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研究生:呂清溪
研究生(外文):Ching-Hsi Lu
論文名稱:一個能以FPGA硬體電路完成即時影像處理的對比增強技術
論文名稱(外文):A New Contrast Enhancement Technique Implemented on FPGA for Real Time Image Processing
指導教授:王壘王壘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lei Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:資訊電機工程碩士在職專班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:現場可程式邏輯閘陣列液晶顯示器直方圖均化對比增強影像處理
外文關鍵詞:FPGAhistogram equalizationimage processingcontrast enhancementLCD
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在過去十年中,影像處理科技隨著消費性電子的普及而帶來發展及進步。為了滿足Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display(TFT-LCD)影像顯示之高品質需求,目前的顯示技術以高對比度、高飽和度及高解析度為主要的研究方向。
基於直方圖均化法,本篇論文提出一應用於TFT-LCD的對比增強方法為可適性直方圖增量法(Adaptively Increasing the Value of Histogram Based on Histogram Equalization, AIVHE)。AIVHE提供了一個方便及有效的機制來控制對比增強的程度,其提供一個隨著輸入影像平均亮度逐漸增加之增量值來修改原始的機率密度函數(probability density function, PDF)。AIVHE將輸入之影像利用自動可適性增量來產生輸出影像的對比增強效果,同時能夠得到更多的暗態及亮態區域的灰階分佈以更有效地利用灰階區域。
為了驗證AIVHE,本篇論文將AIVHE演算法實際實現在由本篇論文提出的TFT-LCD顯示發展平台上之Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA)以實現即時影像處理。此發展平台將處理輸入之National Television System Committee(NTSC)即時影像並輸出顯示在TFT-LCD上。
本篇論文提出的AIVHE不僅可以提供自然的影像對比增強效果,並且可以提升顯示品質及避免因增強而產生不必要的結果,透過其可調整增強程度的機制,使AIVHE適合在硬體實現及應用在消費性電子產品上。在實際的硬體實現上,AIVHE處理速度最快為30.05MHz,並且能夠達到標準解析度電視(Standard Definition Television, SDTV) NTSC 720*480i規格的2.24倍及增強型解析度電視(Enhanced Digital Television , EDTV) NTSC 720*480p規格的1.13倍。
最後,本篇論文提出的方法能夠適合做為開發及評估應用在消費性電子產品的影像處理技術上之參考資源。
The technology for image contrast enhancement has improved evidently since the arrival of popular consumer electronics of the last decade. In order to satisfy the needs of a high quality display for the TFT-LCD system, higher contrast, higher saturation and higher resolution have become the main goals of interrelated researches.
Based on the Histogram Equalization (HE) method, this thesis proposes a new contrast enhancement technique named Adaptively Increasing the Value of Histogram Based on Histogram Equalization (AIVHE) for TFT-LCD. It provides a convenient and effective mechanism to control the rate of contrast enhancement. Based on mean brightness, AIVHE offers a gradually increment to modify the original probability density function (PDF) of the image. The input image can produce the effect of contrast enhancement effectively by automatic adaptive incrimination. In the meantime, the method can obtain more gray level distribution of dark and bright regions as well as increase gray levels effectively.
For verifying the AIVHE, this thesis will implement the AIVHE algorithm on FPGA hardware of our proposed TFT-LCD development platform for real time image processing. The TFT-LCD development platform will work by using the National Television System Committee (NTSC) video stream as input for the expanded video board in order to process and show video on the TFT-LCD display.

This thesis shows that AIVHE does not only provide natural image contrast enhancement effects, but also enhances display quality and prevent from excess strengthen or artifacts for enhancement. Since the function of AIVHE is simple and suitable for hardware implementation, adjusted enhancement mechanisms make it suitable for application in consumer electronics. In the hardware implementation, the AIVHE can reach 30.05MHz which is 2.24 times faster than the demand of SDTV NTSC 720*480i specification and 1.13 times faster than the demand of EDTV NTSC 720*480p specification.
Finally, this thesis poses as a reference for related researches interested in the development and evaluation of new techniques, in regards to the image processing TFT-LCD system.
摘 要 i
Abstract iii
誌 謝 v
Contents vi
Figures viii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Preface 1
1.2 The Background and Motive of Research 2
1.3 The Structure of this Thesis 4
Chapter 2 Background and Basic Knowledge 5
2.1 TFT-LCD System 5
2.1.1 TFT-LCD Panel 6
2.1.2 Backlight System 6
2.1.3 LCD Driving System 6
2.2 Video Broadcasting System 7
2.3 ITU-R BT.601 and ITU-R BT.656 10
2.4 Color Space Converter 13
Chapter 3 Relative of Image Contrast Enhancement Techniques 15
3.1 Global Enhancement Methods 15
3.2 Histogram Equalization Based Methods 18
3.2.1 Improving HE Methods 21
3.2.2 Spatial Processing HE Methods 22
3.2.3 PDF Shaping HE Methods 23
Chapter 4 Adaptively Increasing the Value of Histogram Based on Histogram Equalization 27
4.1 Probability Density Function of AIVHE 27
4.2 Cumulative Distribution Function of AIVHE 31
4.3 Experiment Result of Simulation 32
Chapter 5 TFT-LCD Development Platform 44
5.1 CDK Development Platform 45
5.2 Expanded Video Board 47
5.3 Main Chips Function 49
5.3.1 FPGA- Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S4000 50
5.3.2 Video Decoder - TVP5150AM1 51
Chapter 6 Hardware Implementation 53
6.1 ITU-R BT.656 Decode Module 56
6.2 AIVHE Module 57
6.2.1 Xilinx AccelDSP Synthesis Tool 57
6.2.2 The Implementation of AIVHE 59
6.3 Color Space Converter Module 67
6.4 LCD Controller Module 68
6.5 Luma Control and Data Flow Control Module 68
6.6 Implementation Results 69
Chapter 7 Conclusion 74
Reference 76
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