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研究生:吳炳勳
研究生(外文):Ping-Hsun Wu
論文名稱:企業推動產品服務化之策略研究
論文名稱(外文):Strategic Research for Promoting Servicizing to Enterprise
指導教授:顧志遠顧志遠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yuh-Yuan Guh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:產品服務化去物質化整合產品政策延長生產者責任
外文關鍵詞:ServicizingDematerializationEPRIPP
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近年來,「綠色」與「科技」已經從對立轉變為對話,環境保障議題也逐漸由單一的環保觀念擴展到消費者、製造供應鏈管理及商品研發,當高科技產品不斷問世的同時,整體環境的污染也隨之加劇,並蔓延為全球性的問題。各國及廠商逐漸重視污染防治與廢棄物處理的問題,面對全球化的溫室效應、臭氧層破洞與資源耗竭等危機,綠色科技逐漸成為未來科技發展的共識。
「產品服務化(servicizing)」以提供產品功能來滿足消費需求的方式,減少產品的總生產量、促使產品環境化的設計,並透過產品及物料或零件的重覆使用及再製,提高資源的使用效率、減少資源的消費及廢棄物的產生,以達到去物質化的目標,進而改善產品生命週期中對環境的衝擊。
目前歐盟推動的整合性產品政策(Integrated Product Policy, IPP),是透過提昇資源使用效率和減少能源消費的方式,持續改善產品生命週期的環境績效;而延長生產者責任(Extended Producer Responsibility, EPR),則是在鼓勵企業的回收和再製活動。兩者的最終目的皆是在達到去物質化(dematerialization)的目標。而在去物質化的做法上,目前最有創意的概要屬「產品服務化」(servicizing)的概念了。
本研究首先從文獻中瞭解「產品服務化」、整合性產品政策、延長生產者責任相關文獻及目前各國的研究推動情形以及成功的案例,除了分析各國推動產品服務化概念的相關政策經驗、簡介目前國際上成功推動的企業案例;本論文從目前台灣咖啡機業者企業中,挑選八家個案公司為主要的研究對象,針對產品服務化的情形進行探討。另外,由於產品服務化推動具有區域發展屬性及產業屬性,本研究進一步針對各案例瞭解產品服務化在國內推動的可行性,以做為企業推行策略研擬之參考。
In recent years, the concept of ”Green ” and “Technology” has transformed from opposition into conversation, furthermore, environmental issues have expanded from a single concept to consumers, manufacturing supply chain management and product development. Along with produced High Tech products, the environment has suffered from increasingly serious pollution and it becomes a global problem. Global corporations take pollution protection and management of wasting assets seriously; Facing global Greenhouse effect, Ozone Hole and Energy Crisis, “Green Technology” is becoming gradually a common conception for developing technology in the future.

Servicizing meets consumption requirements by providing product functions, decreasing produced volume and facilitating the conception of “Design for Environment”. Servicizing enhances usage efficiency and decreases source consumption together with produced wasting assets by means of re-use and re-production, to reach the goals of dematerialization, meanwhile, to reduce the products impact to environment.

At present, EU has facilitated lots of policies and regulations, such as Integrated Product Policy (IPP), by enhancing energy usage and decreasing energy consumption to improve environment protection of product lifecycle continuously; Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), by encouraging corporations to implement re-use and re-production. Dematerialization is the goal of both IPP and EPR. Currently, Servicizing is regarded as the most innovative concept for Dematerialization.

This study starts from the conceptions of Servicizing, IPP, EPR and successful case studies in global gained by literature reviewing, after that, the research subject is coffee machine makers for studying the implementation on Servicizing. At the results, the study will analyze the feasibility of implement Servicizing in Taiwan with the major findings, which may provide as a reference for corporation.
目 錄
中文摘要...............................................................................................................................I
英文摘要.............................................................................................................................Ⅱ
謝誌......................................................................................................................................Ⅲ
目錄......................................................................................................................................Ⅳ
圖目錄.................................................................................................................................Ⅷ
表目錄.................................................................................................................................Ⅸ
第一章 緒論.......................................................................................................................1
第一節 研究背景與動機...................................................................................1
第二節 研究目的及對象...................................................................................2
第三節 研究流程...............................................................................................3
第二章 文獻探討................................................................................................................5
第一節 以去物質化與否為導向的服務分類.................................................5
2.1.1 非物質的服務.......................................................................................6
2.1.2 以物質或產品為基礎的服務..............................................................6
第二節 產品服務化...........................................................................................7
2.2.1 產品服務化的研究緣起......................................................................7
2.2.2 產品服務化的定義...............................................................................8
2.2.3 產品服務化的特色...............................................................................9
2.2.4 產品服務化為環境帶來的利益..........................................................9
第三節 產品服務化的分類...............................................................................11
2.3.1 以適用產品類型區分...........................................................................11
2.3.2 以產生產品服務化地點區分..............................................................12
第四節 整合性產品政策...................................................................................13
2.4.1 整合性產品政策概述...........................................................................13
2.4.2 整合性產品政策定義...........................................................................14
2.4.3 整合性產品政策之工具與政策..........................................................15
第五節 延長生產者責任...................................................................................18
2.5.1 延長生產者責任的起源.......................................................................18
2.5.2 延長生產者責任的概述.......................................................................18
2.5.3 延長生產者責任的目的.......................................................................19
2.5.4 延長生產者責任的責任範圍..............................................................20
2.5.5 延長生產者責任的政策工具..............................................................20
第六節 綠色環保法規.......................................................................................21
2.6.1 歐盟三大環保指令...............................................................................21
2.6.2 耗能性產品政策....................................................................................22
第七節 產品服務化成功案例...........................................................................24
2.7.1 國內外推行產品服務化案例..............................................................24
2.7.2 Interface產品服務化案例說明..............................................................27
第八節 本章結論................................................................................................33
第三章 研究架構與研究方法.........................................................................................34
第一節 研究架構................................................................................................34
第二節 研究方法................................................................................................35
第三節 資料蒐集................................................................................................35
第四節 研究對象................................................................................................37
第四章 個案探討..............................................................................................................38
第一節 個案公司的基本資料...........................................................................38
第二節 個案描述................................................................................................39
第三節 個案彙整分析.......................................................................................50
4.3.1 產品服務化的認知及施行情形..........................................................50
4.3.2 產品服務化的推動力...........................................................................52
4.3.3 產品服務化在台灣推動之可行性................................ .....................55
第四節 本章小結................................................................................................55
4.4.1 產品類別會影響產品服務化的方式...............................................55
4.4.2 產品的組成及精密度亦會造成產品服務化之差異......................55
4.4.3 造成產品服務化尚未普及的原因....................................................56
4.4.4 產品服務化的困難.............................................................................56
第五章 結論與建議..........................................................................................................58
第一節 結論.......................................................................................................58
5.1.1 產品服務化的認知方面.....................................................................58
5.1.2 產品服務化的實行方面........................... .........................................58
5.1.3 產品服務化的驅動力.........................................................................58
5.1.4 產品服務化的困難與挑戰.................................................................58
5.1.5 產品服務化作法對環境的影響........................................................59
5.1.6 產品服務化在台灣推動之可行性....................................................59
第二節 建議........................................................................................................59
5.2.1 政府方面..............................................................................................59
5.2.2 企業方面..............................................................................................60
5.2.3 企業施行步驟......................................................................................60
5.2.4 政府配合..............................................................................................62
第三節 後續研究................................................................................................63
5.3.1 產品服務化成功案例尚有限,無法進行案例之比較或系統性之量化分析..............................................................................................63
5.3.2 產品服務化缺乏企業對消費者(B2C)的案例分析,較多案例集中在企業對企業(B2B).....................................................................63
5.3.3 產品服務化案例並未考量社會衝擊層面,對於政策執行的可能效果仍無法完全掌握........................................................................64
5.3.4 既有成功案例無法完全複製及引用...............................................64
參考文獻.............................................................................................................................65



圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程圖...........................................................................................................4
圖2-1 產品服務化關係圖..............................................................................................5
圖2-2 服務的分類...........................................................................................................6
圖2-3 全球永續發展之基本條件................................................................................14
圖2-4 整合性產品政策.................................................................................................15
圖2-5 延長生產者責任模型........................................................................................20
圖2-6 歐盟三大環保指令主時程................................................................................22
圖2-7 綠色產品之驅動力.............................................................................................24
圖2-8 1996~2004 年製造每平方公尺地毯之能源消耗量....................................30
圖2-9 1996~2004 年製造每碼纖維織品之能源消耗量.........................................30
圖2-10 1996~2004 年各年度全球生產基地溫室氣體排放量與基期量之比較..31
圖2-11 1996~2004 年製造每平方公尺地毯之能源消耗量....................................31
圖2-12 1996~2004 年製造每碼纖維織品之能源消耗量.........................................31
圖2-13 1995~2004 年各年度及累計廢棄地毯回收再利用量統計........................32
圖2-14 1995~2004 年累計節省之成本金額..............................................................32
圖2-15 2000~2004 年Interface 營業淨利統計圖......................................................33
圖2-16 2002及2004 年Interface 營收組合...................................................................33
圖 3-1 研究架構圖.........................................................................................................34
圖5-1 產品服務化之內、外部驅動力...........................................................................52



表目錄
表2-1 產品服務化可能減少的環境衝擊.......................................................................10
表2-2 各種交易型態各產品的權責歸屬比較表...........................................................13
表2-3 IPP之主要工具與行動.........................................................................................16
表2-4 產品服務化案例...................................................................................................25
表2-5 推行產品服務化案例分析表..............................................................................26
表3-1 六種資料蒐集方法的優缺點比較.......................................................................36
表4-1 個案公司基本資料................................................................................................38
表4-2 燦坤集團沿革與國際化發展過程(創業成長期)...............................................42
表4-3 燦坤集團沿革與國際化發展過程(轉型成長期)...............................................42
表4-4 燦坤集團沿革與國際化發展過程(革新成長期)...............................................43
表4-5 燦坤集團沿革與國際化發展過程(蛻變成長期)...............................................43
表4-6 個案公司對產品服務化概念作法及符合程度..................................................51
表5-1 研究結果比較.........................................................................................................54
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網站部分
1.歐盟網站Eup指令 http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/eco_design/index.htm
2.整合性產品政策 http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/ipp/
3.介面公司永續性網站 http://www.interfacesustainability.com
4.化學策略夥伴網站:http://www.chemicalstrategies.org/index.htm
5.化學品管理服務論壇http://www.cmsforum.org
6.全錄公司網站 http://www.xerox.com
7.提洛咖啡網站 http://www.coffeehome.com.tw/
8.上班趣網站 http://www.hioffice.com.tw/index/
9.泛拉丁國際網站 http://www.lavazzacafe.com/
10.馬可尼咖啡網站 http://www.makeni.com.tw/html/intro.htm
11.晟昕實業(爵士咖啡)網站 http://www.skymktng.com.tw/
12.喜客咖啡網站 http://www.seeker.tw/
13.羅斯特咖啡網站 http://lustre.com.tw/
14.燦坤集團網站 http://www.tsannkuen.com/CHT/index.aspx
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