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研究生:張嘉峰
研究生(外文):Chia-Feng Chang
論文名稱:機車使用酒精汽油對法定及有害性空氣污染物排放影響研究
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Emissions of Regulated and Hazardous Air Pollutants from Motorcycles
指導教授:楊錫賢楊錫賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsi-Hsien Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:成對t-test耐久測試線性迴歸醛酮類酒精汽油機車
外文關鍵詞:Durability testEthanol gasolineMotorcycleCarbonylsLinear regression analysis.Paired t-test
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本研究使用國內最普遍之交通工具-機車,以不同濃度酒精汽油 (添加3%酒精之E3酒精汽油及添加10%酒精之E10酒精汽油) 進行實車動力計測試及使用E3酒精汽油進行機車耐久測試,本研究皆以機車冷車行車型態進行排氣污染測試,採集氣狀及粒狀物相之多環芳香烴化合物 (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs)、揮發性有機物 (Volatile Organic Compounds, VOCs) 以及醛酮類化合物 (Carbonyl Compounds) 進行研究分析。研究結果顯示:(1)機車不管使用E3或E10酒精汽油皆會降低CO之排放,使用E3為燃料會降低CO排放20%,E10則降低40%,且減量皆具顯著性差異。(2)使用E3為燃料時,NOx排放增量不顯著,只增加5.22%,但使用E10為燃料增加NOx之排放達15.2%,且其增量有顯著性差異。(3)使用不同濃度酒精汽油排放主要醛酮類化合物為Acetaldehyde、Formaldehyde及Acetone,使用E0為燃料醛酮類化合物排放係數為1289與1328 μg/km,使用E3為燃料醛酮類化合物排放係數為1600 μg/km,使用E10為燃料醛酮類化合物排放係數為2285 μg/km。(4)使用E0及E10為燃料PAHs排放係數分別為149 μg/km與126 μg/km,使用E10後PAHs減量14.9%,但無顯著差異性。(5)使用E0及E10為燃料VOCs排放係數分別為95.2 mg/km與196 mg/km,使用E10後VOCs增量106%,但無顯著差異性。使用E0為燃料個別化合物BTEX部份排放係數分別為1.06、1.39、0.70與10.1 mg/km,而使用E10為燃料排放BTEX係數為2.11、2.55、1.00與23.1 mg/km,兩種油品增量比例各為98.7%、83.5%、42.9%及129%,但統計判定皆為無顯著性差異。(6)機車使用E3酒精汽油進行耐久測試結果,只有使用E0為燃料時,CO之耐久測試會隨里程累積而造成該污染物排放增加,對其它污染物及油品而言,機車長期使用不會造成污染物排放增加。
This research investigates the most popular form of vehicle – motorcycle. Different concentrations of ethanol gasoline which are standard gasoline blended with 3% ethanol (E3) and 10% ethanol (E10) were examined with dynamometer and durability testing. The cold start emission testing pattern was implemented for the collection and analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and Carbonyl Compounds. The investigation shows the following results: (1) E3 and E10 consumption can reduce CO emission by 20% and 40%, respectively, and present statistical significant difference. (2) When consuming E3 as fuel, increase in NOx emission, at only 5.22%, is not significant. However, E10 usage increases NOx emission by 15.2% and is significant in difference statistically. (3) Acetaldehyde, Formaldehyde, and Acetone are the main carbonyls emitted while consuming ethanol gasoline. The carbonyl emission coefficients for E0, E3, and E10 consumptions are 1289 and 1328 μg/km, 1600 μg/km, and 2285 μg/km, respectively. (4) PAHs emission coefficients for E0 and E10 are 149 μg/km and 126 μg/km. A decrease of 14.9% in PAHs after using E10 is noticed comparing with E0, it is not a statistically significant difference, however. (5) Consumption of E0 and E10 as fuel result in VOCs emission coefficients of 95.2 mg/km and 196 mg/km. E10 usage yield an increase of 106% when compared to E0 but not significant in difference statistically. Testing E0 as fuel, the BTEX emission coefficients are 1.06, 1.39, 0.70 and 10.1 mg/km; while E10 numbers result to 2.11, 2.55, 1.00 and 23.1 mg/km. The increase in BTEX emission after using E10 are at 98.7%, 83.5%, 42.9%, and 129% which are all not significantly different statistically. (6) Durability testing were performed on motorcycles consuming E0 and E3, results suggest that emission of pollutants do not increase with mileage accumulation, with the exception of CO emission.
目錄
第一章 前言.1
1-1 研究動機.1
1-2 研究內容及目標.2
第二章 文獻回顧.4
2-1 機車引擎及其排放特徵.4
2-1-1 機車引擎.4
2-1-2 機車引擎排放特徵.6
2-1-3 機車排放污染物對人體之危害.8
2-2 酒精汽油.10
2-2-1 酒精汽油之特性.10
2-2-2酒精汽油之來源與開發12
2-2-3 酒精汽油目前使用現況.13
2-3 多環芳香烴.14
2-3-1 PAHs之特性.16
2-3-2 PAHs之來源與形成機制.17
2-3-3 PAHs對人體健康之危害.19
2-4 揮發性有機物.21
2-4-1 VOCs之特性21
2-4-2 VOCs之來源與形成機制21
2-4-3 VOCs對人體健康之危害22
2-5 醛酮類化合物.24
2-5-1 醛酮類化合物之特性.24
2-5-2 醛酮類化合物之來源與形成機制.25
2-5-3 醛酮類化合物對人體健康之危害.28
2-6 運轉型態.29
2-6-1 機動車輛運轉測試型態.29
2-6-2 我國有關行車型態之研究.33
2-6-3 我國標準運轉型態.34
第三章 實驗設備與方法.37
3-1 機車測試車輛及油品.37
3-1-1 測試車種.37
3-1-2 機車測試油品.40
3-1-3 實車動力計系統 (Chassis dynamometer system).42
3-1-4 機車測試運轉型態.44
3-1-5 機車耐久測試.45
3-1-6 機車廢氣採樣系統.49
3-2 採樣方法.50
3-2-1 PAHs採樣方法.50
3-2-2 VOCs採樣方法50
3-2-3 Carbonyls採樣方法51
3-3 分析方法與設備.54
3-3-1 PAHs分析方法與設備.54
3-3-2 VOCs分析方法與設備57
第四章 結果與討論.61
4-1 機車使用E0及E3之法定污染物排放係數.61
4-2 機車使用E0及E3醛酮類化合物排放係數.63
4-3 機車使用E0及E10之法定污染物排放係數.66
4-4 機車使用E0及E10 PAHS排放係數68
4-5 機車使用E0及E10 VOCS排放係數70
4-6 機車使用E0及E10醛酮類排放係數72
4-7 機車使用E3進行耐久測試結果.74
4-7-1 E3耐久測試法定污染物排放.74
4-7-2 E3耐久測試醛酮類化合物排放.77
第五章 結論與建議.78
參考文獻.81
附錄一 研究品質保證及品質控制.94
表目錄
表2-1 十六種PAHs之分子量、結構式及物理特性.15
表2-2 PAHs之蒸氣壓、於25°C水中之溶解度與親電性反應 (Eπ).17
表2-3 16種PAHs對人體之致癌性及致突變性.20
表2-4 本研究分析之醛酮類化合物學名、俗名、中文、分子式與結構式27
表2-5 我國第四、五期機車排放標準與國外排放標準36
表3-1 使用E3之測試車輛(計9輛)39
表3-2 使用E10之測試車輛(計10輛)39
表3-3 測試用油品性質及成分分析40
表3-4 耐久測試各圈之圈速(km/h)46
表3-5 本研究分析之VOCs種類一覽表58
表4-1 使用E0及E3法定空氣污染物及CO2排放係數 (mean ± SD, n = 9).6表4-2 使用E0及E3醛酮類排放係數 (mean ± SD, μg/km, n = 9)65
表4-3 使用E0及E10法定空氣污染物及CO2 排放係數(mean ± SD, n = 10)
.66 表4-4 使用E0及E10 PAHs排放係數 (mean ± SD, μg/km, n = 3).69
表4-5 使用E0及E10 VOCs排放係數 (mean ± SD, mg/km, n = 5).71
表4-6 使用E0及E10醛酮類排放係數 (mean ± SD, μg/km, n = 10)73
表4-7 空氣污染物劣化係數與迴歸分析參數76
圖目錄
圖2-1自由基生成PAHs之反應機制 (Frenklach and Warnatz, 1987)18
圖2-2 CVS-CH 行車型態.30
圖2-3 ECE 行車型態31
圖2-5 日本10/15 mode 行車型態32
圖2-6 日本11 mode行車型態33
圖3-1 機車排污測試程序.43
圖3-2 ECE行車型態(四期行車型態).44
圖3-3 ECE+EUDC行車型態(五期行車型態)44
圖3-4 耐久測試1∼9圈之行駛方式圖47
圖3-5 耐久測試第10圈行駛方式圖48
圖3-6 耐久測試第11圈行駛方式圖.48
圖3-7 機車排放廢氣採樣系統示意圖49
圖3-8 不�袗�採樣筒清洗系統.52
圖3-9 不�袗�採樣筒清洗流程圖53
圖3-10 PAHs分析方法56
圖3-11 醛酮類前處理程序.60
圖4-1 耐久測試排放法定污染物之情形75
圖4-2 耐久測試各里程總醛酮類化合物排放係數77
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