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研究生:徐文秀
研究生(外文):Wen-Hsiu Hsu
論文名稱:登革熱病媒蚊白線斑蚊(Aedesalbopictus)防治藥劑之開發與應用
論文名稱(外文):Development and Application of Control Insecticide for Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) of Dengue Disease Vector
指導教授:王順成
指導教授(外文):Shun-Cheng Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:登革熱白線斑蚊抗藥性比率陶斯松第滅寧
外文關鍵詞:Resistance Ratio (RR)Aedes albopictusDengue feverChlorpyrifosDeltamethrin
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臺灣地區一直受病媒蚊傳播之登革熱的危害,每年都有小規模地區性登革熱的流行,造成登革熱/登革出血熱之病媒蚊的再崛起與疫情再現的原因複雜,且尚未完全被瞭解。病媒蚊不能有效地被控制,可能因台灣長期使用殺蟲劑防治登革熱病媒蚊,病媒蚊對殺蟲劑產生抗藥性,為造成疫情難以被控制的關鍵所在。因此本文目的除瞭解本國常用藥劑對防治病媒蚊的抗藥性外;另一方面積極開發新的不同作用機制之藥劑,以為未來防治應用之需。
本研究利用七種不同作用機制類型之殺蟲劑對白線斑蚊(Aedes albopictus)的藥效及產生抗藥性之情形進行測試,包括常用的有機磷類(organophosphate) 陶斯松(Chlorpyrifos)及除蟲菊類(pyrethroid) 第滅寧(Deltamethrin),同時評估其他五種不同類型之尚未登記上市的殺蟲劑,包括阿巴汀(Abamectin)、因滅汀(Emamectin benzoate)、賜諾殺(Spinosad)、芬普寧(Fipronil)以及因得克(Indoxacarb)。試驗供試蟲源包括2AA品系(敏感品系) 及屏東品系(野外品系)於實驗室繼代繁殖,並建立供試蟲源的族群。試驗以幼蟲浸漬法(Dipping method)放入20隻四齡幼蟲,48小時觀察並記錄其死亡率,及進行死亡率數值分析。
本實驗結果七種不同類型殺蟲劑對白線斑蚊進行感受性與抗藥性的測試顯示,以LC50為比較標準,陶斯松的抗藥性比率 (Resistance Ratio, RR)高達200,第滅寧為11.3。另外的五種殺蟲劑,有機殺蟲劑類的因得克(Indoxacarb)、芬普尼(Fipronil);與微生物代謝產物製劑的賜諾殺(Spinosad)、阿巴汀(Abamectin)、以及因滅汀(Emamectin benzoate),無論是RR50或RR90值都在2.2倍以內,顯示無抗藥性或交互抗性之結果。陶斯松及第滅寧具高抗藥性比值,其引起抗藥性作用機制則有待進一步探討。1992年,台灣不同地區白線斑蚊對陶斯松相對抗藥性比值介於14.3至 23.8倍之間,2008年本實驗室外屏東品系採得之白線斑蚊高達200倍。對於陶斯松的抗藥性,臺灣高雄品系白線斑蚊遠高於美國阿拉巴馬品系;第滅寧的抗藥性,兩者差距不大。芬普尼(Fipronil)與賜諾殺(Spinosad)對白線斑蚊的感受性,在臺灣或美國效果均佳。
Taiwan Region is continuously under the threaten of dengue fever that transmitted through vector mosquitoes small-scale regional epidemics of dengue fever breaks out every year. The reasons for the epidemic reemergence of dengue fever / dengue hemorrhagic fevers and the reasons of the resurgence of the vector mosquitoes are complicated and are not fully understood yet. However, the failure of an effective control of vector mosquitoes is probably due to the vector mosquitoes have obtained resistance to the insecticides that have long been used in Taiwan to control these mosquitoes. This may be the key factor to cause the intractable epidemics of dengue fever. The objectives of this study are to investigate the vulnerability of the vector mosquitoes of dengue fever to the insecticides that were commonly used in Taiwan to control these mosquitoes, and to search for insecticides that with different lethal mechanisms to meet the future need for the control of vector mosquitoes and the prevention of dengue fever.

In this study, seven insecticides of different lethal mechanisms were evaluated for their toxicity on Aedes albopictus, a vector of dengue fever. The tested insecticides included one organophosphate (Chlorpyrifos ), one pyrethroid (Deltamethrin ), three microbial metabolite (Spinosad, Abamectin, and Emamectin benzoate) and two other organo insecticides (Indoxacarb and Fipronil). The later five commercial insecticides are not registered on environmental hygiene. Two strains of Aedes albopictus, the 2AA strain (susceptible strain) and the Pingtung strain (field strain), were bred in laboratory for successive generations and acted as the source of testing individuals. Dipping method was performed to evaluate the above insecticides. Twenty larvae of 4th instar of Aedes albopictus were tested for each dose and in each replicate. Mortaliy after 48 hours was recorded and the LC50. and LC90 values for each tested insecticide were calculated by log-probit analysis.

The susceptibility/resistance of Aedes albopictus to seven insecticides of different lethal mechanisms is expressed as resistance ratio (RR) defined as LC of field strain/ LC of susceptible strain. : The RR50 based on LC50 reaches 200 for Chlorpyrifos, follows by the 11.3 of Deltamethrin. Both indicate the existence of insecticide resistance. Either RR50 or RR90 of the rest five pesticides, are not more than 2.2. The low RR values indicate there is no resistance or cross resistance for the field (Pintung) population of Aedes albopictus to these five insecticides. The high resistance ratios of the Pintung strain Aedes albopictus to Chlorpyrifos and Deltamethrin indicate resistance to these two insecticides. The resistance mechanisms needs further studies. The resistance ratios of Aedes albopictus populationfrom different regions of Taiwan to Chlorpyrifos were between 14.3 and 23.8in 1992. This resistance ratio of Aedes albopictus of Pingtung strain (field strain) for Chlorpyrifos exceeds 200in 2008. The resistance to Chlorpyrifos of the Kaohsuing strain of Aedes albopictus is much higher than that of Alabama (United States) strain. The resistance to Deltamethrin is still not high. The susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to Fipronil and Spinosad is still high in both of Taiwan and United States.
登革熱病媒蚊白線斑蚊(Aedes albopictus)防治藥劑
之開發與應用
總目錄
摘 要 I
英文摘要 III
誌 謝 V
總目錄 VI


第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 登革熱之論述 3
2-1-1 登革熱之致病原與傳播方式 3
2-1-2 登革熱之流行病學與臨床表現 5
2-1-3 登革熱在台灣發生的情形 7
2-2病媒蚊論述 8
2-2-1分類地位與分布 8
2-2-2白線斑蚊生活史 9
2-2-3病媒蚊生態 10
2-3病媒蚊防治 12
2-4登革熱病媒蚊之抗藥性 14
第三章 試驗材料與方法 17
3-1供試蟲源 17
3-2飼育方法 17
3-3供試藥劑 18
3-4幼蟲浸漬法(Dipping method) 18
3-5數據分析 19
第四章 結果與討論 20
4-1 結果 20
4-2 討論 24
第五章 結論與建議 29
5-1 結論 29
5-2 建議 29
第六章 參考文獻 30
6-1中文部分 30
6-2英文部分 35
表目錄
Table1. The toxicity of seven insecticides to 2AA (susceptible) strain of Aedes albopictus 45
Table2. The toxic effect of different insecticide to the Pintung (resistant) strain of Aedes albopictus 46
Table3. The resistance ratio (RR1) between the Pintung (resistant) strain and 2AA (susceptible) strain of Aedes albopictus to seven insecticides based on LC50 (ppb) 47
Table4. The resistance ratio (RR2) based on LC90 (ppb) between the Pintung (resistant) strain and 2AA (susceptible) strain of Aedes albopictus to seven insecticides 48
Table 5. Susceptibility level of the Aedes albopictus populations from various places in Taiwan to chlorpyrifos. 49
Table 6. Resistance ratio of Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus to pyrethroid insecticides in different areas. 50
Table 7. Resistance ratio of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to pyrethroids in different area. 51
Table 8. Toxicity of insecticides to various strains of Aedes albopictus in Alabama, USA in 2004. 52
Table 9. Resistance ratio of Aedes albopictus to pyrethroids in Taiwan (2008) and USA (2004). 53
Table 10. Resistance ratio of Aedes albopictus to Chlorpyrifos in Taiwan (2008) and USA (2004) mosquito. 54
Table 11. Resistance ratio Aedes albopictus to Fipronil and Spinosad in Taiwan (2008) and USA (2004). 55
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