(3.236.222.124) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/19 11:38
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:戴慧龍
研究生(外文):Hui-Lung
論文名稱:E-cadherin訊息路徑相關蛋白表現與膀胱癌的相關性研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of the Association of E-Cadherin Signaling Pathway Related Protein Expression and Bladder Cancer
指導教授:周明智周明智引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:中山醫學大學
系所名稱:醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:95
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
研究目的:根據國際癌症研究署2002年的統計,膀胱癌其發生率在所有癌症中排名第九,而根據國內衛生署所發表台灣地區癌症登記報告,膀胱癌佔了泌尿系統癌症之大部分,而死亡率則有逐年增加的趨勢。膀胱癌的治療預後與腫瘤發生時的侵犯程度有密切關係,然而根據目前病理學而訂定的stage及grade指標,在臨床上雖然很實用,但仍嫌不足,因此發展出一種新的生物指標來預測此類疾病的癒後,進而擬定臨床治療方式實有其必要。目前已知E-cadherin與catenin之複合物如α-catenin、β-catenin、γ-catenin及p120ctn位於細胞膜上,對於細胞與細胞間黏合結構的完整性扮演重要的角色,而E-cadherin基因啟動子的甲基化被認為是造成E-cadherin表現喪失的重要原因之ㄧ,許多學者認為E-cadherin及其複合物可作為預測癌症癒後的獨立因子。
材料與方法:本研究以免疫組織化學染色法分析與細胞黏合結構相關的蛋白質如E-cadherin, α-catenin、β-catenin、γ-catenin及p120ctn蛋白,並以甲基化特殊聚合酶連鎖反應(Methylation Specific-PCR; MS-PCR)分析E-cadherin基因啟動子甲基化後對mRNA及E-cadherin蛋白表現的影響及其與臨床因子之間的相關性。
結果:本研究發現E-cadherin蛋白的表現與腫瘤的分化呈現顯著相關(p < 0.05),但與腫瘤分期無顯著差異;α-catenin的表現與腫瘤的分期之間呈現有意義的差異,但其表現量卻隨著腫瘤分期愈高而增加,然而與細胞的分化卻不具相關性;p120ctn在本研究中的表現與腫瘤的分期及細胞分化皆有顯著相關性;本研究再分析E-cadherin與α-catenin、β-cateninp及120ctn蛋白質表現的相關性,發現這些分子彼此之間不具任何顯著相關性;E-cadherin基因啟動子甲基化在本研究中被發現會影響mRNA的表現,而mRNA與E-cadherin蛋白的表現亦呈現有意義之相關性,因此直接分析E-cadherin基因啟動子甲基化與E-cadherin蛋白的表現,發現甲基化情形會影響E-cadherin蛋白質的表現量;但與臨床因子相比較並無任何相關性。
結論:本研究中,p120ctn與腫瘤分期及細胞分化的惡性度關係最密切。雖然有些結果與其他文獻的研究結果發現不盡然吻合,然而綜合大部分的研究,還是認為E-cadherin及其複合物可做為預測腫瘤潛在性轉移預後的因子,雖然仍無法取代目前病理組織學所採用的腫瘤分期、細胞分化的惡性度等分類。E-cadherin基因啟動子的甲基化研究讓我們對腫瘤轉移的病理生理學有更深的認識,並提供了早期偵測癌症的一種指標,以及發展去甲基製劑作為治療癌症的另類選擇。

OBJECTIVE: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is the ninth most common malignancy in the world. Bladder cancer is characterized by a diverse biological behavior, in which acquisition of the metastatic capacity is clinically most relevant. Although tumor grade and stage have been the cornerstones of predicting outcome for bladder cancer, a variety of tumor markers and prognostic factors have recently been used to study the progression of transitional cell malignancy. Recently, the role of cell adhesion molecule expression in tumor invasion and metastasis has received significant consideration as a potential indicator of the metastatic phenotype in a variety of epithelial malignancies. E-cadherin is the major cadherin molecule expressed by epithelial cells. Cadherin formed complexes with cytoplasmic proteins, called catenins, which comprise three molecules including α-, β-, γ- catenin and the armadillo repeat protein, p120ctn. The linkage of E-catenin and catenin is necessary for the formation of strong intercellular adhesion. Previous studies have demonstrated that decreased expression of E-cadherin is associated with high grade and advanced stage in malignancies. E-cadherin and catenin complexes have also been thought to be a predictor for occult or microscopic metastasis of TCC. Hypermethylation of E-cadherin gene promotor had been thought to play an important role for loss of expression and occurred in the early stage of cancer development. The objective of the study was to investigate the expression of E-cadherin and catenin complexes and the correlation with clinical and pathological parameters of bladder cancer. We also investigate the hypermethylation of E-cadherin gene promoter and correlate these results with E-cadherin mRNA, E-cadherin and pathological and clinical parameters.
RESULTS: From our studies, expression of E-cadherin was not related to tumor stage, but related to tumor grade (p &lt; 0.05). Expression of α- catenin was high in higher tumor stage and not related to tumor grade. Correlation of expression of p120ctn with tumor stage and grade showed significantly difference. Correlation among E-cadherin, α-catenin, β-catenin and p120ctn did not show significantly difference. We also found hypermethylation of E-cadherin gene promoter was correlated with E-cadherin mRNA and E-cadherin protein. But hypermethylation of E-cadherin did not correlated with clinical and pathological parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: From our study, p120ctn was a better prognostic factor. Hypermethylation of E-cadherin gene promoter is also thought to be important for expression of E-cadherin and can be a predictor for early cancer. Work is in progress to establish whether normal expression of E-cadherin and catenin can be enhanced by gene transfer or biological therapy to induce a less invasive and metastatic phenotype.

謝誌 i
中文摘要 ii
英文摘要 iv
目錄 vi
第一章 文獻綜論
1.1 膀胱癌的流行病學 1
1.2 與膀胱癌形成有關之相關因子 2
1.3 膀胱癌的病理學 2
1.3.1 細胞類型 2
1.3.2 膀胱癌發生的常見位置 3
1.3.3 腫瘤分期 3
1.4 膀胱癌發生及轉移的致病機轉 4
1.4.1 膀胱癌發生的致病機轉 4
1.4.2 膀胱癌預後指標的重要性 5
1.4.3 膀胱癌轉移的機轉及腫瘤標記 6
1.4.4 腫瘤轉移的分子途徑(Molecular pathway) 7
1.5 E-cadherin與catenin複合物 8
1.5.1 E-cadherin簡介 8
1.5.2 Catenins簡介 9
1.5.3 E-cadherin的結構和功能間之相關性 9
1.5.4 P120ctn在E-cadherin複合物中扮演的角色 11
1.6 Cadherin黏合活性調控因素的探討 12
1.6.1 與細胞內蛋白質的相關性 12
1.6.2 蛋白質磷酸化與去磷酸化(phosphorylation and dephosphorylation) 14
1.7 E-cadherin-catenin複合物與腫瘤發展的相關性 15
1.7.1 E-cadherin扮演生長抑制因子 16
1.7.2 β-catenin在信號傳遞中扮演的角色 17
1.8 E-cadherin複合物在腫瘤細胞中失去活性的機轉 18
1.9 E-cadherin基因啟動子甲基化對E-cadherin蛋白表現的影響 21
1.10 E-cadherin複合物與膀胱移行性上皮癌的相關性 23
1.10.1 E-cadherin複合物中γ-catenin對膀胱上皮癌所扮演的角色 25
1.10.2 E-cadherin複合物中α-catenin在膀胱癌中扮演的角色 25
第二章 研究動機 27
第三章 研究方法及進行步驟
3.1 組織檢體來源 28
3.2 材料與藥品 28
3.3 IHC(免疫組織化學染色法) 29
3.4 E-cadherin啟動子(promoter)甲基化程度與E-cadherin mRNA表現的相關性:MS-PCR及DNA定序 31
3.5 RNA萃取、純化及E-cadherin mRNA表現 33
3.5.1 RNA萃取 33
3.5.2 RNA純化 33
3.5.3 E-cadherin之RT-PCR分析 34
3.6 統計分析 35
第四章 結果與討論
4.1 E-cadherin的蛋白表現與臨床資料之相關性 36
4.2 α-catenin與臨床資料之相關性 37
4.3 E-cadherin與α-, β-catenin蛋白質表現的相關性 39
4.4 E-cadherin基因啟動子甲基化與E-cadherin蛋白表現的相關性 40
4.5 P120ctn蛋白表現與臨床資料之相關性 44
第五章 結論與建議 48
參考文獻 49
表格目錄
表一 膀胱癌病患基本資料 76
表二 E-cadherin的蛋白表現與臨床資料之相關性 77
表三 α-catenin與臨床資料之相關性 78
表四 P120ctn蛋白表現與臨床資料之相關性 79
表五 E-cadherin與α-, β-catenin, P120ctn蛋白質表現的相關性 80
表六 E-cadherin基因啟動子甲基化與E-cadherin mRNA表現的相關性 81
表七 E-cadherin蛋白與E-cadherin mRNA表現的相關性 82
表八 E-cadherin基因啟動子甲基化與E-cadherin蛋白的相關性 83
表九 E-cadherin基因啟動子甲基化與臨床因子之間的相關性 84
表十 E-cadherin mRNA的表現與臨床因子之間的相關性 85
附錄目錄
附錄一 Age-standardised (World) incidence rates for bladder cancer, by sex, world regions, 2002 estimates 86
附錄二 台灣地區膀胱癌年齡標準化之發生率與死亡率 87
附錄三 The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM System For Bladder Cancer 88
附錄四 Molecular diversity of the cadherin family 90
附錄五 Schematic representation of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in epithelial cells 91
附錄六 Stage of cadherin-mediated adhesive interactions 92
附錄七 Regulation of cadherin function by associated intracellular proteins 93
附錄八 Schematic representation of the catenins and the interaction with other transmembrane, cytosolic and nuclear proteins 94


Amling CL: Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer. Curr Probl Cancer 2001;25(4):219-78.
Anastasiadis PZ, Reynolds AB: The p120 catenin family: complex roles in adhesion, signaling and cancer. J Cell Sci 2000;113 ( Pt 8):1319-34.
Angst BD, Marcozzi C, Magee AI: The cadherin superfamily: diversity in form and function. J Cell Sci 2001;114(Pt 4):629-41.
Aono S, Nakagawa S, Reynolds AB, Takeichi M: p120(ctn) acts as an inhibitory regulator of cadherin function in colon carcinoma cells. J Cell Biol 1999;145(3):551-62.
Ashida K, Terada T, Kitamura Y, Kaibara N: Expression of E-cadherin, alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and CD44 (standard and variant isoforms) in human cholangiocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study. Hepatology 1998;27(4):974-82.
Bailey T, Biddlestone L, Shepherd N, Barr H, Warner P, Jankowski J: Altered cadherin and catenin complexes in the Barrett''s esophagus-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence: correlation with disease progression and dedifferentiation. Am J Pathol 1998;152(1):135-44.
Barth AI, Nathke IS, Nelson WJ: Cadherins, catenins and APC protein: interplay between cytoskeletal complexes and signaling pathways. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1997;9(5):683-90.
Baylin SB, Herman JG: DNA hypermethylation in tumorigenesis: epigenetics joins genetics. Trends Genet 2000;16(4):168-74.
Behrens J: Cell contacts, differentiation, and invasiveness of epithelial cells. Invasion Metastasis 1994;14(1-6):61-70.
Behrens J, Vakaet L, Friis R, Winterhager E, Van Roy F, Mareel MM, Birchmeier W: Loss of epithelial differentiation and gain of invasiveness correlates with tyrosine phosphorylation of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex in cells transformed with a temperature-sensitive v-SRC gene. J Cell Biol 1993;120(3):757-66.
Berx G, Becker KF, Hofler H, van Roy F: Mutations of the human E-cadherin (CDH1) gene. Hum Mutat 1998;12(4):226-37.
Birchmeier W, Hulsken J, Behrens J: Adherens junction proteins in tumour progression. Cancer Surv 1995;24:129-40.
Blaschuk OW, Sullivan R, David S, Pouliot Y: Identification of a cadherin cell adhesion recognition sequence. Dev Biol 1990;139(1):227-9.
Boggon TJ, Murray J, Chappuis-Flament S, Wong E, Gumbiner BM, Shapiro L: C-cadherin ectodomain structure and implications for cell adhesion mechanisms. Science 2002;296(5571):1308-13.
Bol MG, Baak JP, Buhr-Wildhagen S, Kruse AJ, Kjellevold KH, Janssen EA, Mestad O, Ogreid P: Reproducibility and prognostic variability of grade and lamina propria invasion in stages Ta, T1 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol 2003;169(4):1291-4.
Bornman DM, Mathew S, Alsruhe J, Herman JG, Gabrielson E: Methylation of the E-cadherin gene in bladder neoplasia and in normal urothelial epithelium from elderly individuals. Am J Pathol 2001;159(3):831-5.
Bracke ME, Charlier C, Bruyneel EA, Labit C, Mareel MM, Castronovo V: Tamoxifen restores the E-cadherin function in human breast cancer MCF-7/6 cells and suppresses their invasive phenotype. Cancer Res 1994;54(17):4607-9.
Breen E, Clarke A, Steele G, Jr., Mercurio AM: Poorly differentiated colon carcinoma cell lines deficient in alpha-catenin expression express high levels of surface E-cadherin but lack Ca(2+)-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Cell Adhes Commun 1993;1(3):239-50.
Brieher WM, Yap AS, Gumbiner BM: Lateral dimerization is required for the homophilic binding activity of C-cadherin. J Cell Biol 1996;135(2):487-96.
Bringuier PP, Giroldi LA, Umbas R, Shimazui T, Schalken JA: Mechanisms associated with abnormal E-cadherin immunoreactivity in human bladder tumors. Int J Cancer 1999;83(5):591-5.
Bringuier PP, Umbas R, Schaafsma HE, Karthaus HF, Debruyne FM, Schalken JA: Decreased E-cadherin immunoreactivity correlates with poor survival in patients with bladder tumors. Cancer Res 1993;53(14):3241-5.
Byers SW, Sommers CL, Hoxter B, Mercurio AM, Tozeren A: Role of E-cadherin in the response of tumor cell aggregates to lymphatic, venous and arterial flow: measurement of cell-cell adhesion strength. J Cell Sci 1995;108 ( Pt 5):2053-64.
Byrne RR, Shariat SF, Brown R, Kattan MW, Morton RJ, Wheeler TM, Lerner SP: E-cadherin immunostaining of bladder transitional cell carcinoma, carcinoma in situ and lymph node metastases with long-term followup. J Urol 2001;165(5):1473-9.
Caca K, Kolligs FT, Ji X, Hayes M, Qian J, Yahanda A, Rimm DL, Costa J, Fearon ER: Beta- and gamma-catenin mutations, but not E-cadherin inactivation, underlie T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor transcriptional deregulation in gastric and pancreatic cancer. Cell Growth Differ 1999;10(6):369-76.
Case RAM, Hosker ME: Tumour of the urinary bladder as an occupational disease in the rubber industry in England and Wales. Br J Rev Soc Med 1954;8:39-50.
Chen CJ, Kuo TL, Wu MM: Arsenic and cancers. Lancet 1988;1(8582):414-5.
Cheng L, Weaver AL, Leibovich BC, Ramnani DM, Neumann RM, Scherer BG, Nehra A, Zincke H, Bostwick DG: Predicting the survival of bladder carcinoma patients treated with radical cystectomy. Cancer 2000;88(10):2326-32.
Chim CS, Liang R, Kwong YL: Hypermethylation of gene promoters in hematological neoplasia. Hematol Oncol 2002;20(4):167-76.
Clairotte A, Lascombe I, Fauconnet S, Mauny F, Felix S, Algros MP, Bittard H, Kantelip B: Expression of E-cadherin and alpha-, beta-, gamma-catenins in patients with bladder cancer: identification of gamma-catenin as a new prognostic marker of neoplastic progression in T1 superficial urothelial tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 2006;125(1):119-26.
Conacci-Sorrell M, Zhurinsky J, Ben-Ze''ev A: The cadherin-catenin adhesion system in signaling and cancer. J Clin Invest 2002;109(8):987-91.
Cowley GP, Smith ME: Modulation of E-cadherin expression and morphological phenotype in the intravascular component of adenocarcinomas. Int J Cancer 1995;60(3):325-9.
Cozzolino M, Stagni V, Spinardi L, Campioni N, Fiorentini C, Salvati E, Alema S, Salvatore AM: p120 Catenin is required for growth factor-dependent cell motility and scattering in epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell 2003;14(5):1964-77.
D''Souza B, Taylor-Papadimitriou J: Overexpression of ERBB2 in human mammary epithelial cells signals inhibition of transcription of the E-cadherin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994;91(15):7202-6.
Dalbagni G, Genega E, Hashibe M, Zhang ZF, Russo P, Herr H, Reuter V: Cystectomy for bladder cancer: a contemporary series. J Urol 2001;165(4):1111-6.
De Leeuw WJ, Berx G, Vos CB, Peterse JL, Van de Vijver MJ, Litvinov S, Van Roy F, Cornelisse CJ, Cleton-Jansen AM: Simultaneous loss of E-cadherin and catenins in invasive lobular breast cancer and lobular carcinoma in situ. J Pathol 1997;183(4):404-11.
De Marzo AM, Knudsen B, Chan-Tack K, Epstein JI: E-cadherin expression as a marker of tumor aggressiveness in routinely processed radical prostatectomy specimens. Urology 1999;53(4):707-13.
Dillon DA, D''Aquila T, Reynolds AB, Fearon ER, Rimm DL: The expression of p120ctn protein in breast cancer is independent of alpha- and beta-catenin and E-cadherin. Am J Pathol 1998;152(1):75-82.
Dixon JS, Gosling JA: Histology and fine structure of the muscularis mucosae of the human urinary bladder. J Anat 1983;136(Pt 2):265-71.
Dong SM, Kim HS, Rha SH, Sidransky D: Promoter hypermethylation of multiple genes in carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Clin Cancer Res 2001;7(7):1982-6.
Dutta SC, Smith JA, Jr., Shappell SB, Coffey CS, Chang SS, Cookson MS: Clinical under staging of high risk nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma treated with radical cystectomy. J Urol 2001;166(2):490-3.
Eads CA, Lord RV, Kurumboor SK, Wickramasinghe K, Skinner ML, Long TI, Peters JH, DeMeester TR, Danenberg KD, Danenberg PV and others: Fields of aberrant CpG island hypermethylation in Barrett''s esophagus and associated adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 2000;60(18):5021-6.
El-Hariry I, Jordinson M, Lemoine N, Pignatelli M: Characterization of the E-cadherin-catenin complexes in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. J Pathol 1999;188(2):155-62.
Esteller M: CpG island hypermethylation and tumor suppressor genes: a booming present, a brighter future. Oncogene 2002;21(35):5427-40.
Figgs LW, Zahm SH: Assessment of the role of inflammation in bladder cancer. Food & Chemical Toxicology 1995 Sep;33(9):785-795.
Frixen UH, Behrens J, Sachs M, Eberle G, Voss B, Warda A, Lochner D, Birchmeier W: E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion prevents invasiveness of human carcinoma cells. J Cell Biol 1991;113(1):173-85.
Fujimoto J, Ichigo S, Hori M, Morishita S, Tamaya T: Progestins and danazol effect on cell-to-cell adhesion, and E-cadherin and alpha- and beta-catenin mRNA expressions. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1996;57(5-6):275-82.
Fujita Y, Krause G, Scheffner M, Zechner D, Leddy HE, Behrens J, Sommer T, Birchmeier W: Hakai, a c-Cbl-like protein, ubiquitinates and induces endocytosis of the E-cadherin complex. Nat Cell Biol 2002;4(3):222-31.
Fukata M, Kaibuchi K: Rho-family GTPases in cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2001;2(12):887-97.
Garcia del Muro X, Torregrosa A, Munoz J, Castellsague X, Condom E, Vigues F, Arance A, Fabra A, Germa JR: Prognostic value of the expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in bladder cancer. Eur J Cancer 2000;36(3):357-62.
Giroldi LA, Bringuier PP, Schalken JA: Defective E-cadherin function in urological cancers: clinical implications and molecular mechanisms. Invasion Metastasis 1994;14(1-6):71-81.
Gontero P, Tizzani A, Muir GH, Caldarera E, Macaluso MP: The genetic alterations in the oncogenic pathway of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and its prognostic value. Urol Res 2001;29(6):377-87.
Gottardi CJ, Gumbiner BM: Adhesion signaling: how beta-catenin interacts with its partners. Curr Biol 2001;11(19):R792-4.
Graff JR, Herman JG, Lapidus RG, Chopra H, Xu R, Jarrard DF, Isaacs WB, Pitha PM, Davidson NE, Baylin SB: E-cadherin expression is silenced by DNA hypermethylation in human breast and prostate carcinomas. Cancer Res 1995;55(22):5195-9.
Guilford P, Hopkins J, Harraway J, McLeod M, McLeod N, Harawira P, Taite H, Scoular R, Miller A, Reeve AE: E-cadherin germline mutations in familial gastric cancer. Nature 1998;392(6674):402-5.
Gunji N, Oda T, Todoroki T, Kanazawa N, Kawamoto T, Yuzawa K, Scarpa A, Fukao K: Pancreatic carcinoma: correlation between E-cadherin and alpha-catenin expression status and liver metastasis. Cancer 1998;82(9):1649-56.
Hall A: Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Science 1998;279(5350):509-14.
Hanahan D, Weinberg RA: The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 2000;100(1):57-70.
Hart IR, Saini A: Biology of tumour metastasis. Lancet 1992;339(8807):1453-7.
Hazan RB, Norton L: The epidermal growth factor receptor modulates the interaction of E-cadherin with the actin cytoskeleton. J Biol Chem 1998;273(15):9078-84.
He TC, Sparks AB, Rago C, Hermeking H, Zawel L, da Costa LT, Morin PJ, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW: Identification of c-MYC as a target of the APC pathway. Science 1998;281(5382):1509-12.
Hennig G, Behrens J, Truss M, Frisch S, Reichmann E, Birchmeier W: Progression of carcinoma cells is associated with alterations in chromatin structure and factor binding at the E-cadherin promoter in vivo. Oncogene 1995;11(3):475-84.
Herman JG, Latif F, Weng Y, Lerman MI, Zbar B, Liu S, Samid D, Duan DS, Gnarra JR, Linehan WM and others: Silencing of the VHL tumor-suppressor gene by DNA methylation in renal carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994;91(21):9700-4.
Herr HW: Natural history of superficial bladder tumors: 10- to 20-year follow-up of treated patients. World J Urol 1997;15(2):84-8.
Herrenknecht K, Ozawa M, Eckerskorn C, Lottspeich F, Lenter M, Kemler R: The uvomorulin-anchorage protein alpha catenin is a vinculin homologue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991;88(20):9156-60.
Hirohashi S: Inactivation of the E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion system in human cancers. Am J Pathol 1998;153(2):333-9.
Hiscox S, Jiang WG: Expression of E-cadherin, alpha, beta and gamma-catenin in human colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res 1997;17(2B):1349-54.
Horikawa Y, Sugano K, Shigyo M, Yamamoto H, Nakazono M, Fujimoto H, Kanai Y, Hirohashi S, Kakizoe T, Habuchi T and others: Hypermethylation of an E-cadherin (CDH1) promoter region in high grade transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder comprising carcinoma in situ. J Urol 2003;169(4):1541-5.
Hoschuetzky H, Aberle H, Kemler R: Beta-catenin mediates the interaction of the cadherin-catenin complex with epidermal growth factor receptor. J Cell Biol 1994;127(5):1375-80.
Huber AH, Weis WI: The structure of the beta-catenin/E-cadherin complex and the molecular basis of diverse ligand recognition by beta-catenin. Cell 2001;105(3):391-402.
Hugh TJ, Dillon SA, Taylor BA, Pignatelli M, Poston GJ, Kinsella AR: Cadherin-catenin expression in primary colorectal cancer: a survival analysis. Br J Cancer 1999;80(7):1046-51.
Hulsken J, Birchmeier W, Behrens J: E-cadherin and APC compete for the interaction with beta-catenin and the cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol 1994;127(6 Pt 2):2061-9.
IARC: GLOBOCAN 2002. Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide (2002 estimates). Accessed 2008.
IARC: Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk on chemicals to humans. Supplement 4. Chemicals and industrial processes associated with cancer in humans. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer 1982.
Ikeda S, Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Murai H, Koyama S, Kikuchi A: Axin, a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, forms a complex with GSK-3beta and beta-catenin and promotes GSK-3beta-dependent phosphorylation of beta-catenin. Embo J 1998;17(5):1371-84.
Itoh M, Morita K, Tsukita S: Characterization of ZO-2 as a MAGUK family member associated with tight as well as adherens junctions with a binding affinity to occludin and alpha catenin. J Biol Chem 1999;274(9):5981-6.
Jawhari A, Jordan S, Poole S, Browne P, Pignatelli M, Farthing MJ: Abnormal immunoreactivity of the E-cadherin-catenin complex in gastric carcinoma: relationship with patient survival. Gastroenterology 1997;112(1):46-54.
Jawhari AU, Noda M, Pignatelli M, Farthing M: Up-regulated cytoplasmic expression, with reduced membranous distribution, of the src substrate p120(ctn) in gastric carcinoma. J Pathol 1999;189(2):180-5.
Jiang WG: E-cadherin and its associated protein catenins, cancer invasion and metastasis. Br J Surg 1996;83(4):437-46.
Jones PA, Baylin SB: The fundamental role of epigenetic events in cancer. Nat Rev Genet 2002;3(6):415-28.
Kanai Y, Ushijima S, Hui AM, Ochiai A, Tsuda H, Sakamoto M, Hirohashi S: The E-cadherin gene is silenced by CpG methylation in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Int J Cancer 1997;71(3):355-9.
Kaplan DD, Meigs TE, Casey PJ: Distinct regions of the cadherin cytoplasmic domain are essential for functional interaction with Galpha 12 and beta-catenin. J Biol Chem 2001;276(47):44037-43.
Kashibuchi K, Tomita K, Schalken JA, Kume H, Takeuchi T, Kitamura T: The prognostic value of E-cadherin, alpha-, beta- and gamma-catenin in bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Int J Urol 2007;14(9):789-94.
Keller G, Vogelsang H, Becker I, Hutter J, Ott K, Candidus S, Grundei T, Becker KF, Mueller J, Siewert JR and others: Diffuse type gastric and lobular breast carcinoma in a familial gastric cancer patient with an E-cadherin germline mutation. Am J Pathol 1999;155(2):337-42.
Kester HA, van der Leede BM, van der Saag PT, van der Burg B: Novel progesterone target genes identified by an improved differential display technique suggest that progestin-induced growth inhibition of breast cancer cells coincides with enhancement of differentiation. J Biol Chem 1997;272(26):16637-43.
Kikuchi A: Roles of Axin in the Wnt signalling pathway. Cell Signal 1999;11(11):777-88.
Kinch MS, Clark GJ, Der CJ, Burridge K: Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the adhesions of ras-transformed breast epithelia. J Cell Biol 1995;130(2):461-71.
Kintner C: Regulation of embryonic cell adhesion by the cadherin cytoplasmic domain. Cell 1992;69(2):225-36.
Kishida S, Yamamoto H, Ikeda S, Kishida M, Sakamoto I, Koyama S, Kikuchi A: Axin, a negative regulator of the wnt signaling pathway, directly interacts with adenomatous polyposis coli and regulates the stabilization of beta-catenin. J Biol Chem 1998;273(18):10823-6.
Knowles MA: The genetics of transitional cell carcinoma: progress and potential clinical application. BJU Int 1999;84(4):412-27.
Knowles MA, Elder PA, Williamson M, Cairns JP, Shaw ME, Law MG: Allelotype of human bladder cancer. Cancer Res 1994;54(2):531-8.
Knudsen KA, Wheelock MJ: Plakoglobin, or an 83-kD homologue distinct from beta-catenin, interacts with E-cadherin and N-cadherin. J Cell Biol 1992;118(3):671-9.
Koksal IT, Ates M, Danisman A, Sezer C, Ciftcioglu A, Karpuzoglu G, Sevuk M: Reduced E-cadherin and alpha-catenin expressions have no prognostic role in bladder carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res 2006;12(1):13-9.
Krishnadath KK, Tilanus HW, van Blankenstein M, Hop WC, Kremers ED, Dinjens WN, Bosman FT: Reduced expression of the cadherin-catenin complex in oesophageal adenocarcinoma correlates with poor prognosis. J Pathol 1997;182(3):331-8.
la Vecchia C, Negri E, D''Avanzo B, Franceschi S: Occupation and the risk of bladder cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1990;19(2):264-8.
Lee JM, Dedhar S, Kalluri R, Thompson EW: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition: new insights in signaling, development, and disease. J Cell Biol 2006;172(7):973-81.
Legrand JF, Als-Nielsen J, Colman DR, Hendrickson WA: Structural. basis of cell-cell adhesion by cadherins. Nature 1995;374:327-337.
Levenberg S, Yarden A, Kam Z, Geiger B: p27 is involved in N-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of cell growth and S-phase entry. Oncogene 1999;18(4):869-76.
Li L, Yuan H, Weaver CD, Mao J, Farr GH, 3rd, Sussman DJ, Jonkers J, Kimelman D, Wu D: Axin and Frat1 interact with dvl and GSK, bridging Dvl to GSK in Wnt-mediated regulation of LEF-1. Embo J 1999;18(15):4233-40.
Lianes P, Charytonowicz E, Cordon-Cardo C, Fradet Y, Grossman HB, Hemstreet GP, Waldman FM, Chew K, Wheeless LL, Faraggi D: Biomarker study of primary nonmetastatic versus metastatic invasive bladder cancer. National Cancer Institute Bladder Tumor Marker Network. Clin Cancer Res 1998;4(5):1267-71.
Lickert H, Bauer A, Kemler R, Stappert J: Casein kinase II phosphorylation of E-cadherin increases E-cadherin/beta-catenin interaction and strengthens cell-cell adhesion. J Biol Chem 2000;275(7):5090-5.
Lin FS, Hsieh TS, Tsai TC, Chiu TY, Chen J, Hsu TC, Chiang WH, How SW: Clinico-patholigical study of bladder tumor. J Urol ROC 1993;4:1064-1070.
Liotta LA, Steeg PS, Stetler-Stevenson WG: Cancer metastasis and angiogenesis: an imbalance of positive and negative regulation. Cell 1991;64(2):327-36.
Lipponen PK, Eskelinen MJ: Reduced expression of E-cadherin is related to invasive disease and frequent recurrence in bladder cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1995;121(5):303-8.
Liu D, el-Hariry I, Karayiannakis AJ, Wilding J, Chinery R, Kmiot W, McCrea PD, Gullick WJ, Pignatelli M: Phosphorylation of beta-catenin and epidermal growth factor receptor by intestinal trefoil factor. Lab Invest 1997;77(6):557-63.
Lu FJ, Guo HR, Chiang HS, Hong CL: Relationships between the fluorescent intensity of well water and the incidence rate of bladder cancer. J Chin Oncol Soc 1986;2:134-143.
Mareel M, Leroy A: Clinical, cellular, and molecular aspects of cancer invasion. Physiol Rev 2003;83(2):337-76.
Matsuyoshi N, Hamaguchi M, Taniguchi S, Nagafuchi A, Tsukita S, Takeichi M: Cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is perturbed by v-src tyrosine phosphorylation in metastatic fibroblasts. J Cell Biol 1992;118(3):703-14.
Mbalaviele G, Dunstan CR, Sasaki A, Williams PJ, Mundy GR, Yoneda T: E-cadherin expression in human breast cancer cells suppresses the development of osteolytic bone metastases in an experimental metastasis model. Cancer Res 1996;56(17):4063-70.
McCrea PD, Turck CW, Gumbiner B: A homolog of the armadillo protein in Drosophila (plakoglobin) associated with E-cadherin. Science 1991;254:1359-1361.
Meigs TE, Fedor-Chaiken M, Kaplan DD, Brackenbury R, Casey PJ: Galpha12 and Galpha13 negatively regulate the adhesive functions of cadherin. J Biol Chem 2002;277(27):24594-600.
Mialhe A, Louis J, Montlevier S, Peoch M, Pasquier D, Bosson JL, Rambeaud JJ, Seigneurin D: Expression of E-cadherin and alpha-,beta- and gamma-catenins in human bladder carcinomas: are they good prognostic factors? Invasion Metastasis 1997a;17(3):124-37.
Mialhe A, Louis J, Pasquier D, Rambeaud JJ, Seigneurin D: Expression of three cell adhesion molecules in bladder carcinomas: correlation with pathological features. Anal Cell Pathol 1997b;13(3):125-36.
Miller JR, Hocking AM, Brown JD, Moon RT: Mechanism and function of signal transduction by the Wnt/beta-catenin and Wnt/Ca2+ pathways. Oncogene 1999;18(55):7860-72.
Morton RA, Ewing CM, Nagafuchi A, Tsukita S, Isaacs WB: Reduction of E-cadherin levels and deletion of the alpha-catenin gene in human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 1993;53(15):3585-90.
Mostofi FK, Sorbin LH, Torloni H: Histological Typing of Urinary Bladder Tumours. Geneva, WHO 1973.
Muller T, Choidas A, Reichmann E, Ullrich A: Phosphorylation and free pool of beta-catenin are regulated by tyrosine kinases and tyrosine phosphatases during epithelial cell migration. J Biol Chem 1999;274(15):10173-83.
Nagafuchi A, Takeichi M: Cell binding function of E-cadherin is regulated by the cytoplasmic domain. Embo J 1988;7(12):3679-84.
Nagafuchi A, Takeichi M: Transmembrane control of cadherin-mediated cell adhesion: a 94 kDa protein functionally associated with a specific region of the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin. Cell Regul 1989;1(1):37-44.
Nagar B, Overduin M, Ikura M, Rini JM: Structural basis of calcium-induced E-cadherin rigidification and dimerization. Nature 1996;380:360-364.
Nakopoulou L, Zervas A, Gakiopoulou-Givalou H, Constantinides C, Doumanis G, Davaris P, Dimopoulos C: Prognostic value of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, P120ctn in patients with transitional cell bladder cancer. Anticancer Res 2000;20(6B):4571-8.
Nathke IS, Hinck L, Swedlow JR, Papkoff J, Nelson WJ: Defining interactions and distributions of cadherin and catenin complexes in polarized epithelial cells. J Cell Biol 1994;125(6):1341-52.
Nawrocki B, Polette M, Van Hengel J, Tournier JM, Van Roy F, Birembault P: Cytoplasmic redistribution of E-cadherin-catenin adhesion complex is associated with down-regulated tyrosine phosphorylation of E-cadherin in human bronchopulmonary carcinomas. Am J Pathol 1998;153(5):1521-30.
Nishimura M, Machida K, Imaizumi M, Abe T, Umeda T, Takeshima E, Watanabe T, Ohnishi Y, Takagi K, Hamaguchi M: Tyrosine phosphorylation of 100-130 kDa proteins in lung cancer correlates with poor prognosis. Br J Cancer 1996;74(5):780-7.
Otto T, Bex A, Schmidt U, Raz A, Rubben H: Improved prognosis assessment for patients with bladder carcinoma. Am J Pathol 1997;150(6):1919-23.
Oyama T, Kanai Y, Ochiai A, Akimoto S, Oda T, Yanagihara K, Nagafuchi A, Tsukita S, Shibamoto S, Ito F and others: A truncated beta-catenin disrupts the interaction between E-cadherin and alpha-catenin: a cause of loss of intercellular adhesiveness in human cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 1994;54(23):6282-7.
Ozawa M, Baribault H, Kemler R: The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related in different species. Embo J 1989;8(6):1711-7.
Ozawa M, Engel J, Kemler R: Single amino acid substitutions in one Ca2+ binding site of uvomorulin abolish the adhesive function. Cell 1990a;63(5):1033-8.
Ozawa M, Kemler R: The membrane-proximal region of the E-cadherin cytoplasmic domain prevents dimerization and negatively regulates adhesion activity. J Cell Biol 1998;142(6):1605-13.
Ozawa M, Nuruki K, Toyoyama H, Ohi Y: Cloning of an alternative form of plakoglobin (gamma-catenin) lacking the fourth armadillo repeat. J Biochem 1995;118(4):836-40.
Ozawa M, Ringwald M, Kemler R: Uvomorulin-catenin complex formation is regulated by a specific domain in the cytoplasmic region of the cell adhesion molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990b;87(11):4246-50.
Palacios J, Benito N, Pizarro A, Limeres MA, Suarez A, Cano A, Gamallo C: Relationship between ERBB2 and E-cadherin expression in human breast cancer. Virchows Arch 1995;427(3):259-63.
Peifer M, Polakis P: Wnt signaling in oncogenesis and embryogenesis--a look outside the nucleus. Science 2000;287(5458):1606-9.
Piedra J, Martinez D, Castano J, Miravet S, Dunach M, de Herreros AG: Regulation of beta-catenin structure and activity by tyrosine phosphorylation. J Biol Chem 2001;276(23):20436-43.
Polakis P: Wnt signaling and cancer. Genes Dev 2000;14(15):1837-51.
Popov Z, Gil-Diez de Medina S, Lefrere-Belda MA, Hoznek A, Bastuji-Garin S, Abbou CC, Thiery JP, Radvanyi F, Chopin DK: Low E-cadherin expression in bladder cancer at the transcriptional and protein level provides prognostic information. Br J Cancer 2000;83(2):209-14.
Provost E, Yamamoto Y, Lizardi I, Stern J, D''Aquila TG, Gaynor RB, Rimm DL: Functional correlates of mutations in beta-catenin exon 3 phosphorylation sites. J Biol Chem 2003;278(34):31781-9.
Ranscht B: Cadherins and catenins: interactions and functions in embryonic development. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1994;6(5):740-6.
Rebel JM, Thijssen CD, Vermey M, Delouvee A, Zwarthoff EC, Van der Kwast TH: E-cadherin expression determines the mode of replacement of normal urothelium by human bladder carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 1994;54(20):5488-92.
Rehn L: Blasengeschwuelste bei Anili narbeitem. Arch Klin Chir 1895;50:588-600.
Reynolds AB, Daniel J, McCrea PD, Wheelock MJ, Wu J, Zhang Z: Identification of a new catenin: the tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas associates with E-cadherin complexes. Mol Cell Biol 1994 ;14(12):8333-8342.
Reynolds AB, Roczniak-Ferguson A: Emerging roles for p120-catenin in cell adhesion and cancer. Oncogene 2004;23(48):7947-56.
Richards FM, McKee SA, Rajpar MH, Cole TR, Evans DG, Jankowski JA, McKeown C, Sanders DS, Maher ER: Germline E-cadherin gene (CDH1) mutations predispose to familial gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Hum Mol Genet 1999;8(4):607-10.
Riethmacher D, Brinkmann V, Birchmeier C: A targeted mutation in the mouse E-cadherin gene results in defective preimplantation development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92(3):855-9.
Ro JY, Ayala AG, el-Naggar A: Muscularis mucosa of urinary bladder. Importance for staging and treatment. Am J Surg Pathol 1987;11(9):668-73.
Robertson KD: DNA methylation, methyltransferases, and cancer. Oncogene 2001;20(24):3139-55.
Rosato R, Veltmaat JM, Groffen J, Heisterkamp N: Involvement of the tyrosine kinase fer in cell adhesion. Mol Cell Biol 1998;18(10):5762-70.
Roura S, Miravet S, Piedra J, Garcia de Herreros A, Dunach M: Regulation of E-cadherin/Catenin association by tyrosine phosphorylation. J Biol Chem 1999;274(51):36734-40.
Rowlands TM, Symonds JM, Farookhi R, Blaschuk OW: Cadherins: crucial regulators of structure and function in reproductive tissues. Rev Reprod 2000;5(1):53-61.
Serini G, Trusolino L, Saggiorato E, Cremona O, De Rossi M, Angeli A, Orlandi F, Marchisio PC: Changes in integrin and E-cadherin expression in neoplastic versus normal thyroid tissue. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88(7):442-9.
Shapiro L, Fannon AM, Kwong PD, Thompson A, Lehmann MS, Grubel G, Legrand JF, Als-Nielsen J, Colman DR, Hendrickson WA: Structuralbasis of cell-cell adhesion by cadherins. Nature 1995;374:327-337.
Shibamoto S, Hayakawa M, Takeuchi K, Hori T, Oku N, Miyazawa K, Kitamura N, Takeichi M, Ito F: Tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin and plakoglobin enhanced by hepatocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor in human carcinoma cells. Cell Adhes Commun 1994;1(4):295-305.
Shibata T, Kokubu A, Sekine S, Kanai Y, Hirohashi S: Cytoplasmic p120ctn regulates the invasive phenotypes of E-cadherin-deficient breast cancer. Am J Pathol 2004;164(6):2269-78.
Shimazui T, Schalken JA, Giroldi LA, Jansen CF, Akaza H, Koiso K, Debruyne FM, Bringuier PP: Prognostic value of cadherin-associated molecules (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenins and p120cas) in bladder tumors. Cancer Res 1996;56(18):4154-8.
Shimoyama Y, Hirohashi S, Hirano S, Noguchi M, Shimosato Y, Takeichi M, Abe O: Cadherin cell-adhesion molecules in human epithelial tissues and carcinomas. Cancer Res 1989;49(8):2128-33.
Shimoyama Y, Nagafuchi A, Fujita S, Gotoh M, Takeichi M, Tsukita S, Hirohashi S: Cadherin dysfunction in a human cancer cell line: possible involvement of loss of alpha-catenin expression in reduced cell-cell adhesiveness. Cancer Res 1992;52(20):5770-4.
Shiozaki H, Kadowaki T, Doki Y, Inoue M, Tamura S, Oka H, Iwazawa T, Matsui S, Shimaya K, Takeichi M and others: Effect of epidermal growth factor on cadherin-mediated adhesion in a human oesophageal cancer cell line. Br J Cancer 1995;71(2):250-8.
Silverman DT, Levin LI, Hoover RN, Hartge P: Occupational risks of bladder cancer in the United States: I. White men. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989;81(19):1472-80.
Sivasankar S, Brieher W, Lavrik N, Gumbiner B, Leckband D: Direct molecular force measurements of multiple adhesive interactions between cadherin ectodomains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96(21):11820-4.
Sivasankar S, Gumbiner B, Leckband D: Direct measurements of multiple adhesive alignments and unbinding trajectories between cadherin extracellular domains. Biophys J 2001;80(4):1758-68.
Soares P, Berx G, van Roy F, Sobrinho-Simoes M: E-cadherin gene alterations are rare events in thyroid tumors. Int J Cancer 1997;70(1):32-8.
Soler C, Rousselle P, Damour O: Cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion is regulated by tyrosine phosphatases in human keratinocytes. Cell Adhes Commun 1998;5(1):13-25.
Soloway MS: Intravesical therapy for bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am 1988;15(4):661-9.
Soloway MS, Sofer M, Vaidya A: Contemporary management of stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol 2002;167(4):1573-83.
Stein JP, Grossfeld GD, Ginsberg DA, Esrig D, Freeman JA, Figueroa AJ, Skinner DG, Cote RJ: Prognostic markers in bladder cancer: a contemporary review of the literature. J Urol 1998;160(3 Pt 1):645-59.
Sun W, Herrera GA: E-cadherin expression in urothelial carcinoma in situ, superficial papillary transitional cell carcinoma, and invasive transitional cell carcinoma. Hum Pathol 2002;33(10):996-1000.
Sun W, Herrera GA: E-cadherin expression in invasive urothelial carcinoma. Ann Diagn Pathol 2004;8(1):17-22.
Syrigos KN, Harrington K, Waxman J, Krausz T, Pignatelli M: Altered gamma-catenin expression correlates with poor survival in patients with bladder cancer. J Urol 1998;160(5):1889-93.
Syrigos KN, Harrington KJ, Pignatelli M: Role of adhesion molecules in bladder cancer: an important part of the jigsaw. Urology 1999;53(2):428-34.
Takayama T, Shiozaki H, Doki Y, Oka H, Inoue M, Yamamoto M, Tamura S, Shibamoto S, Ito F, Monden M: Aberrant expression and phosphorylation of beta-catenin in human colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 1998;77(4):605-13.
Takeichi M: Cadherins: a molecular family important in selective cell-cell adhesion. Annu Rev Biochem 1990;59:237-52.
Takeichi M: Cadherin cell adhesion receptors as a morphogenetic regulator. Science 1991;251:1451-1455.
Takeichi M: Cadherins in cancer: implications for invasion and metastasis. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1993;5(5):806-11.
Tamura K, Shan WS, Hendrickson WA, Colman DR, Shapiro L: Structure-function analysis of cell adhesion by neural (N-) cadherin. Neuron 1998;20(6):1153-63.
Tepass U, Truong K, Godt D, Ikura M, Peifer M: Cadherins in embryonic and neural morphogenesis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2000;1(2):91-100.
Tetsu O, McCormick F: Beta-catenin regulates expression of cyclin D1 in colon carcinoma cells. Nature 1999;398(6726):422-6.
Thoreson MA, Reynolds AB: Altered expression of the catenin p120 in human cancer: implications for tumor progression. Differentiation 2002;70(9-10):583-9.
Tsuchiya K, Okubo T, Ishizu S: An epidemiological study of occupational bladder tumours in the dye industry of Japan. Br J Ind Med 1975;32(3):203-9.
Tsuda H, Zhang WD, Shimosato Y, Yokota J, Terada M, Sugimura T, Miyamura T, Hirohashi S: Allele loss on chromosome 16 associated with progression of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990;87(17):6791-4.
Tsukatani Y, Suzuki K, Takahashi K: Loss of density-dependent growth inhibition and dissociation of alpha-catenin from E-cadherin. J Cell Physiol 1997;173(1):54-63.
Van Der Meijden A, Sylvester R, Collette L, Bono A, Ten Kate F: The role and impact of pathology review on stage and grade assessment of stages Ta and T1 bladder tumors: a combined analysis of 5 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trials. J Urol 2000;164(5):1533-7.
Vermeulen SJ, Bruyneel EA, van Roy FM, Mareel MM, Bracke ME: Activation of the E-cadherin/catenin complex in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells by all-trans-retinoic acid. Br J Cancer 1995;72(6):1447-53.
Vestal DJ, Ranscht B: Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol--anchored T-cadherin mediates calcium-dependent, homophilic cell adhesion. J Cell Biol 1992;119(2):451-61.
Vleminckx K, Vakaet L, Jr., Mareel M, Fiers W, van Roy F: Genetic manipulation of E-cadherin expression by epithelial tumor cells reveals an invasion suppressor role. Cell 1991;66(1):107-19.
von Kries JP, Winbeck G, Asbrand C, Schwarz-Romond T, Sochnikova N, Dell''Oro A, Behrens J, Birchmeier W: Hot spots in beta-catenin for interactions with LEF-1, conductin and APC. Nat Struct Biol 2000;7(9):800-7.
Vos CB, Cleton-Jansen AM, Berx G, de Leeuw WJ, ter Haar NT, van Roy F, Cornelisse CJ, Peterse JL, van de Vijver MJ: E-cadherin inactivation in lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast: an early event in tumorigenesis. Br J Cancer 1997;76(9):1131-3.
Wijnhoven BP, de Both NJ, van Dekken H, Tilanus HW, Dinjens WN: E-cadherin gene mutations are rare in adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus. Br J Cancer 1999;80(10):1652-7.
Wijnhoven BP, Dinjens WN, Pignatelli M: E-cadherin-catenin cell-cell adhesion complex and human cancer. Br J Surg 2000;87(8):992-1005.
Willert K, Shibamoto S, Nusse R: Wnt-induced dephosphorylation of axin releases beta-catenin from the axin complex. Genes Dev 1999;13(14):1768-73.
Witjes JA, Kiemeney LA, Schaafsma HE, Debruyn FM: The influence of review pathology on study outcome of a randomized multicentre superficial bladder cancer trial. Members of the Dutch South East Cooperative Urological Group. Br J Urol 1994;73(2):172-6.
Yap AS, Niessen CM, Gumbiner BM: The juxtamembrane region of the cadherin cytoplasmic tail supports lateral clustering, adhesive strengthening, and interaction with p120ctn. J Cell Biol 1998;141(3):779-89.
江漢聲, 洪清霖, 林秀敏, 李豐: 台灣染料有關工廠工人膀胱癌篩檢初步報告. 北醫學報 1990;19:21-27.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top