務比較,假裝任務所產生的內容、時間、空間錯誤個數較多,假裝任務為視覺刺激,實際任務為視覺與觸覺之雙重刺激,顯示在較少感覺線索的狀況下會影響與物品相關的動作記憶,使動作的輸出容易產生較多的錯誤。
This study aimed to investigate hand praxis in 60-to-79-month-old children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Participants included 12 children with DCD and 24 gender- and age-matched controls. Errors were classified as content error, time error and spatial error. By characterizing different error patterns in transitive real-use gestures and transitive pantomime gestures, the results showed children with DCD made more content errors and spatial errors. No significant group differences existed in time errors. Although the children with DCD in this present study were able to comprehend the tools used in this study, they still demonstrated more gesture errors than the controls. Therefore, we can infer that the praxis impairment co- exists with DCD..
In addition, compared to transitive real-use gestures, all children made more errors in transitive pantomime gestures. During pantomiming transitive gestures, although the visual information was provided, the other information such as kinesthetic and tactile information still lacked. This resulted that less information about the required hand movement were conveyed. Consequently, transitive pantomime gestures were performed worse than transitive real-use ones.
目 錄
誌謝..................................................i
中文摘要..............................................ii
英文摘要..............................................iii
第一章、緒論................................................1
第一節、研究緣起與研究動機..................................1
第二節、研究目的...........................................2
第三節、重要名詞詮釋.......................................2
第二章、文獻回顧.............................................4
第一節、DCD的動作表現......................................4
第二節、發展性失用症(developmental dyspraxia)................5
壹、正常動作運用的發展....................................5
貳、發展性失用症的動作表現.................................8
第三節、後天失用症(apraxia)...............................10
壹、後天失用症的定義.....................................10
貳、後天失用症的分類.....................................11
一、以腦傷區域分類..........................................11
二、從計劃和執行兩過程分類...................................11
三、以臨床行為分類..........................................12
參、動作行為系統模式....................................15
一、時間-空間計畫..........................................15
二、動作控制理論...........................................16
三、動作控制理論配合生態因子................................17
第四節、動作運用模式與手部動作運作的分析.......................17
壹、各種動作運用模式與比較..................................17
一、三感覺刺激路徑觀點......................................17
二、視覺-動作路徑觀點.......................................19
三、身體基模觀點............................................21
四、體感覺-聽覺路徑觀點.....................................22
五、短期記憶工作場所觀點.....................................25
六、Praxicon觀點...........................................26
第五節、DCD的動作內在層面..................................32
壹、DCD的概念端-動作想像................................32
貳、DCD的動作運用.....................................34
參、有關手部動作運用的標準化/非標準化評估表..............38
第六節、研究問題與研究假說..................................52
第三章、研究方法...........................................54
第一節、研究架構........................................53
壹、實驗研究方法...........................................53
貳、研究架構圖.............................................53
參、變項概念與操作定義......................................55
肆、研究對象...............................................55
伍、研究工具...............................................56
陸、研究程序...............................................61
一、研究流程.............................................61
二、實驗設計.............................................61
三、研究步驟.............................................64
第二節、資料收集.........................................66
第三節、資料分析............................................67
壹、評估者間一致性.........................................67
貳、人口學資料............................................67
參、控制變項..............................................67
肆、手部動作運用能力表現....................................67
第四章、研究結果............................................69
第一節、評估者間一致性結果...................................69
第二節、人口學資料..........................................69
第三節、控制變項............................................71
壹、觸覺..................................................71
貳、運動覺................................................72
參、視知覺................................................73
肆、語言認知表現...........................................73
伍、手指辨認能力............................................74
陸、ADHD(衝動、過動與不注意)的徵兆表現........................74
第四節.動作運用任務錯誤類型.................................76
壹、內容錯誤............................................76
貳、時間錯誤............................................79
參、空間錯誤............................................85
第五節、共變數分析結果.....................................91
第五章、討論...............................................98
第一節、組間控制變項.....................................98
第二節、DCD組與正常組之比較..............................99
第三節、假裝以及實際任務之比較...........................103
第四節、共變數分析結果..................................107
第五節、研究結果與理論模式之對應.........................107
第六節、特定錯誤類型之卡方檢定...........................108
第六章 結論與建議..........................................111
第一節、結論...........................................111
第二節、研究限制與建議..................................112
附錄
附錄一、手指失認症(finger agnosia)的定義...................114
參考書目 ...........................................130















表 目 錄
表1-2-1 動作運用發展總整理表............................7
表1-3-1 以腦傷區域分類的後天失用症......................11
表1-4-1 手部動作對應三感覺刺激模式之路徑.................19
表1-4-2 手部動作對應視覺-動作路徑模式....................20
表1-4-3 手部動作對應身體基模模式........................22
表1-4-4 手部動作對應體感覺-聽覺模式.....................24
表1-4-5 手部動作對應短期記憶模式........................26
表1-4-6 手部動作對應新修改Praxicon模式..................29
表1-4-7 各個不同模式的比較..............................30
表1-4-8 文獻整理表.....................................40
表1-4-9 手部動作運用的標準化評估表.......................41
表1-4-10 手部動作運用的非標準化評估表....................43
表3-1-1 動作運用錯誤類型分項目...........................59
表4-1-1 受測者配對與人口學資料...........................70
表4-1-2 DCD組與正常組之控制變項比較表...................75
表4-4-1 內容錯誤誤差變異量之Levene檢定等式...............77
表4-4-2 時間錯誤誤差變異量之Levene檢定等式...............80
表4-4-3 受試者內效應項之檢定(時間錯誤)...................81
表4-4-4 受試者效益項的檢定(組間之時間錯誤比較)............82
表4-4-5 不同組別樣本與動作任務中的時間錯誤個數的二因子混合設計
變異數分析摘要表.......................................82
表4-4-6 受試者內效應項之檢定 (組內之時間錯誤比較).......84
表4-4-7 變異數分析結果摘要表(組內之時間錯誤比較)..........85
表4-4-8 空間錯誤誤差變異量之Levene檢定等式...............86
表4-4-9 受試者內效應項之檢定(空間錯誤)...................87
表4-4-10 不同組別樣本與動作任務中的空間錯誤個數的二因子混合設
計變異數分析摘表........................................88
表4-4-11 受試者內效應項之檢定(組內之空間錯誤比較)..........90
表4-4-12 受試者間效應項檢定(組內之空間錯誤比較)............90
表4-4-13 變異數分析結果摘要表(組內之空間錯誤比較)..........91
表5-1-1 假裝任務的內容錯誤共變數分析表....................93
表5-1-2 實際任務的內容錯誤共變數分析表....................94
表5-2-1 假裝任務的時間錯誤共變數分析表....................95
表5-2-2 實際任務的時間錯誤共變數分析表....................96
表5-3-1 假裝任務的空間錯誤共變數分析表....................97
表5-3-2實際任務的空間錯誤共變數分析表.....................97
表6-1-1 剪刀任務的目標錯位錯誤..........................109
表6-1-2 瓶蓋任務的輔助錯誤..............................110
附錄表1 Finger gnosis表...............................114
附錄表2 ADHD(衝動、過動與不注意)家長評量表...............117
附錄表3 綜合評量表.....................................118






















圖 目 錄
圖1-4-1 三感覺刺激路徑模式(Rothi et al .,1991)..........18
圖1-4-2 視覺-動作路徑模式(Cubilli et al.,2000).........20
圖1-4-3 身體基模模式(Buxbaum,Giovannetti, & Libon, 2000)22
圖1-4-4 體感覺-聽覺模式(Buxbaum, 2001)..................24
圖1-4-5 短期記憶模式(Bartolo et al., 2003)..............25
圖1-4-6 Praxicon模式(Peigneux et al., 2000)............27
圖1-4-7 新修改Praxicon模式(Peigneux et al., 2004).......29
圖3-1-1 研究架構圖......................................54
圖3-6-1 研究流程圖......................................61
圖3-6-2 實驗設計圖......................................61
圖4-4-1 組別與時間錯誤的交互作用圖.........................83
圖4-4-2 組別與空間錯誤的交互作用圖.........................89
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