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研究生:劉惠婷
研究生(外文):Hui-Ting Liu
論文名稱:互聯記憶系統、團隊績效與環境變動之關聯性研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of the Relationship among Transactive Memory System,Team Performance, and Environmental Turbulence
指導教授:謝龍發謝龍發引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lung-Far Hsieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:市場變動互聯記憶系統團隊績效科技變動
外文關鍵詞:technology turbulenceteam performancemarket turbulencetransactivse memory system
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  團隊成員具有任務相關的專業與技能,共同發展新穎性的構想與豐富創造力進而滿足現有的或潛在的顧客需求。通常,他們能夠在新產品研發期間透過整合個別成員領域相關知識與技能完成競爭性的計畫。最近,在新產品研發團隊的研究的文獻中,互聯記憶系統的理論闡述新產品研發團隊成員知識整合的過程。過去本研究運用互聯記憶系統進而探討組織團隊管理機制下的績效影響。因為以往與新產品研發團隊相關的研究通常針對團隊成員互動過程的績效面來進行研究,本研究與團隊管理機制以及團隊個別成員的責任有關,責任包含成員平衡的貢獻、流程基準性報酬系統以及知識擁有權的認定。在這份研究架構中,互聯記憶系統為一中介變數聯結個人的責任(包含成員平衡的貢獻、流程基準性報酬與知識擁有權的認定)與團隊績效變數(包含效能與效率)。另外,這份研究亦探討環境因素,例如科技變動與市場變動,是否會對互聯記憶系統與團隊績效之間造成干擾作用。
  研究對象以台灣之高科技產業為主,包含北部與南部的IC、TFT-LCD、光電廠、通訊產業與其它的科學與科技研究者,發放200份問卷,121份有效回收問卷,有效問卷回收率為60.5%。結果發現:1)成員平衡的貢獻與流程基準性報酬系統對互聯記憶系統有顯著的正面影響,知識擁有權的認定卻對互聯記憶系統無顯著的影響。2) 互聯記憶系統對團隊的效能與效率皆有顯著的正面影響。3)科技變動對互聯記憶系統與團隊效率之間有正面的干擾作用,互聯記憶系統在高度的科技變動因素的干擾作用下對團隊效率有較多的正面影響;然而,科技變動對互聯記憶系統與團隊效能之間沒有顯著的干擾作用。4)市場變動因素對互聯記憶系統與團隊效率之間以及互聯記憶系統與團隊效能之間皆無顯著干擾作用。
  本研究之實務研究結果證實,那些針對管理團隊成員個人責任所用的團隊管理機制(例如成員平衡的貢獻,流程基準性報酬系統,與知識擁有權的認定)對團隊績效之提升有相當重要之影響。在學理上,由於大部份互聯記憶系統的研究專注於對團隊成員互動過程的影響,則本研究成果有助於補充現有互聯記憶系統理論與實務研究之不足。在管理實務上,這份研究提醒管理者在對專案團隊的管理上,除了努力促進團隊成員間的互動外,一些針對如何提升團隊成員達成其個別角色之責任所設計之團隊管理機制(例如成員平衡的貢獻,流程基準性報酬系統,與知識擁有權的認定)也值得採行。
Members of cross-functional teams have task-relevant specializations and skills. They are brought together to develop newfangled ideals and abundant creativities to satisfy existing and/or potential customers’ demands. Usually, they can accomplish competitive projects through integrating individual domain-relevant knowledge and skills during the process of new product development (NPD). In recent research literature of NPD teams, the theory of transactive memory system (TMS) is used to illuminate this knowledge integration process that is the key role in NPD team works. Following this research literature, this study is to use TMS to explore the performance effects of some organizational team governance mechanisms. Because previous studies relating to NPD teams were usually focused on the performance impacts of processes of team members’ interactions, this study will instead focus on those team management mechanisms that are more directly related to team members’ individual accountabilities, including balance of member contributions, process-based rewards system, and clarity of knowledge management. In this study’s research frame, TMS is treated as a mediating variable connecting variables of individual accountabilities (including balance of member contributions, process-based rewards, and clarity of knowledge ownership) and team performance variables (including effectiveness and efficiency). Moreover, we also explore whether these relationships are moderated by environmental factors such as technology turbulence and market turbulence.
This study surveyed 200 participants from the high-tech industries in Taiwan, including the industries of IC (Integrated Circuit), TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display), optoelectronic and telecommunication and other researchers of scientific and technological. We received 132 questionnaires of which 11 were deleted as ineffective questionnaires. That resulted in 121 effective questionnaires and a collecting rate of 60.5%. The results find that: 1) Both balance of member contributions and process-based rewards system have significant positive effects on TMS, while clarity of knowledge management has no significant effect on TMS. 2) TMS has significant positive effects on both team effectiveness and efficiency. 3) Regarding the technology turbulence’s moderating effects, it has a significant positive moderating effect on the relationship between TMS and team efficiency that means TMS has a more positive influence on team efficiency in higher level of technology turbulence than in lower level of technology turbulence; while it has no significant moderating effect on the relationship between TMS and team effectiveness. 4) There is no significant moderating effect of market turbulence both on the relationship between TMS and team effectiveness and the relationship between TMS and team efficiency.
The findings of this study provide empirical evidence that some team management mechanisms focusing on team members’ individual accountabilities (such as balance of member contributions, process-based rewards system, and clarity of knowledge ownership) do have a role in team performance. In theory, this result prides a complementary contribution to the research of theory of TMS that is mostly concentrating on the effects of team members’ interaction processes. In management practice, this study can inform corporate managers that, aside from fostering team members’ interaction activities, it still worthwhile to pay efforts on some team management measures relating to team members’ individual accountability.
Contents
中文摘要Ⅰ
AbstractⅡ
誌謝詞Ⅳ
Contents Ⅴ
Li st of Figures Ⅶ
List of Tables Ⅷ
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Purposes and Objective 3
Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Accountability 4
2.2 Transactive Memory System 10
2.3 Team Performance 11
2.4 Environmental Turbulence 13
2.5 Hypotheses 14
Chapter 3 Study Method
3.1 Research Framework 19
3.2 Research Design 20
3.3 Measures 20
3.4 Research Subjects 21
3.5 Data Analysis 25
Chapter 4 Results
4.1 Reliabilities 26
4.2 Validities 27
4.3 Correlation Analysis 36
4.4 Multiple Regression 37
Chapter 5 Conclusions
5.1 The relationships between accountability and TMS 44
5.2 The relationships between TMS and team performance 45
5.3 The moderating effects of technology turbulence 46
5.4 The moderating effects of technology turbulence 47
5.5 Theoretical implications 48
5.6 Managerial implications 49
5.7 Limitations and future contributions 49
References 51
Appendix A 58
Appendix B 60
Appendix C 66
Appendix D 71


List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Simplified Expectancy Model 8
Figure 2.2 Efficiency and Effectiveness Management 13
Figure 3.1 Research Framework 19
Figure 4.1 CFA for accountability 28
Figure 4.2 CFA for balance of member contributions and process-based rewards 29
Figure 4.3 CFA for transactive memory system(TMS) 31
Figure 4.4 CFA for team performance 32
Figure 4.5 CFA for environmental turbulence 34
Figure 4.6 CFA for environmental turbulence (technology adds market) 35


List of Tables
Table 2.1 Comparison of Team Success Conceptualizations 12
Table 3.1 Frequency of sex 22
Table 3.2 Frequency of age 22
Table 3.3 Frequency of educational background 23
Table 3.4 Frequency of seniority 23
Table 3.5 Frequency of project scale 23
Table 3.6 Frequency of project’s periods 24
Table 3.7 Frequency of project’s percentage of work time 24
Table 3.3 Frequency of Industry 24
Table 4.1 Cronbach’s Alpha of variables 27
Table 4.2 CFA indices for accountability of independent variable 28
Table 4.3 CFA indices for balance of member contributions and process-based rewards of
independent variable 30
Table 4.4 CFA indices for TMS 31
Table 4.5 CFA indices for team performance of dependent variable 32
Table 4.6 CFA indices for environmental turbulence of moderating variable 34
Table 4.7 CAF indices for environmental turbulence of moderating variable (technology adds
market) 35
Table 4.8 Correlation, Mean, and Standard Deviations for Eight Variables (N=121) 36
Table 4.9.1 The Result of regression (Dependent = TMS) 38
Table 4.9.2 Coefficient of determination & F (Dependent = TMS) 38
Table 4.10.1 The Result of regression (Dependent = Effectiveness) 39
Table 4.10.2 Coefficient of determination & F (Dependent = Effectiveness) 39
Table 4.11.1 The Result of regression (Dependent = Effectiveness) 40
Table 4.11.2 Coefficient of determination & F (Dependent = Effectiveness) 41
Table 4.12.1 The Result of regression (Dependent = Efficiency) 42
Table 4.12.2 Coefficient of determination & F (Dependent = Efficiency) 42
Table 4.13.1 The Result of regression (Dependent = Efficiency) 43
Table 4.13.2 Coefficient of determination & F (Dependent = Efficiency) 43
Table 5.1 The result of H1 (TMS vs. balance of member contributions) 45
Table 5.2 The result of H2 (TMS vs. process-based rewards) 45
Table 5.3 The result of H3 (TMS vs. clarity of knowledge ownership) 45
Table 5.4 The result of H4 (Effectiveness vs. TMS & Efficiency vs. TMS) 46
Table 5.5 The result of H5 (Moderator = technology) 47
Table 5.6 The result of H5 (Moderator = market) 48
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