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研究生:鍾志和
研究生(外文):Zhi-He Zhong
論文名稱:運用二值影像奇偶性及RSA公鑰密碼系統之嵌入式雙重數位浮水印研究
論文名稱(外文):Embedding Dual Digital Watermarks Using Odd-Even Property of Binary Images and RSA Public-Key Cryptosystem
指導教授:張元翔張元翔引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yuan-Hsiang Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:資訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:RSA公鑰密碼系統智慧財產權影像處理數位浮水印
外文關鍵詞:intellectual property rightsimage processingdigital watermarksRSA public-key cryptosystem
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現今,透過網際網路可方便、快速地得到數位多媒體資訊,智慧財產權已成為重要議題。本篇論文中,我們提出了「運用二值影像奇偶性及RSA公鑰密碼系統之嵌入式雙重數位浮水印」的方法,在我們的研究方法中分為兩個系統:嵌入、擷取,並且提出了奇偶性三明治法用於嵌入或擷取雙重數位浮水印;此外,運用RSA公鑰密碼系統加強其安全性。經由研究結果,我們的系統改進Yang & Niu方法,可嵌入更多的資訊且對於雜訊、裁切攻擊有相當程度的強韌性(Normalized Correlation > 0.9)。我們系統可提供合法擁有者或使用者利用兩組不同密碼將所對應的數位浮水印擷取出來,將有利於資訊的管理與保護。
While digital multimedia can be obtained conveniently from the Internet, protection of intellectual property rights has become an issue. In this paper, we present a “dual digital watermark embedding/extracting system using odd-even property of binary images and RSA public-key cryptosystem”. Our research method can be divided into two phases: embedding and extracting. We propose an odd-even sandwich method as the core technique to embed or extract dual digital watermarks. In addition, the RSA public-key cryptosystem is used to enhance the security. Results show that our proposed system improves the Yang & Niu method by increasing the payload for digital watermarks and is reasonably robust to noise and image cutting attacks (Normalized correlation > 0.9). In conclusion, our system offers an advanced option to the legitimate owner or user who may choose different keys to verify if the corresponding digital watermark is correct, leading to relatively effective data management and protection.
目錄
摘要 Ⅰ
Abstract Ⅱ
誌謝 Ⅲ
目錄 Ⅳ
圖索引 Ⅶ
表索引 Ⅹ
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 3
1.3 相關研究 5
1.4 論文架構 10
第二章 理論基礎 11
2.1 RGB色彩模型 11
2.2 色彩影像轉換成灰階影像 12
2.3 灰階影像轉換成二值影像 13
2.4 二值影像之奇偶性 16
2.5 RSA公鑰密碼系統 17
2.6 數位邏輯運算 20
2.7 形態學影像處理 21
2.8 峰值信號雜訊比 22
2.9 Normalized Correlation 23
第三章 研究方法 24
3.1 嵌入雙重數位浮水印步驟 30
3.1.1 前處理 30
3.1.2 雙重數位浮水印加密 31
3.1.3 奇偶性三明治法之嵌入 34
3.2 擷取雙重數位浮水印步驟 47
3.2.1 奇偶性三明治法之擷取 47
3.2.2 RSA公鑰密碼系統加密 47
3.2.3 雙重數位浮水印擷取 48
第四章 研究結果 51
4.1 研究設備 51
4.2 嵌入量分析 54
4.3 影像處理與幾何攻擊 57
4.3.1 雜訊攻擊 57
4.3.2 裁切攻擊 61
第五章 結論 71
參考文獻 73


圖索引
圖1-1 可視數位浮水印範例 .............................................................................. 6
圖2-1 RGB 色彩模型示意圖 ........................................................................... 11
圖2-2 灰階影像分佈統計圖 ............................................................................ 13
圖2-3 奇、偶影像示意圖 ................................................................................ 16
圖2-4 RSA 公鑰密碼系統之加解密過程示意圖 ............................................ 19
圖2-5 結構元素b ............................................................................................. 21
圖3-1 「運用二值影像奇偶性及RSA 公鑰密碼系統之嵌入式雙重數位浮水
印」嵌入方塊圖 ................................................................................................ 26
圖3-2 (a)前處理方塊圖;(b)數位浮水印1/2 之加密方塊圖;(c)奇偶性三明
治法嵌入雙重數位浮水印方塊圖。 ................................................................ 27
圖3-3 「運用二值影像奇偶性及RSA 公鑰密碼系統之嵌入式雙重數位浮水
印」擷取方塊圖 ................................................................................................ 28
圖3-4 原始影像範例 ........................................................................................ 29
圖3-5 二值“標誌”影像 ................................................................................ 30
圖3-6 加密鑰匙之建構示意圖 ........................................................................ 32
圖3-7 加密鑰匙之範例 .................................................................................... 33
圖3-8 二值影像中可嵌入像素點 .................................................................... 37
圖3-9 二值影像中偶影像可嵌入像素點 ........................................................ 38
圖3-10 膨脹後之奇、偶影像 .......................................................................... 39
圖3-11 膨脹後之奇、偶影像可嵌入像素點影像 .......................................... 41
圖3-12 奇、偶影像可嵌入總像素點影像 ...................................................... 42
圖3-13 影像搜尋之分解圖 .............................................................................. 43
圖3-14 數位浮水印嵌入圖 .............................................................................. 44
圖3-15 參考影像示意圖 .................................................................................. 46
圖3-16 參考影像範例 ...................................................................................... 46
圖3-17 “標誌”影像之擷取雙重數位浮水印影像 ...................................... 49
圖3-18 “中文名字”影像之擷取雙重數位浮水印影像 .............................. 50
圖4-1 原始測試影像範例 ................................................................................ 53
圖4-2 數位浮水印影像範例 ............................................................................ 53
圖4-3 可嵌入像素影像之比較圖 .................................................................... 55
圖4-4 擷取“中文”影像之雙重數位浮水印 ................................................ 57
圖4-5 擷取“英文”影像之雙重數位浮水印 ................................................ 58
圖4-6 擷取“Logo”影像之雙重數位浮水印 ............................................... 58
圖4-7 擷取“中國詩”影像之雙重數位浮水印 ............................................ 59
圖4-8 擷取“中文”影像之雙重數位浮水印 ................................................ 61
圖4-9 擷取“英文”影像之雙重數位浮水印 ................................................ 62
圖4-10 擷取“Logo”影像之雙重數位浮水印 ............................................. 62
圖4-11 擷取“中國詩”影像之雙重數位浮水印 .......................................... 63
圖4-12 擷取“中文”影像之雙重數位浮水印 .............................................. 65
圖4-13 擷取“英文”影像之雙重數位浮水印 .............................................. 65
圖4-14 擷取“Logo”影像之雙重數位浮水印 ............................................. 66
圖4-15 擷取“中國詩”影像之雙重數位浮水印 .......................................... 66
圖4-16 擷取“中文”影像之雙重數位浮水印 .............................................. 68
圖4-17 擷取“英文”影像之雙重數位浮水印 .............................................. 68
圖4-18 擷取“Logo”影像之雙重數位浮水印 ............................................. 69
圖4-19 擷取“中國詩”影像之雙重數位浮水印 .......................................... 69



表索引
表1-1 數位浮水印分類表 .................................................................................. 5
表2-1 Exclusive OR (XOR) 真值表 ................................................................. 20
表4-1 系統之設備環境表 ................................................................................ 52
表4-2 測試影像之最大可嵌入量結果 ............................................................ 56
表4-3 雜訊攻擊評估結果 ................................................................................ 60
表4-4 1/9 裁切攻擊評估結果 ........................................................................... 64
表4-5 1/9 隨機裁切攻擊評估結果 ................................................................... 67
表4-6 1/4 裁切攻擊評估結果 ........................................................................... 70
參考文獻
[1] I.J. Cox, J. Kilian, F.T. Leighton, and T. Shamoon, “Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 1673-1687, Dec., 1997.
[2] Y.X. Yang and X.X. Niu, Theory and Applications of Digital Watermarking, chapter 2, Higher Education Press, Beijing, 2006.
[3] S.J. Lee and S.H. Jung, “A Survey of Watermarking Techniques Applied to
Multimedia,” Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Industrial
Electronics, Vol. 1, pp. 272-277, 2001.
[4] S. Wu, J. Huang, D. Huang, and Y.Q. Shi, “Efficiently Self-Synchronized
Audio Watermarking for Assured Audio Data Transmission,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 69-76, 2005.
[5] B.S. Ko, R. Nishimura, and Y. Suzuki, “Time-Spread Echo Method for Digital Audio Watermarking,” IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 212-221 April 2005.
[6] K. Su, D. Kundur, and D. Hatzinakos, “Statistical Invisibility for
Collusion-Resistant Digital Video Watermarking,” IEEE Trans on Multimedia, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 43-51, February 2005.
[7] R.G. van Schyndel, A. Z. Trikel, and C. F. Osborne, “A Digital Watermark,”
in Proc. of the First IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Vol. 2, pp. 86-90, Nov. 1994.
[8] D.C. Wu and W.H. Tsai, “Spatial-Domain Image Hiding Using Image Differencing,” IEE Proc. Vision Image Signal Process. Vol. 147, No. 1, pp.
29-37, Feb. 2000.
[9] J. Fridrich and M. Goljan, “Robust Hash Functions for Digital
Watermarking,” IEEE Proc. International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing, Vol., No., pp. 178-183, March 2000.
[10] P. Bas, N. Le Bihan, and J.M. Chassery, “Color Image Watermarking
Using Quaternion Fourier Transform,” in Proc. of ICASSP, Hong Kong, China, 2003.
[11] V. Solachidis and L. Pitas, “Circularly Symmetric Watermark Embedding
in 2-D DFT Domain,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 10, No. 10, pp. 1741-1753, Nov. 2001.
[12] J.R. Hernandez, M. Amado, and F. Perez-Gonzalez, “DCT-Domain Watermarking Techniques for Still Image: Detector Performance Analysis and a New Structure,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 55-68. Jan. 2000.
[13] A. Sverdlov, S. Dexter, and A.M. Eskicioglu, “Robust DCT-SVD Domain
Image Watermarking for Copyright Protection: Embedding Data in All Frequencies,” Multimedia Computing and Networking 200 Conference, San Jose, CA, January 16-20, 2005.
[14] P. Bao, and Ma Xiaohu. “Image Adaptive Watermarking Using Wavelet Domain Singular Value Decomposition,” IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 96-102. Jan. 2005.
[15] M. Barni, F. Bartolini, and A. Piva, “Improved Wavelet-Based Watermarking Through Pixel-Wise Masking,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 783-791, May 2001.
[16] R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing. 3rd Edition.
Prentice Hall, New York, 2007.
[17] N. Otsu, “A Thresholding Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,”
IEEE Trans. on System Man Cybernetics, Vol. 9, pp.62-69, 1979.
[18] R. Rivest, A. Shamir and L. Adleman, “A Method for Obtaining Digital
Signatures and Public─Key Cryptosystems,” Communications of the AMC, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 120-126, February 1978.
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