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研究生:呂偉伯
研究生(外文):Wei-Po Lu
論文名稱:以綠色法規為基礎模擬替代料最適組合
論文名稱(外文):Green regulation-based simulation for the optimal composition of substitute parts
指導教授:戚玉樑戚玉樑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Liang Chi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:資訊管理研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:本體論綠色產品設計綠危害物質限用指令廢電機/電子設備指令
外文關鍵詞:WEEERoHSOntologyGreen design
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環保法規,如危害物質限制使用指令(RoHS)、廢電機/電子設備指令(WEEE)及能源使用產品生態化設計指令(Eup)等,為企業在製造產品時所需遵循的法規。由於產品是由許多零組件組合而成,且個別零組件有各種不同的替代料;因此,企業在追求最大利潤及符合環保法令要求下,模擬產品替代料可能的組合將是產品研發單位重要的課題。再者,考量任一次新的替代料並非單純的功能性或成本而已,而是必須針對所有可能的限制進行全面性的評估。知識庫系統可在滿足限制條件的前提下,找到最適合的元素;因此,本研究提出以符合使用者訂定的限制條件之產品替代料組合模擬系統,限制條件可以是綠色法規或成本等,並以RoHS指令及WEEE指令進行實作。基於本體論易於知識的分享及再利用的優點,本研究採用知識本體為核心進行知識的推論。首先依RoHS指令、WEEE指令及產品結構進行知識本體的塑模,再透過語意規則找出可行之產品零組件替代料,最後經由Java server page、Jena API及Protégé-OWL API等技術的結合將推論結果以網頁的方式呈現。結果顯示,本研究之設計可正確找到可行替代料;結合網頁技術將本體知識庫內容彙整及呈現,使得後續知識維護更為便利;由於本研究是以OWL及SWRL等本體技術為基礎,因此,也使得知識更易於分享及再利用。
Environmental regulations, such as RoHS, WEEE and Eup, are practices that manufacturers need to comply with. Since products are assembled by various parts and each individual part has various substitute materials; therefore when companies try to achieve optimal profits as well as comply all the environmental regulations, simulating all the possible combination of the substitute materials for the product becomes an important task for R/D department. Furthermore, when evaluating a new substitute material, we can not only simply consider its functionality or costs; we need to fully consider and evaluate all the possible constraints. The knowledge-based systems can help us find the most suitable elements under the circumstance that constraints are satisfied; therefore, this research proposes a simulating system for combinations of product substitute materials that complies the constraint rules set by the users which could be green regulations or product costs, and follow RoHS and WEEE orders. Since ontology has advantages in knowledge sharing and reusability, this research uses ontology as the core to conduct knowledge inference. First, the ontologies are modeled based on RoHS and WEEE orders, as well as product structures. Second, we try to find possible product parts substitution by SWRL. Lastly, we present the inference results as web pages by using Java server page, Jena API and Protégé-OWL API techniques. Experimental lessons show that the design of this research could correctly identify possible substitute materials; combining web page techniques we can reorganize and present the ontological knowledge, which make the maintenance of the database in the future a lot easier. The knowledge is easy to share and reuse, since this research is based on ontology techniques such as OWL and SWRL.
摘 要 I
英文摘要 II
致 謝 III
目 錄 IV
圖 目 錄 VI
表 目 錄 VIII
第 一 章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究問題 2
1.3 研究目的 3
1.4 研究範圍 4
第 二 章 文獻探討 6
2.1 綠色環保法規與產品製造 6
2.2 材料選用知識庫系統 12
2.3 以本體論為基礎之知識庫系統 14
2.4 知識本體建構方法 17
2.5 語意規則於知識本體之應用 19
第 三 章 研究設計 21
3.1. 研究設計程序及架構 21
3.2. 綠色零組件組合模擬之領域界定及資料蒐集 23
3.3. 綠色零組件知識模型建構 25
3.4. 基於環保法規限制之語意規則設計 27
3.5. 綠色零組件知識呈現 30
第 四 章 系統實作 34
4.1. 綠色零組件知識本體實作 34
4.2. 基於環保法規限制之語意規則開發 39
4.3. 綠色零組件知識庫的應用 44
4.3.1. OWL知識庫存取控制 45
4.3.2. 綠色零組件組合模擬 51
4.4. 系統展示 53
4.5. 系統評估 59
第 五 章 研究結論與未來建議 60
5.1. 研究結論 60
5.2. 未來建議 60
參考文獻 62


圖 目 錄
圖2-1 配合「危害物質限用指令」之管理架構.................................................................. 10
圖2-2 因應RoHS 替代料之作業技術.................................................................................. 11
圖2-2 材料選用在產品開發過程的重要性.......................................................................... 13
圖2-3 知識庫系統建構程序.................................................................................................. 13
圖2-4 The different components of knowledge models . ........................................................ 16
圖2-5 TOVE 本體工程........................................................................................................... 18
圖3-1 本體知識庫系統設計程序........................................................................................... 22
圖3-3 問題領域界定概念...................................................................................................... 24
圖3-4 知識本體建置程序...................................................................................................... 25
圖3-5 以綠色法規為基礎之替代料推論模型概念............................................................... 26
圖3-6 前端介面程式運作架構.............................................................................................. 33
圖4-1 TFT-LCD 面板料成本結構(王信陽,2005)............................................................... 34
圖4-2 知識本體概念編輯...................................................................................................... 35
圖4-3 知識本體概念之屬性編輯.......................................................................................... 36
圖4-4 物件與屬性關係範例.................................................................................................. 37
圖4-5 知識本體實例編輯...................................................................................................... 39
圖4-6 SWRL Tab 主畫面........................................................................................................ 40
圖4-7 SWRL Tab 規則多行編輯器........................................................................................ 41
圖4-8 SQWRL 查詢結果畫面................................................................................................ 42
圖4-9 SWRL Tab JESS 推論操作畫面.................................................................................. 43
圖4-10 JESS 推論後之OWL 推論屬性................................................................................ 43
圖4-11 OWL 類別讀取範例................................................................................................... 45
圖4-12 OWL 實例讀取範例................................................................................................... 46
圖4-13 OWL 類別屬性讀取................................................................................................... 46
圖4-14 OWL 實例屬性值讀取............................................................................................... 47
圖4-15 OWL 實例資料編修範例........................................................................................... 48
圖4-16 OWL 實例屬性值編修範例....................................................................................... 49
圖4-17 SWRL 規則編修範例................................................................................................. 50
圖4-18 OWL 知識推論範例................................................................................................... 51
圖4-19 零組件配對組合演算................................................................................................ 52
圖4-20 登入系統載入知識庫畫面........................................................................................ 53
圖4-21 系統功能選單............................................................................................................ 54
圖4-22 零組件實例編輯畫面................................................................................................ 55
圖4-23 零組件實例新增畫面................................................................................................ 55
圖4-24 零組件實例屬性編輯畫面(DataType) ..................................................................... 55
圖4-25 零組件實例屬性編輯畫面(ObjectType) .................................................................. 56
圖4-26 規則維護畫面............................................................................................................ 57
圖4-27 規則新增畫面............................................................................................................ 57
圖4-28 組合模擬結果查詢.................................................................................................... 58
圖4-29 組合模擬結果查詢.................................................................................................... 58



表 目 錄
表2-1 歐盟及各國RoHS 法案限用物質種類及濃度(單位ppm) ......................................... 8
表2-2 歐盟及各國RoHS 法案規範產品類別........................................................................ 9
表2-3 材料選用知識庫系統的應用...................................................................................... 14
表3-1 零組件類別之限制條件.............................................................................................. 24
表3-2 概念-屬性表................................................................................................................ 24
表3-3 以綠色法規為基礎之替代料推論模型-概念屬性表................................................ 26
表3-4 SWRL Atom 分類表..................................................................................................... 27
表3-5 推論規則陳述格式...................................................................................................... 28
表3-6 綠色零組件推論規則陳述.......................................................................................... 29
表4-1 資料型態屬性表.......................................................................................................... 36
表4-2 15 吋TFT LCD 產品物料清單(BOM, Bill of materials)............................................ 38
表4-3 SQWRL 查詢範例........................................................................................................ 41
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