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研究生:邱廷銳
研究生(外文):Ting-Jui Chiu
論文名稱:高鐵列車於橋樑結構引致地盤振動之影響因子評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of Influence Parameters of Ground Vibration Induced by High-Speed Trains on Bridge Structures
指導教授:陳逸駿陳逸駿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yit-Jin Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:土木工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:323
中文關鍵詞:高速鐵路衰減分析橋樑地盤振動
外文關鍵詞:Attenuation analysisBridgeVibration levelHigh-speed trains
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摘要
本研究依據台灣高鐵沿線橋樑結構及土層之特徵,量測高鐵於淺基礎在卵礫石層、淺基礎在岩盤、深基礎在軟弱土層、深基礎在岩盤、及深基礎在卵礫石層等五類之地盤振動。針對五種分類分別探討列車速度、橋樑體積、土層種類、基礎型式、頻率因素及振波傳遞之影響。
離高鐵路線基準位置(25 m)之振動量方面,列車速度、土層種類及基礎型式對於基準位置振動量之影響相當明顯,約在7~9 dB左右;但橋樑體積對於基準位置振動量之影響較低,約在6 dB左右。在頻率因素,硬地盤之控制頻率大多集中於10 Hz至63 Hz之間,而軟弱地盤之控制頻率則多集中於3.15 Hz至10 Hz之間。振波傳遞方面(至約200 m),淺基礎之衰減係數一般大於深基礎之衰減係數。淺基礎使用整體振動量之衰減係數範圍為0.0015~0.0023 (1/m),而深淺基礎使用整體振動量之衰減係數範圍為0.0006~0.0021 (1/m)。
根據基準位置振動量及振波傳遞之探討,本研究建議一套初步推估遠距離振動量之簡易評估模組,可藉由已知之車速、土層種類、基礎型式及橋樑體積等資料推估離高鐵路線不同距離之振動量。本簡易評估模組並與實際量測之振動量比較,其誤差在合理範圍。
ABSTRACT

This research evaluates the influence parameters of ground vibration induced by high-speed trains on bridge structures. These parameters consist of train speed, volume of bridge structure, soil condition, foundation type, frequency, and wave propagation. A wide variety of ground vibration measurement data were established for analysis, and these are divided into shallow foundation in gravel, shallow foundation in rock, deep foundation in alluvium, deep foundation in rock, and deep foundation in gravel based on the characteristics of bridge structures and soil conditions along Taiwan high-speed rail.

For the evaluation of ground vibration at near-field (25 m), it is found that the influence of train speed, soil condition, and foundation type are obvious with the difference of vibration level around 7~9 dB. However, the effect of bridge structure to the vibration is somehow not so obvious and it is about 6 dB. Meanwhile, the dominant vibration frequencies concentrate on 10~63 Hz for hard ground, while they are 3.15~10 Hz for soft ground.

For wave propagation (about 200 m), the statistics show that the attenuation coefficients in shallow foundations generally are greater than those in deep foundations. The ranges of attenuation coefficients are 0.0015~0.0023 (1/m) and 0.0006~0.0021 (1/m) for shallow foundation and deep foundation, respectively.

Finally, this research suggests a simple evaluation model to predict the far-field ground vibration from a given condition of train speed, volume of bridge structure, soil condition, and foundation type. The results of this suggested model were verified using field measurement data.
目錄
摘要................................................................................................................................I
Abstract.........................................................................................................................II
致謝.............................................................................................................................III
目錄.............................................................................................................................IV
圖目錄........................................................................................................................VII
表目錄.........................................................................................................................XI
第一章 緒論.................................................................................................................1
1.1 前言…................................................................................................................1
1.2 研究動機與目的................................................................................................2
1.3 研究方法與內容................................................................................................2
第二章 文獻回顧.........................................................................................................5
2.1 波傳原理............................................................................................................5
2.2 振動衰減模式....................................................................................................8
2.3 振動相關研究文獻回顧..................................................................................12
第三章 現地量測與分析...........................................................................................21
3.1 相關資料之蒐集..............................................................................................21
3.2 現地量測..........................................................................................................23
3.2.1 儀器介紹...................................................................................................23
3.2.2 儀器架設及量測準備工作.......................................................................24
3.3 量測資料之分析..............................................................................................29
3.3.1 列車速度之計算.......................................................................................29
3.3.2 地盤振動資料分析...................................................................................30
3.3.3 基準位置影響因子之評估.......................................................................34
3.3.4 振波傳遞之探討.......................................................................................36
第四章 量測現地之基本特性...................................................................................39
第五章 基準位置振動量之影響評估.......................................................................57
5.1 各測點之基準位置振動量..............................................................................59
5.2 車速對於振動量之影響..................................................................................69
5.3 橋樑體積對於振動量之影響..........................................................................73
5.4 土層種類及基礎型式對於振動量之影響......................................................79
5.5 各現地控制頻率之探討..................................................................................83
第六章 振波傳遞之影響評估...................................................................................95
6.1 現地衰減係數之評估......................................................................................96
6.2 振波傳遞之影響因子....................................................................................101
6.2.1 土層種類及基礎型式對於振動衰減之影響.........................................101
6.2.2 頻率對於振動衰減之影響.....................................................................107
6.3 振動影響距離之推算....................................................................................112
第七章 初步地盤振動之簡易評估模組.................................................................117
第八章 結論與建議.................................................................................................127
8.1 結論................................................................................................................127
8.1.1 車速對於基準位置振動量之影響.........................................................127
8.1.2 橋樑體積對於振動量之影響.................................................................127
8.1.3 土層種類及基礎型式對於振動量之影響.............................................128
8.1.4 各現地控制頻率之探討.........................................................................129
8.1.5 振波傳遞之影響評估.............................................................................129
8.2 建議................................................................................................................131
參考文獻...................................................................................................................132
附錄A........................................................................................................................137
附錄B........................................................................................................................211
附錄C........................................................................................................................285


圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程圖.......................................................................................................3
圖2-1 壓力波運動示意圖 (Bolt, 1978)......................................................................5
圖2-2 剪力波運動示意圖 (Bolt, 1978)......................................................................5
圖2-3 雷利波運動示意圖 (Bolt, 1978)......................................................................7
圖2-4 拉夫波運動示意圖 (Bolt, 1978)......................................................................7
圖2-5振波傳遞示意圖 (Gutowski and Dym, 1976)...................................................9
圖2-6 圓形振動基腳於均質、均向、半無限空間之波形位移分佈圖 (Woods, 1968)...............................................................................................................10
圖2-7 打擊樁振動產生之型式 (Massarsch, 2004)..................................................13
圖2-8 振動量於各頻率統計圖 (Massarsch, 2004)..................................................13
圖2-9 典型列車振動造成之影響 (FRA, 1998).......................................................14
圖2-10 不同列車之衰減情形 (FRA, 1998).............................................................16
圖2-11 一般振動標準曲線圖 (Gordon, 1991).........................................................16
圖2-12 低頻振動量的預測流程 (Jones and Block, 1995)......................................17
圖2-13 列車、軌道、地盤的互制模組 (Shen et al., 2003)........................................18
圖2-14 基礎型式對於振動量之影響 (Chen et al., 2008).......................................20
圖3-1 懸盪式波速井測資料擷取系統.....................................................................21
圖3-2 振動監測設備.................................................................................................23
圖3-3 加速規基座.....................................................................................................25
圖3-4 加速規、傳輸線、積分器及電源.....................................................................25
圖3-5 儀器組裝完成圖.............................................................................................26
圖3-6 DV架設圖........................................................................................................26
圖3-7頻率設定、電壓範圍及儲存時間.....................................................................27
圖3-8 蒐集X、Y、Z方向的瞬時振動量....................................................................27
圖3-9 快速傅利葉頻譜計算車速.............................................................................30
圖3-10 速度歷時圖...................................................................................................30
圖3-11 振動速度(dB)與1/3倍頻之關係..................................................................34
圖3-12 研究流程之簡易示意圖...............................................................................34
圖3-13 同一現地不同班次之頻譜圖.......................................................................36
圖3-14 Bornitz線振源衰減圖....................................................................................37
圖4-1 儀器擺設示意圖.............................................................................................41
圖4-2 Site A土層剖面圖............................................................................................42
圖4-3 Site B土層剖面圖............................................................................................43
圖4-4 Site C土層剖面圖............................................................................................44
圖4-5 Site D土層剖面圖............................................................................................45
圖4-6 Site E土層剖面圖............................................................................................46
圖4-7 Site F之儀器擺設及特殊橋墩型式示意圖....................................................46
圖4-8 Site F土層剖面圖............................................................................................47
圖4-9 Site G土層剖面圖............................................................................................48
圖4-10 Site H土層剖面圖..........................................................................................50
圖4-11 Site I土層剖面圖...........................................................................................51
圖4-12 Site J土層剖面圖...........................................................................................52
圖4-13 Site K土層剖面圖..........................................................................................53
圖4-14 Site L土層剖面圖..........................................................................................54
圖4-15 Site M土層剖面圖.........................................................................................55
圖4-16 Site N土層剖面圖..........................................................................................56
圖5-1 VLoa及VLmax之關係圖....................................................................................58
圖5-2 淺基礎在卵礫石層(SG)之車速關係圖..........................................................70
圖5-3 深基礎在軟弱沖積土層(DA)之車速關係圖.................................................71
圖5-4 深基礎在岩盤(DR)之車速關係圖.................................................................72
圖5-5 淺基礎在卵礫石層(SG)現地所有資料..........................................................73
圖5-6 淺基礎在卵礫石層(SG)車速300 km/h之平均值.........................................74
圖5-7 深基礎在軟弱沖積土層(DA)現地所有資料.................................................75
圖5-8 深基礎在軟弱沖積土層(DA)車速300 km/h之平均值.................................75
圖5-9 深基礎在岩盤(DR)現地所有資料.................................................................76
圖5-10 深基礎在岩盤(DR)車速300 km/h之平均值...............................................77
圖5-11 各種土層及基礎型式引致振動量...............................................................82
圖5-12 淺基礎在卵礫石層(SG)各測點之頻譜圖....................................................83
圖5-13 深基礎在軟弱沖積土層(DA)各測點之頻譜圖...........................................84
圖5-14 深基礎在岩盤(DR)各測點之頻譜圖...........................................................84
圖5-15 淺基礎在岩盤(SR)各測點之頻譜圖............................................................85
圖5-16 深基礎在卵礫石層(DG)各測點之頻譜圖...................................................85
圖5-17各種分類引致振動量於不同頻帶之關係圖.................................................94
圖6-1 VLoa之衰減係數與剪力波速之關係............................................................102
圖6-2 VLlow之衰減係數與剪力波速之關係...........................................................102
圖6-3 VLmiddle之衰減係數與剪力波速之關係........................................................104
圖6-4 VLhigh之衰減係數與剪力波速之關係..........................................................104
圖6-5 淺基礎各個頻率之衰減係數.......................................................................109
圖6-6 深基礎各個頻率之衰減係數.......................................................................110
圖6-7淺基礎與深基礎各個頻率之衰減係數.........................................................111
圖6-8 SG分類之衰減圖...........................................................................................113
圖6-9 SR分類之衰減圖...........................................................................................114
圖6-10 DA分類之衰減圖........................................................................................114
圖6-11 DR分類之衰減圖........................................................................................115
圖6-12 DG分類之衰減圖........................................................................................115
圖7-1 簡易評估流程圖...........................................................................................117





表目錄
表2-1 波傳遞至不同介質產生之變化 (Richart et al., 1970)....................................6
表2-2 三種彈性波傳遞時能量所佔之比例 (Miller and Pursey, 1954)....................7
表2-3 不同振源型式之整理 (Gutowski and Dym, 1976).........................................9
表2-4 不同土壤種類之α值 (Theissen and Wood, 1982)........................................11
表2-5 振動量之影響因子 (FRA, 1998)...................................................................15
表3-1 量測紀錄表.....................................................................................................28
表3-2 1/3八音階頻帶 (ANSI, 1993).........................................................................32
表4-1 測點整理.........................................................................................................39
表4-2 分析振波傳遞之測點.....................................................................................40
表5-1 橋樑設計淺基礎在卵礫石層(SG)..................................................................60
表5-2 橋樑設計深基礎在軟弱沖積土層(DA).........................................................61
表5-3 橋樑設計深基礎在岩盤(DR).........................................................................62
表5-4 橋樑設計淺基礎在岩盤(SR)..........................................................................63
表5-5 橋樑設計深基礎在卵礫石層(DG).................................................................63
表5-6 淺基礎在卵礫石層(SG)之車速區間..............................................................65
表5-7 深基礎在軟弱沖積土層(DA)之車速區間.....................................................66
表5-8 深基礎在岩盤(DR)之車速區間.....................................................................67
表5-9 淺基礎在岩盤(SR)之車速區間......................................................................68
表5-10 深基礎在卵礫石層(DG)之車速區間...........................................................68
表5-11 各分類於車速300 km/h之振動量統計.......................................................80
表5-12 各分類於所有車速之振動量統計...............................................................81
表5-13 淺基礎在硬地盤控制頻率之分佈...............................................................87
表5-14深基礎在軟弱沖積層(DA)控制頻率之分佈................................................89
表5-15深基礎在硬地盤控制頻率之分佈.................................................................91
表5-16 控制頻率在各種分類狀況下低、中、高頻之分佈情形............................93
表6-1 Site A (SG)各班列車之衰減係數....................................................................96
表6-2 Site E (SR)各班列車之衰減係數....................................................................97
表6-3 Site H (DA)各班列車之衰減係數...................................................................97
表6-4 Site J (DR)各班列車之衰減係數....................................................................98
表6-5 Site N (DG)各班列車之衰減係數...................................................................98
表6-6 各個現地不同距離之振動量值(單位,dB)..................................................106
表6-7 各頻率Z方向之衰減係數............................................................................108
表6-8 各個分類之主要振動影響距離...................................................................113
表7-1 基準位置VLoa之簡易評估模組..................................................................119
表7-2 基準位置VLlow之簡易評估模組.................................................................120
表7-3 基準位置VLmiddle之簡易評估模組..............................................................121
表7-4 基準位置VLhigh之簡易評估模組.................................................................122
表7-5 各個分類之衰減係數及主要振動影響距離...............................................124
表7-6 實際及推估振動量於200 m之誤差............................................................126
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