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研究生:陳如瑩
研究生(外文):Ju-Ying Chen
論文名稱:「早發型」與「晚發型」非行少年的心智理論能力與社會適應之相關探討
論文名稱(外文):The relationship between the theory of mind ability and social adjustment in early-onset and late-onset delinquency
指導教授:洪福建洪福建引用關係
指導教授(外文):Fu-Chien Hung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:非行少年心智理論能力社會適應
外文關鍵詞:social adjustmenttheory of minddelinquency
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研究背景與目的 由於近十幾年來的青少年犯罪已顯示多元化、集體化、病態享樂化、暴力化等趨勢,致使引起部分學者利用發展觀點以歸納出兩種於犯罪成因、歷程等截然不同類型的犯罪青少年,分別是「早發型」以及「晚發型」非行少年,而長期存在於這群非行少年的偏差行為以及社會適應不良等問題是否與心智理論能力缺陷有關,進而影響他們的社會適應狀況。研究者回顧國內外眾多相關文獻,發現非行少年與心智理論能力之間的關聯仍無一定論述,因此研究者欲使用初級、次級與進階版心智理論作業逐一檢視兩組非行少年的心智理論能力,並從他們的心智理論作業表現推測此能力是否能夠預測整體社會適應。
研究方法 收案來源為北部某所矯正學校,研究對象主要是違反少年事件處理法且年紀介於十六歲以上、未滿十八歲且就讀高中之男性非行少年,利用偏差與犯罪行為量表篩選出16位早發型非行少年、18位晚發型非行少年,同時在控制智力之下,施以三項錯誤信念作業以檢驗非行少年的心智理論能力,爾後利用攻擊行為評估量表、人際互動模式量表,推估心智理論作業表現與社會適應兩者間的關連程度。
研究結果 研究結果指出早發型、晚發型非行少年的心智理論能力相當,於初級、次級錯誤信念作業以及Strange stories進階版心智理論作業等表現皆無差異,顯示早發型、晚發型非行少年都具備推估他人想法、情緒等能力;而早發型、晚發型非行少年的心智理論能力與社會適應狀況之間的關連性低,對於心智理論作業對社會適應之預測力,當中只有Strange stories對非行少年之攻擊行為的解釋力達顯著,初級錯誤信念作業對於人際互動之解釋力較低。
結論 研究初步證實早發組與晚發組非行少年的心智理論能力發展無異,但其發展品質是否屬於邪惡(nasty mind)、亦或工於心計的,仍需進ㄧ步驗證。
關鍵字 非行少年、心智理論能力、社會適應。
Background and purpose During last decades, juvenile delinquency has become diversified, collective, violent, morbid, and hedonic. The issue has draw extensive attention from scholars, based on a development perspective, concluded two different types of juvenile delinquency: early and late starters. These two types are distinguished because of their contributing factors and courses. On the basis of available research, the researcher found that the relationship between juvenile delinquency and theory of mind is not clear yet. The researcher would like to know if juvenile delinquents’ misbehaviors and social maladjustment are related to an underlying deficiency of theory of mind which may also affect their social adjustment. The researcher conducted theory of mind tasks to examine the relationship between theory of mind and social adjustment from two groups of juvenile delinquents.
Method The data was collected from Young Offenders Institute. There are 34 male delinquents, above 16 and under 18, participated in this research. 16 early starters and 18 late starters were selected by Abnormal and Delinquency Behavior Questionnaire. Controlling the IQ, the researcher used three false belief tasks to examine teenager delinquents’ theory of mind. After this, the researcher conducted Aggressive Scale and Interpersonal Interaction Model Scale in order to infer the correlation between theory of mind’s performance and social adjustment.
Results The result indicated that there was no significant difference between early and late starters in three theory of mind tasks. This showed that the theory of mind from early and late starters were fairly the same. Both early and late starters had abilities to conjecture others thoughts and emotions. However, the correlation between the theory of mind and social adjustment was poor. The only significant result was found among the Strange Stories and teenager delinquents’ attacking behaviors
Discussion The finding suggested that abilities of theory of mind of early starters and late starters were similar. Nevertheless, more researches are needed to decide if developmental qualities belong to nasty mind.
目錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
致謝辭 IV
目錄 V
圖表目錄 VII
第一章緒論 1
第一節 非行少年的定義與類別 1
一、非行少年之法律界定 1
二、非行少年之心理界定 2
三、非行少年之臨床分類 4
四、驗證LCP型犯罪者與AL型犯罪者之實徵研究 11
五、本研究的分類準則 12
第二節 心智理論之探討 16
ㄧ、心智理論的重要性 16
二、心智理論能力與社會適應 17
三、心智理論作業之探討 18
第三節 非行少年於心智理論作業之相關研究 23
一、決裂性行為疾患 23
二、霸凌 24
三、心理病態 25
第四節 研究目的、架構與假設 31
一、研究目的 31
二、研究架構 32
三、研究假設 32
第二章研究方法 34
第一節 研究對象 34
第二節 偏差與犯罪行為量表的信度 35
ㄧ、內部ㄧ致性 35
二、篩選條件 35
第三節 研究工具 37
ㄧ、偏差與犯罪行為量表 37
二、智能篩選工具 37
三、攻擊行為評估量表 37
四、人際互動模式量表 38
五、心智理論作業 38
第四節 研究程序 42
ㄧ、第一階段 42
二、第二階段 42
第三章研究結果 43
第一節 第一階段資料分析 43
ㄧ、攻擊行為評估量表之分析 43
二、人際互動模式量表之分析 44
第二節 早發型與晚發型非行少年之比較 45
ㄧ、智力水準 45
二、初級與次級錯誤信念作業 46
三、Strange stories 48
第三節 早發型與晚發型非行少年之心智理論能力與社會適應 50
ㄧ、社會適應狀況 50
二、心智理論作業表現與社會適應狀況之相關探討 53
三、心智理論能力對社會適應狀況之預測 54
第四章討論 57
第一節 研究結果之摘要 57
ㄧ、早發組與晚發組非行少年之心智理論能力 57
二、早發組與晚發組非行少年於心智理論作業表現與社會適應狀況 58
第二節 早發組與晚發組非行少年之分類準則 59
第三節 非行少年的心智理論能力與社會適應之相關探討 60
ㄧ、早發組與晚發組非行少年的心智理論能力 60
二、非行少年的心智理論能力與社會適應之關連程度 71
第四節 研究限制 73
一、樣本來源 73
二、研究工具 73
三、施測時序 73
第五節 未來研究方向 74
參考文獻 75
附錄一 基本資料問卷 89
附錄二 偏差與犯罪行為量表 90
附錄三 攻擊行為評估量表 91
附錄四 人際互動模式量表 93
附錄五 初級錯誤信念作業 94
附錄六 次級錯誤信念作業 95
附錄七 Strange stories 96
附錄八 心智理論作業答案紙 100
附錄九 研究參與同意書 102
附錄十 攻擊行為評估量表之使用同意書 103
附錄十一 人際互動模式量表之使用同意書 104

圖表目錄
圖1-1 研究架構 32
表1-1 LCP型犯罪者與AL型犯罪者之比較 10
表1-2 驗證Moffitt分類理論之相關研究 13
表1-3 Sally-and-Anne測驗(初級錯誤信念作業) 19
表1-4 Ice-cream Van測驗(次級錯誤信念作業) 20
表1-5 假裝故事(引自Strange Stories之ㄧ) 21
表1-6 失禮作業(Faux Pas Stories)23
表1-7 非行少年於心智理論作業之相關研究 27
表2-1 非行少年之基本相關資料 35
表2-2 偏差與犯罪行為量表之基本分析 35
表2-3 早發組、晚發組於偏差與犯罪行為量表之分析 36
表2-4 早發組、晚發組之基本相關資料 36
表3-1 攻擊行為評估量表之信度 43
表3-2 攻擊行為評估量表之分析表 44
表3-3 兩分量表之t檢定 44
表3-4 人際互動模式量表之信度 44
表3-5 人際互動模式量表之分析表 44
表3-6 兩分量表之t檢定 45
表3-7 早發組與晚發組於智力水準上的比較 45
表3-8 早發組與晚發組於初級及次級錯誤信念作業之通過率比較 47
表3-9 早發組與晚發組於初級及次級錯誤信念作業的測驗總分比較 47
表3-10 早發組與晚發組之總智商與初級錯誤信念作業、次級錯誤信念作業相關 47
表3-11 早發組與晚發組在心理/物理故事總分的差異 48
表3-12 早發組與晚發組在心理/物理狀態推論總數之比較 49
表3-13 早發組與晚發組在各故事類型的平均得分與正確、部分正確及不正確的心理/物理狀態推論比率 49
表3-14 人際互動模式量表之分析表 50
表3-15 攻擊行為評估量表之分析表 52
表3-16 攻擊行為評估量表總分與心智理論能力間之相關表 53
表3-17 人際行為模式量表總分與心智理論能力間之相關表 53
表3-18 心智理論能力對攻擊行為評估量表之迴歸分析表 55
表3-19 心智理論能力對人際互動模式量表之迴歸分析表 56
表4-1 早發組、晚發組、精神分裂症組以及控制組之描述統計分析表 62
表4-2 各組在初級、次級錯誤信念作業之表現 62
表4-3 早發組、晚發組、亞斯柏格症組以及控制組之描述統計分析表 63
表4-4 早發組、晚發組以及一般組於Strange stories通過率之比較 64
表4-5 早發組與晚發組在初級及次級錯誤信念作業之通過率比較 65
表4-6 早發組與晚發組在各故事類型的平均得分之比較 66
表4-7 早發組與晚發組在各故事類型的正確與不正確之比較 66
表4-8 早發組與晚發組在各故事類型中使用心理狀態及物理狀態之百分比 67
表4-9 Strange stories與攻擊行為評估量表之相關表~全體 68
表4-10 Strange stories與攻擊行為評估量表之相關表~早發組 69
表4-11 Strange stories與攻擊行為評估量表之相關表~晚發組 70
表4-12 Strange stories之迴歸模式的整體檢定結果分析表 71
表4-13 Strange stories對攻擊行為評估量表之迴歸分析表 71
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