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研究生:高大宇
研究生(外文):Da-Yu Kao
論文名稱:明恥整合理論在臺灣少年駭客的實證應用與其意涵
論文名稱(外文):The Retest of the Reintegrative Shaming Theory and Its Implications on Taiwanese Juvenile Hackers
指導教授:黃富源黃富源引用關係廖有祿廖有祿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Frank Fu-Yuan HuangYou-Lu Liao
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:中央警察大學
系所名稱:犯罪防治研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:275
中文關鍵詞:網路犯罪少年偏差行為網路犯罪學明恥整合理論網路鑑識學數位證據
外文關鍵詞:Cyber-crimeJuvenile DelinquencyCyber CriminologyReintegrative Shaming TheoryCyber ForensicsDigital Evidence
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:507
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:39
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
網路活動已成大眾日常生活的一部分,隨著網際網路通訊服務的日益普遍,網路犯罪的入侵威脅變地更加複雜。本文重點在網路犯罪的少年駭客議題,為能獲取複雜入侵事件的事實真相,本研究嘗試從明恥整合理論,觀察台灣地區的少年駭客。
為能確認網路犯罪的最終調查結果,本論文提出三種解決工具。第一、提倡理想稽核記錄,提醒相關人員追蹤用途的基本要件,避免紀錄內容不詳盡,未能適時反應原始事件真相,該要件也是後續M-N 模式的必備要求。 第二、提倡M-N模式,利用相關網路主機之前後紀錄的連貫性比對機制,作為收集、分析犯罪相關電腦稽核紀錄的驗證方法。第三、提倡MDFA策略,嘗試使用新的調查步驟程序,結合多樣證據的基礎資料,瞭解網路犯罪事件的來龍去脈。本研究提倡的這三種分析工具,在解決複雜入侵事件時,被證明是有用且有效的。若能順利解析入侵事件之迷團,事件分析者將更容易與攻擊者、被害者或相關人員溝通。本研究希望能解釋台灣少年駭客的再犯原因,提供未來處理該議題的參考指引。本文說明羞恥心與駭客道德感間的情緒關係,認為在處理少年駭客入侵事件議題時,沒有適當考慮駭客個人的道德感是不夠的。研究者也考慮入侵行為如何影響駭客道德,以及入侵行為如何影響執法人員的處理方式。
本研究認為:假如少年駭客能放棄他們對駭客道德的誤解,「明辨是非」的「明恥」方法,對偏差行為的修復與整合是有效。本研究亦嘗試提供一個思考少年司法體系轉向處遇之理論鞏固基礎,透過教育、執法與工程的三E策略觀察網路犯罪,並進一步透過犯罪學、偵查與鑑識等領域進行深入分析。這些領域於處理不同議題時,涵蓋不同重點的主題,例如:6W1H問題的政策、多面向數位鑑識分析的策略、理想稽核記錄與M-N模式的程序。
研究發現,少年駭客可能不再犯,但使他們「明辨是非」的過程,十分辛苦。明恥整合理論對導正習慣與羞恥感是有效的,相關入侵行為有可能被鼓勵或阻止。此外,本研究也提供研究結論、具體建議與未來挑戰,期對抗網路犯罪。
Cyber activity has become an essential part of the general public’s everyday life. The hacking threats of Cyber-crime are becoming more sophisticated as internet communication services are more popular. The main focus of this study is to focus on Taiwanese juvenile hacker of Cyber-crime. To obtain the facts behind hacking puzzles, this study has tried to observe Taiwanese juvenile hackers from the viewpoint of the Reintegrative Shaming Theory (RST).
To further confirm the final finding of Cyber-crime, this study proposes three analytic tools to clarify the Cyber-crime issues: (1) Ideal Log is identified as a traceable element of digital evidence and a basic requirement of M-N model; (2) M-N model applies a formal method for collating and analyzing data sets of investigation-relevant logs; (3) MDFA strategy attempts to outline the basic elements of Cyber-crime using new procedural investigative steps, and combining universal types of evidential information. It is believed that these proposed analytic tools in this research framework are workable and useful in solving the confusing hacking activities. After researchers figure out what has happened in Cyber-crime events, it will be easier to communicate with offenders, victims or related people. It is hoped to account for recidivism and provide a guide for dealing with this juvenile hacker issue. This research mainly demonstrates that the states of shame are associated with compounded affective processes of hacker ethics. A reintegrative shaming approach, without appropriate consideration for the personal code of hacker ethics, is insufficient when handling juvenile hacking offenses. The researcher also considers how hacks affect hacker ethics as well as the way hacking affects law enforcement agents’ attempts to deal with hackers.

The principle argument of this study is that such a Reintegrative Shaming Theory approach of knowing right from wrong may be particularly suitable for rehabilitation and reintegration if one abandons the misconception of hacker ethics. This study provides an opportunity to rethink the theoretical underpinnings of diversion in the juvenile justice system. A Triple-E approach is also discussed to observe Cyber-crime from the viewpoints of Education, Enforcement and Engineering. That approach is further analyzed from the fields of criminology, investigation and forensics. Each field has its different focus in dealing with diverse topics, such as: the policy of 6W1H questions, the procedure of MDFA strategy, the process of ideal Logs and M-N model.
It is found that a juvenile hacker is possible to prohibit him from re-offending. But it takes a great pain in teaching him right from wrong. Reintegrative Shaming Theory is still workable in directing his habit and the feeling of shaming. There is much potential and possibility in stopping hacking activities. In addition, the research results, proposed suggestion, and future challenges of this study are presented to counter Cyber-crime.
The Retest of the Reintegrative Shaming Theory
and Its Implications on Taiwanese Juvenile Hackers
Table of Contents
致謝 i
Acknowledgements ii
摘要 iv
Abstract v
Tables vii
Illustrations viii
Table of Contents ix

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Phenomenon 2
1.2 Motives 4
1.3 Purpose 10
1.4 Scope 13
1.5 Limitations 15
1.6 Definitions 18
1.6.1 Education Approach 18
1.6.2 Enforcement Approach 21
1.6.3 Engineering Approach 27
1.7 Organization of Dissertation 28

Chapter 2 Literature Review 31
2.1 Related Literature of Cyber-crime 33
2.1.1 The Integrated Theory of Cyber Criminology 36
2.1.2 The Science of Cyber Forensics 38
2.1.3 The Philosophy of Cyber-crime Investigation 41
2.2 Related Literature of Juvenile Hackers 44
2.2.1 Categorization of Hackers 45
2.2.2 Reported Incidences and Costs of Hacking Activities 47
2.2.3 Challenges in Anti-Forensic Techniques 50
2.3 Related Literature of Cognitive Distortion 54
2.3.1 Deviance Aspect 54
2.3.2 Law Aspect 56
2.3.3 Cognition Aspect 60
2.4 Concluding Remarks 64

Chapter 3 Research Method 65
3.1 Research Design 67
3.1.1 The Element of Research Design 67
3.1.2 The Process of Research Design 68
3.1.3 The Qualitative Analysis of Triangulation Strategy 69
3.2 Research Framework 71
3.2.1 Research Methods 71
3.2.2 Sampling Methods 77
3.2.3 Research Tools 80
3.3 Analysis Method 84
3.3.1 The Need for Target Authentication 85
3.3.2 The Proposed M-N Model of Target Authentication 90
3.3.3 Proposed MDFA Strategy of Fact Finding 100
3.3.3.1 The Need for Fact Finding 102
3.3.3.2 The Idea of MDFA Strategy 105
3.3.3.3 Discussions on the MDFA Strategy 115
3.4 Concluding Remarks 119

Chapter 4 Shaming Observation on Cyber Criminology 120
4.1 The Shame Issue on Juvenile Hackers 122
4.1.1 Braithwaite's Reintegrative Shaming Theory 124
4.1.2 Reintegrative Shaming vs. Stigmatization 125
4.1.3 Shame vs. Hacker Ethics 128
4.2 Nine Case Studies on Taiwanese Teenagers 132
4.2.1 Sample Cases 132
4.2.2 Case Analysis 137
4.2.3 Case Comparison 139
4.3 Research Findings 140
4.3.1 Examining the Shaming Mechanism 140
4.3.2 Reconstructing an Observation in Braithwaite’s Theory 145
4.3.3 Finding the Facts behind Hacker Ethics 149
4.3.4 Refocusing on Hacker Ethics in Restorative Justice 151
4.4 Concluding Remarks 153

Chapter 5 The Implication on Taiwanese Juvenile Hackers 154
5.1 A Sample of Recruited Hacker in Taiwan 156
5.1.1 Hacking on the Internet 156
5.1.2 Sample Case 157
5.1.3 An Examination on Hacking Activities 161
5.2 A Sample of Proxy Attack in Taiwan 163
5.2.1 The Issue of Proxy Server 164
5.2.2 Case Study and Investigative Procedures 166
5.2.2.1 Case Study: Proxy Invasion Case 168
5.2.2.2 Investigative Procedures 170
5.2.2.3 Myths and Clues in Cyber-crime 177
5.2.2.4 The Value of Auditing Log Analysis 188
5.2.2.5 Limitations and Possible Enhancements 199
5.2.3 Concluding Remarks 201
5.3 The Observation Research on Taiwanese Juvenile Hackers 202
5.3.1 The Weighting Score of Mendell’s Risk Matrix 202
5.3.2 The Essences of MDFA Strategy 205
5.3.3 The 6W1H Questions of MDFA Strategy 208
5.3.4 A Cyber-crime Observation for Fact Finding 218
5.3.5 The Implications of Reintegrative Shaming Theory 220
5.4 Concluding Remarks 227

Chapter 6 Conclusion 232
6.1 Main Contributions 232
6.1.1 Research Results 234
6.1.2 Proposed Suggestion 237
6.1.2.1 The 3-E Approach of Internet Calming 237
6.1.2.2 Strategies and Activities 239
6.2 Concluding Remarks 244
6.2.1 Future Research 245
6.2.2 Closing Statements 247
Bibliography 248
Appendix I: Abbreviations263
Appendix II: Glossary of Key Terms 265
Appendix III: Interview Schedule for Juvenile Hackers 270
Appendix IV: File Review Data Collection Form 272
Appendix V: The List of Observation Items 274

Tables
Table 3.1: Knowledge Management of Auditing Logs in Cyber-crime Investigation 86
Table 3.2: Four Propositions in M-N Model 95
Table 3.3: Forensic Analysis for Third Proposition with Correction Procedure 98
Table 4.1: The Essence of Braithwaite’s Shaming Theory 126
Table 4.2: Individual Traits of Taiwan's Juvenile Hackers 136
Table 4.3: Braithwaite's Shaming Observation of Taiwan's Juvenile Hackers 141
Table 4.4: The Retest Findings of Braithwaite’s Shaming Theory 144
Table 5.1: Five Phases of this Recruited Juvenile Hacker 158
Table 5.2: The Four Elements of Auditing Logs 180
Table 5.3: Relevant Information Analysis 181
Table 5.4: Sequential Decision Making Algorithms 191
Table 5.5: Four Elements in Network Log of Pattern Searching 196
Table 5.6: Mendell’s Risk Matrix for Specific Suspect 203
Table 5.7: Observation Research of MDFA Strategy for Specific Suspect 209
Table 5.8: The Evidential Phase of MDFA Strategy on 6W1H Questions 211
Table 5.9: The Forensic Phase of MDFA Strategy on 6W1H Questions 212
Table 5.10: The Suffering Phase of MDFA Strategy on 6W1H Questions 213
Table 5.11: The Behavioral Phase of MDFA Strategy on 6W1H Questions 214
Table 5.12: The Observation of Cognitive Distortions in Two Juvenile Hackers 224
Table 5.13: The Comparison between Two Juvenile Hackers 226
Table 6.1: The Approaches in Solving Hacking Cases 233
Table 6.2: A Triple-E Approach on Cyber-crime 239

Illustrations
Figure 3.1: Research Framework of this Dissertation 65
Figure 3.2: Research Design of this Dissertation 67
Figure 3.3: M-N Model Testing Structure on Diverse Locations 92
Figure 3.4: M-N Model of Three Procedures 92
Figure 3.5: M-N Model of Four Periods 93
Figure 3.6: Mapping of Previous Models to Proposed MDFA Strategy 104
Figure 3.7: Four-Dimensional Phase of MDFA Strategy 105
Figure 3.8: Theoretical Structure of MDFA Strategy 116
Figure 4.1: Summary of the Reintegrative Shaming Theory 125
Figure 4.2: Retest of Reintegrative Shaming Theory in Juvenile Hackers 146
Figure 5.1: Observation Research on this Recruited Case 160
Figure 5.2: The Investigative Result of Proxy Invasion Case 169
Figure 5.3: Sequential Phases of a Taiwanese Cyber-crime Investigation 171
Figure 5.4: A Sample of IP Addresses in Different ISPs 178
Figure 5.5: The Connotation of Client-ISP-Server Relationship 182
Figure 5.6: The Multiple Nslookup Relations 185
Figure 5.7: An Example of CCProxy Log 189
Figure 5.8: The Inputting Dataset for Filtering Parameters 193
Figure 5.9: A CCProxy sample of Linkage Network Analysis 195
Figure 5.10: The Utilization of MDFA Strategy 215
Figure 5.11: An Observation Research for Cyber-crime Fact Finding 219
Figure 5.12: An IRC Talk Sample for a Hacking Activity 223
Figure 5.13: Observation Research of MDFA Strategy 228
Figure 6.1: A triple-E approach of this Dissertation 238論文全文
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