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研究生:簡伯珊
研究生(外文):Po-Shan
論文名稱:台中地區移動性污染源排放多環芳香烴化合物之分佈
論文名稱(外文):Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Exhaust of Motor Vehicles in Taichung
指導教授:郭崇義
指導教授(外文):Chung-Yih Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中山醫學大學
系所名稱:公共衛生學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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移動污染源為都市大氣環境中多環芳香烴化合物( Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs )之主要來源之一。本研究目的係探討移動性污染源排放PAHs在道路周遭環境之流佈及對附近居家環境之影響,選擇台中地區交通流量較大之道路為交通污染組(Traffic sources)及南投市區低交通流量之狹小巷弄為背景對照組(Background)。進行室外大氣粗細懸浮微粒(PM2.5及PM10-2.5)之採樣,分析二十八種PAHs含量,比較交通污染組與背景對照組PAHs組成之差異,並探討交通流量與PAHs濃度之相關性。同時進行鄰近居家室內空氣(PM10)之採樣,比較室內外PAHs組成之差異與相關性。
研究結果發現,大氣中PAHs在粗微粒及細微粒上均為交通污染源測站之濃度高於對照組之濃度,以不同質性之道路分別討論交通污染源排放對大氣PAHs濃度之貢獻,結果發現在汽油車道路粗微粒及細微粒PAHs濃度均較柴油車道路及對照組高。進一步比較兩種不同車道與總車輛數及總排氣量之相關性,細微粒PAHs濃度之相關性顯著高於粗微粒之相關性,顯示細微粒PAHs之主要來源為移動污染源,而粗微粒PAHs之主要來源則為非移動污染源。另發現柴油車道路PAHs濃度之相關性較汽油車道路更為顯著,且柴油車道路之迴歸係數亦較汽油車道路更高,顯示每增加單位車輛數(100輛)或增加單位排氣量(1000 m3),柴油車道路所貢獻PAHs均較汽油車道路為高。
室內PAHs濃度與室外PAHs呈明顯正相關之趨勢,且均達統計上顯著水準(P<0.05),且室內PAHs濃度亦與總排氣量有良好之相關性。比較柴油車及汽油車兩種道路其排放污染源對居家室內環境之影響,發現室內PAHs濃度與總排氣量之相關性,均是汽油車道路較柴油車道路顯著,此係因本研究採樣柴油車道路位置較偏僻,大氣擴散條件較佳,以致於進入室內之PAHs相對較少;反之,汽油車道路大都位於高樓林立之市區內,汽油車輛排放之PAHs不易擴散,造成有較多之室外PAHs進入室內之故。
本研究地區居民之致癌風險值高於美國環境保護署(U.S. EPA)所建議之標準(10-6),且交通污染地區之致癌風險較對照組高,其中汽油車道路之風險高於柴油車道路,顯示市區內之居民易因高交通流量而暴露到較高濃度之PAHs,而增加其致癌之風險。

總 目 錄
摘要 I
總目錄 III
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目標 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 多環芳香烴之特性 3
2.2 多環芳香烴之來源 7
2.2.1 機動車輛廢氣排放 7
2.2.2 工業製程中產生 9
2.2.3 電廠及工廠加熱製程中產生 9
2.2.4 廢棄物焚化或露天燃燒 10
2.2.5 其他 11
2.3 多環芳香烴之流佈 12
2.4 多環芳香烴之健康危害 14
第三章 實驗設備與方法 18
3.1 研究架構 18
3.2 樣品採集 19
3.3 交通量調查 22
3.3.1 道路車流量調查 22
3.3.2 小客車當量數 22
3.3.3 總排氣量 23
3.4 PAHs分析 23
3.5 致癌風險評估 30
3.5.1 BaP當量 30
3.5.2 致癌風險 30
3.6 品保品管 32
3.6.1 標準品檢量線 32
3.6.2 儀器穩定性 32
3.6.3 空白分析 32
3.6.4 回收率之準確度與精密度 32
第四章 結果與討論 34
4.1 道路交通流量調查 34
4.2 大氣懸浮微粒濃度 37
4.3 大氣中PAHs物種濃度及分佈 39
4.4 大氣中致癌性PAHs及BaPeq 45
4.5 大氣中PAHs濃度與交通量之關係性 52
4.6 大氣中PAHs濃度與排氣量之關係性 59
4.7 PAHs特徵比值 68
4.8 交通測站PAHs主成分分析 74
4.9 室內PAHs物種濃度及分佈 82
4.10 室內PAHs主成份分析 84
4.11 室內外PAHs之相關性 87
4.12 室內PAHs與排氣量之相關性 91
4.13 致癌風險 94
第五章 結論 96
5.1 大氣懸浮微粒中PAHs 96
5.2 室內空氣中PAHs 96
5.3 健康風險評估 97
參考文獻 98

表 目 錄
表2.1-1二十八種PAHs 之化學式、分子量及結構式 5
表2.1-1二十八種PAHs 之化學式、分子量及結構式(續) 6
表2.4-1 PAHs之致癌性與致突變性潛能 17
表3.4-1質譜掃描28種PAHs之母離子及定量離子 28
表4.1-1採樣期間交通污染源測站各車種之車輛數(vehicles/12hr) 36
表4.1-2不同車種道路之總車輛數(102輛/12hr)與排氣量(m3/12hr) 36
表4.2-1採樣期間大氣中粗細粒徑懸浮微粒之濃度(μg/m3) 38
表4.3-1大氣中PAHs在細微粒之濃度(ng/m3) 42
表4.3-2大氣中PAHs在粗微粒之濃度(ng/m3) 43
表4.4-1大氣PM2.5中T-PAHs、Car-PAHs、BaPeq與Me-PAHs濃度之比較 48
表4.4-2大氣PM10-2.5中T-PAHs、Car-PAHs、BaPeq與Me-PAHs濃度之比較 49
表4.4-3大氣單位PM2.5中T-PAHs、Car-PAHs、BaPeq與Me-PAHs含量之比較 50
表4.4-4大氣單位PM10-2.5中T-PAHs、Car-PAHs、BaPeq與Me-PAHs含量之比較 51
表4.7-1 PAHs特徵比值 71
表4.8-1柴油車道路大氣細微粒中PAH之主成份分析 78
表4.8-2柴油車道路大氣粗微粒中PAH之主成份分析 79
表4.8-3汽油車道路大氣細微粒中PAH之主成份分析 80
表4.8-4汽油車道路大氣粗微粒中PAH之主成份分析 81
表4.9-1室內空氣中PAHs之濃度(ng/m3) 83
表4.13-1柴油車、汽油車道路及對照組周遭居民之終身致癌風險度 95

圖 目 錄
圖3.1-1研究架構 18
圖3.2-1採樣點相對地理位置 21
圖3.4-1 PAHs樣品前處理 27
圖3.4-2 28種PAHs及3種PAHs-D同位素標準品之層析圖 29
圖4.3-1各測站不同分子量PAHs在細微粒之濃度比較 44
圖4.3-2各測站不同分子量PAHs在粗微粒之濃度比較 44
圖4.5-1總車輛數(102車輛)與T-PAHs濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 54
圖4.5-2總車輛數(102車輛)與Car-PAHs濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 54
圖4.5-3總車輛數(102車輛)與BaPeq濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 55
圖4.5-4總車輛數(102車輛)與T-PAH2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 56
圖4.5-5總車輛數(102車輛)與T-PAH10-2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 56
圖4.5-6總車輛數(102車輛)與Car-PAH2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 57
圖4.5-7總車輛數(102車輛)與Car-PAH10-2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 57
圖4.5-8總車輛數(102車輛)與BaPeq2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 58
圖4.5-9總車輛數(102車輛)與BaPeq10-2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 58
圖4.6-1總排氣量(m3/12hr)與T-PAHs濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 62
圖4.6-2總排氣量(m3/12hr)與Car-PAHs濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 62
圖4.6-3總排氣量(m3/12hr)與BaPeq濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 63
圖4.6-4總排氣量(m3/12hr)與T-PAH2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 64
圖4.6-5總排氣量(m3/12hr)與T-PAH10-2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 64
圖4.6-6總排氣量(m3/12hr)與Car-PAH2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 65
圖4.6-7總排氣量(m3/12hr)與Car-PAH10-2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 65
圖4.6-8總排氣量(m3/12hr)與BaPeq2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 66
圖4.6-9總排氣量(m3/12hr)與BaPeq10-2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 66
圖4.6-10總排氣量(m3/12hr)與Me-PAH2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 67
圖4.6-11總排氣量(m3/12hr)與Me-PAH10-2.5濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 67
圖4.7-1柴油車排氣量/總排氣量與細微粒中Me-PHE/PHE之相關性 72
圖4.7-2柴油車排氣量/總排氣量與細微粒中PHE/PHE+ANTHR之相關性 72
圖4.7-3柴油車排氣量/總排氣量與細微粒中BaA/CHR之相關性 73
圖4.7-4柴油車排氣量/總排氣量與細微粒中BbF+BkF/BghiP之相關性 73
圖4.11-1室內與室外T-PAHs濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 88
圖4.11-2室內與室外Car-PAHs濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 88
圖4.11-3不同車種道路室內外T-PAHs濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 89
圖4.11-4不同車種道路室內外Car-PAHs濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 89
圖4.11-5不同車種道路室內外BaPeq濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 90
圖4.12-1總排氣量(m3/12hr)與室內T-PAHs濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 92
圖4.12-2總排氣量(m3/12hr)與室內Car-PAHs濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 92
圖4.12-3總排氣量(m3/12hr)與室內BaPeq濃度(ng/m3)之相關性 93
圖4.12-4不同車種道路總排氣量(m3/12hr)與室內BaPeq(ng/m3)之相關性 93


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