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研究生:賴璿瑜
研究生(外文):Chzu-Yu Lai
論文名稱:產業環保法規申報相關之層級分析
論文名稱(外文):Evaluate The Environment Legislation Declaration in Industry Using Analytic Hierarchy Process
指導教授:白子易白子易引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzu-Yi Pai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:環保申報層級分析方法申報介面環保法規
外文關鍵詞:environment legislationdeclarationanalytic hierarchy processenvironment declaration
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:12
  • 點閱點閱:244
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:21
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
企業若要達成永續經營必須需兼顧環境保護、經濟成長及社會福祉。在環境保護上企業的責任除了做好防治污染、增設處理空水廢毒設備等環境成本外,法規下的要求申報相關紀錄亦是企業的義務之ㄧ。產業透過環保申報了解自我的製程之產廢污染,環保單位透過環保申報有效掌控污染,故申報重要性不可言喻,亦是本文探討之重點。
本研究主要以AHP層級分析方法針對我國產業對於現況環保法規申報相關要因作探討,首先做文獻探討,內容包括近代環境保護意識的源起與各國法制的動向,國內環保法規的沿革、制定。將環境問題解決制度分成組織面、規範面、手段面切入,以及在環保事件爭議與救濟,環保申報系統的架構與方式、網路申報介面等做探討,藉由以上文獻探討找出我國產業環保法規申報的相關要因,並運用層級分析方法設計問卷計算分析,選定相關學者採問卷與當面訪談之方式,以探討出該等要因在相關學者心目中的優先排序與審慎分析原由。本研究所得結論論述如下:
我國產業環保法規申報,第一層級(目的層)評估指標中,其重要性順序為:『行政管理』(0.307),『申報介面』(0.306),『廠商操作』(0.233),『社會環境』(0.155)。而依各項評估指標之綜合權重(絕對權重)分析可知:最重要的指標為「積極辦理宣導研習教育並專人推廣」(0.121),第二為「申報規劃整體統籌上要周全」(0.092),第三為「介面入門操作容易簡單明確」(0.090)、第四為「加強人員素質並參與環保訓練」(0.089)。
Industry which want to reach sustainable manage have to give consideration to environmental protection、economic growth and social welfare. The responsibility of industry except to add cost in preventing pollution and establishing equipment,anothor one duty of industry in environmental protection is the relation report record requisted by legislation.Industry rely on environment legislation declaration to comprehend himself the manufacture process to discard. The environment government organization rely on environment legislation declaration to control pollution efficiently.Above all,the environment legislation declaration is much significance,which also the role of this thesis.
The research using analytic hierarchy process(AHP) treats of the effect in environment legislation declaration of industry in a recent period.The first,conferring bibliography,the contents include the origin consciousness of environmental protection in modern time and the trend of international legal institution.The past history and establishment of internal environment legislation. The environmental problem solution system is divided in organization face、standard face and method face.And we discuss environmental occurrence dispute and relief、the framework and form of environment legislation declaration system and the network declaration interface. We try to find factors rely on conferring bibliography and design some questionnaire with the AHP level law directed to the relation factors and personal review. This information will be inputted and analyzed by Excel after the interview and so they can find out the decision and the course. We get a conclusion from this research as follow:
In the first level appraisal target of our industry environment legislation declaration there are four components placed as follow: administrative management 0.307,declaration interface 0.306, manufacturers operating 0.233 and social environment 0.155.We can know all level appraisal target in absolute goal priority analyzation,the frist target is to attend to make know and education constructive and popularization (0.121).The second target is the whole plan in declaration need complete and perfect(0.092) The third target is the introductory in declaration interface to operate with east and categorical(0.090). The fourth target is to strengthen personnel quality and participate environment study(0.089).
目 錄
頁次
中文摘要......................................................Ⅰ
英文摘要......................................................Ⅱ
誌謝..........................................................Ⅳ
目錄..........................................................Ⅴ
表目錄........................................................Ⅷ
圖目錄........................................................Ⅹ
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………….1
1-1 研究背景與動機……………………………………………………………1
1-2 研究目的……………………………………………………………………5
1-3 研究流程……………………………………………………………………6
1-4 研究範圍與限制……………………………………………………………8
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………………….9
2-1 網路申報介面之探討………………………………………………….……9
2-1-1 介面的定義………………………………………………….………….9
2-1-2 介面設計的組成要素…………………………………………………11
2-1-3 介面設計原則…………………………………………………………13
2-1-4 網站中網頁介面設計…………………………………………………20
2-1-5 介面的使用性評估……………………………………………………26
2-1-6 使用者的評價…………………………………………………………27
2-2 決策分析-層級分析法(Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP)………….30
2-2-1 層級分析法(AHP)之發展與學理架構 …………………………...31
2-2-2 層級分析法(AHP)之應用…………………………………………35
2-3 環保保護之源起與立法精神原則………………………………………...37
VI II
2-4 各國環境法制之動向……………………………………………………...39
2-4-1 德國……………………………………………………………………39
2-4-2 日本……………………………………………………………………41
2-4-3 我國……………………………………………………………………43
2-5 我國環保法規之制訂原則………………………………………………...46
2-5-1 我國法律制定之流程…………………………………………………48
2-5-2 我國法規命令制定之流程……………………………………………49
2-5-3 我國行政規則制定之流程……………………………………………50
2-6 我國環境問題解決制度…………………………………………………...51
2-6-1 組織面…………………………………………………………………51
2-6-2 規範面…………………………………………………………………52
2-6-2-1 分區管制與行為管制…………………………………………...53
2-6-2-2 總量管制………………………………………………………...55
2-6-2-3 排放標準的制定………………………………………………..56
2-6-3 手段面…………………………………………………………………60
2-6-3-1 稽查管制的作為………………………………………………...61
2-6-3-2 設置專員證照制度……………………………………………...64
2-6-3-3 經濟觀點下環境政策工具……………………………………..65
2-6-3-4 經濟觀點下核發許可證………………………………………..68
2-6-3-5 經濟觀點下徵收污染費………………………………………..70
2-6-3-6 環保申報………………………………………………………..73
2-6-3-7 現行環保法規申報架構………………………………………..75
2-7 環境規制執行過程之問題點……………………………………………...86
2-8 環保事件爭議與救濟……………………………………………………...88
2-8-1 台灣產業別分佈……………………………………………………...88
2-8-2 環保事件之稽查管制…………………………………………………90
2-8-3 環保事件之懲處違規………………………………………………....91
IX
2-8-4 爭議事件與公害鑑定………………………………………………....97
2-8-4-1 公害鑑定之意義………………………………………………….97
2-8-4-2 公害鑑定之實務探討…………………………………………….98
2-8-4-3 環保人員處置公害爭議事件之作為……………………………99
2-8-5 爭議事件之救濟與公民訴訟……………………………………….100
2-8-6 環境糾紛案件與公害抗爭相關文獻……………………………….104
第三章 研究方法…………………………………………………………….106
3-1 層級分析程序法(AHP)研究步驟……………………………………106
3-2 研究設計………………………………………………………………….113
3-2-1 問卷設計壹………………………………………………………...114
3-2-2 問卷設計貳………………………………………………………...115
第四章 結果與討論 …………………………………………………………117
4-1 研究問卷資料統計………………………………………………………117
4-1-1 第一階段要因評估調查問卷. …………………………………….117
4-1-2 第二階段屬性權重調查問卷……………………………………...121
4-2 指標權重分析…………………………………………………………...124
4-2-1 目的層(第一層)指標權重分析………………………………..124
4-2-2 行政管理權重分析………………………………………………...125
4-2-3 申報介面權重分析 ………………………………………………...126
4-2-4 廠商操作權重分析 ………………………………………………...128
4-2-5 社會環境權重分析………………………………………. ……….131
4-3 綜合權重分析…………………………………………………………...134
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………………135
5-1 結論……………………………………………………………………....135
5-2 後續研究建議……………………………………………………………137
5-3 建議………………………………………………………………………138
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………..139
X
附錄問卷……………………………………………………………………142
X I
圖 目 錄
頁數
圖1 -1 研究流程圖……………………………………………………………7
圖2-1 使用者介面設計的組成要素………………………………………...11
圖2-2 互動設計的4 個程序………………………………………………..14
圖2-3 網頁之間的超連結關係……………………………………………...21
圖2-4 不通行的網頁…………………………………………….. …………21
圖2-5 一致化的網頁樣式以及架構………………………………………...22
圖2-6 使用者介面概念與設計……………………………………………...28
圖2-7 完整(左)及不完整(右)層級結構圖…………………………………..33
圖2-8 法律制定標準作業流程圖…………………………………………...48
圖2-9 法規命令標準作業流程圖……………………………………...........49
圖2-10 行政規則標準作業流程圖………………………………………….50
圖2-11 遙測系統架設配置圖…………………………………………….....63
圖2-12 中部空品區單位受體SO2 造成之外部成本....................................71
圖2-13 空水廢毒系統操作介面圖………………………………………….83
圖2-14 空水廢毒系統之聯結圖…………………………………………….83
圖2-15 空、水、廢、毒許可申請共通流程圖…………………………….84
圖2-16 空許可申請流程圖………………………………………………….84
圖2-17 水許可申請流程圖………………………………………………….84
圖2-18 廢棄物許可申請流程圖…………………………………………….85
圖2-19 毒性化學物質許可申請流程圖…………………………………….85
圖2-20 台灣產業分布圖…………………………………………………….89
圖2-21 公害糾紛處理流程圖……………………………………………...103
圖3-1 層級分析程序法(AHP)進行流程圖……………………………106
圖4-1 AHP 評估模式層級架構圖………………………………………...121
圖4-2 綜合權重分析………………………………………………………135
X II
表 目 錄
頁數
表1-1 人類所面臨的環境問題與因應對策…………………………………3
表2-1 層級結構(Hierarchical Structure)的優點……………………….32
表2-2 層級結構(Hierarchical Structure)的建置與分析要點………….33
表2-3 層級結構(Hierarchical Structure)之基本認知………………….33
表2-4 Analytic Hierarchy Process 九項基本假設…………………………34
表2-5 我國環保法規體系…………………………………………………...45
表2-6 公告審定之方法與訂定管制標準相關法源基礎…………………...57
表2-7 強制緊急應變措施法源基礎………………………………………...58
表2-8 環保法規稽查管制之相關法源基礎………………………………...62
表2-9 環保法規設置專責單位或人員之相關法源基礎…………………...64
表2-10 環境政策工具一覽表……………………………………………….67
表2-11 環保法規設置及操作許可之相關法源基礎……………………….69
表2-12 SOx 空污費徵收標準表……………………………………………71
表2-13 環保法規中污染者付費相關法源基礎…………………………….72
表2-14 環保法規紀錄申報之相關法源基礎……………………………….74
表2-15 網路申報與資料庫………………………………………………….76
表2-16 空專用表單依各自許可證獨自使用表單………………………….80
表2-17 水專用表單依各自許可證獨自使用表單 …………………………80
表2-18 廢、毒專用表單依各自許可證獨自使用表單…………………….81
表2-19 民國91~94 年環保署稽查全國環保局稽查概況-稽查數…………90
表2-20 民國91~94 年環保署稽查全國環保局稽查概況-稽查數罰鍰額…90
表2-21 實務稽查運作中較常用之法令……………………………………..93
表2-22 環境行政訴訟相關條文……………………………………………102
XI II
表3-1 Analytic Hierarchy Process 四大主要步驟………………………...107
表3-2 AHP 評估尺度意義及說明…………………………………………..110
表3-3 隨機指標(R.I)表………………………………………………………111
表3-4 初步問卷屬性構面…………………………………………………….114
表3-5 成對比較評估表……………………………………………………….115
表3-6 問卷調查對象………………………………………………………….115
表4-1 第一階段要因評估調查問卷-調查對象分析…………………………118
表4-2 第一階段要因評估調查問卷-回答者之基本資料分析………………118
表4-3 初步問卷各題項分析結果…………………………………………….119
表4-4 各構面意義說明………………………………………………………122
表4-5 第二階段屬性權重調查問卷-調查對象分析………………………...123
表4-6 第二階段屬性權重調查問卷-回答者之基本資料分析……………...123
表4-7 產業環保法規相關申報評估權重分析表……………………………124
表4-8 行政管理目的下各準則之權重值(相對權重)…………………….125
表4-9 申報介面目的下各準則之權重值(相對權重)……………………126
表4-10 廠商操作目的下各準則之權重值(相對權重)…………………..128
表4-11 社會環境目的下各準則之權重值(相對權重)…………………..131
表4-12 評估權重分析表……………………………………………………..134
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