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研究生:黃冠霖
研究生(外文):Guan-Lin Huang
論文名稱:無刷直流馬達驅動器之設計與製作
論文名稱(外文):The Design and Implementation of a Brushless DC Motor Drive
指導教授:何子儀何子儀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tze-Yee Ho
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:電機工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:182
中文關鍵詞:無刷直流馬達數位訊號處理器
外文關鍵詞:Brushless DC MotorDigital Signal Processor
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:33
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  • 下載下載:632
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由於無刷直流馬達(BLDC)的快速轉矩響應以及低轉矩脈動之特性,使其廣泛使用於工業應用上。而為了獲得更好的速度或位置控制特性,其必須具備複雜之運算法則或迴授感測裝置。
本論文主要在設計一個容易實現及簡易運算法則之無刷直流馬達驅動器。無刷直流馬達驅動器主要以數位訊號處理器為基礎,並搭配簡單的霍爾效應之電流感測器來進行電流之控制。同時,為了降低馬達啟動時的尖峰電流所造成驅動器之損壞,因此於全橋式整流器前加入一尖峰電流吸收器。此外,並以EMI 濾波器來降低傳導干擾對電源線路的影響。由於馬達轉子之反電動勢為梯形波,因此透過六步方波PWM 技術以驅使馬達驅動器進行切換來完成馬達控制。PID 控制運算法則運用於獲得快速且微調的速度控制。最後,透過設計及實作出一無刷直流馬達驅動器,其實驗的量測結果均獲得評估以及驗證完成。
Due to the fast torque response and low torque pulsation of a Brushless DC motor (BLDC), it has been widely used in most light industrial applications. In order to obtain the better performance in the speed or position control, the complicate control algorithm or feedback sensor devices are required.
In this thesis, an easy implemented and simple control algorithm for a BLDC motor drive is designed. The BLDC motor rive is based on a DSP controller and a simple Hall-effect current sensor for current controller. In order to reduce the spike current that may damage the solid-state device during the motor start-up, a spike current absorber is designed in the preceding stage of the bridge rectifier. Also, an EMI filter is designed to reduce conducted emission in the main feed. Since the trapezoidal EMF is induced in the rotor, the six-step pulse PWM techniques is applied for the switching of motor drive. A PID control lgorithm is then employed to obtain a fast and fine-tuning speed control. Finally, a BLDC motor drive is well designed and implemented. The experimental results are also evaluated and demonstrated in this thesis.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
目 錄 iii
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 xvi
符號說明 xvii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 4
1.2 文獻探討 7
1.3 研究方向 9
1.4 論文貢獻 10
1.5 章節概要 10
第二章 永磁式馬達控制理論 12
2.1 永磁式馬達介紹 12
2.2 永磁式馬達模型架構 15
2.2.1 永磁式馬達數學等效模型推導 16
2.2.2 永磁式馬達感應電動勢 18
2.2.3 永磁式馬達電磁轉矩 20
2.3 三相永磁式馬達驅動器架構概述 21
2.4 三相六開關橋式驅動方式 22
2.4.1 三相電流導通方式(180°導通) 24
2.4.2 兩相電流導通方式(120°導通) 27
2.4.3 旋轉磁場示意圖 30
2.5 脈波寬度調變( Pulse Width Modulation, PWM ) 33
2.5.1 類比脈波寬度調變 33
2.5.2 數位脈波寬度調變 35
2.5.3 硬式截波(Hard chopping)與軟式截波(Soft chopping) 36
2.6 永磁式馬達轉矩漣波 39
2.7 永磁式馬達轉子位置感測 42
2.8 數位訊號處理器(Digital Signal Processor) 46
2.8.1 一般功能計時器(GP Timer)單元 48
2.8.2 完全比較單元(Full compare) 56
2.8.3 完全比較單元與PWM 電路產生PWM 波形 58
2.8.4 捕捉單元(Capture) 59
2.8.5 類比/數位轉換(ADC)單元 63
2.8.6 事件管理者中斷單元 67
第三章 永磁式馬達之PID 控制器 71
3.1 比例控制 72
3.2 積分控制 73
3.3 微分控制 74
第四章 硬體電路設計與製作 76
4.1 全橋式整流電路 77
4.2 三相六開關橋式電路 80
4.2.1 功率電晶體開關特性 81
4.2.2 緩衝電路(Snubber circuit) 85
4.3 電晶體閘極驅動電路 87
4.3.1 光耦合器隔離電路 88
4.3.2 閘極獨立電源 91
4.3.3 閘極驅動電路 92
4.4 霍爾位置感測電路 94
4.5 電流感測電路 95
4.6 34BDSP 輸入/出電路 99
4.6.1 捕捉訊號 100
4.6.2 電流感測訊號 102
4.6.3 PWM 訊號 102
4.7 系統硬體電路實體架構 103
第五章 系統軟體架構 11
5.1 馬達轉子磁極區間之判斷 114
5.2 計時器中斷副程式(INT2) 117
5.2.1 過電流保護 118
5.2.2 定子電流迴授 119
5.2.3 馬達轉速計算 119
5.3 捕捉中斷副程式(INT4) 121
第六章 實驗結果與討論 124
6.1 實驗馬達與負載測試平台 124
6.2 霍爾訊號與反電動勢波形 126
6.3 脈波寬度調變訊號 129
6.4 緩衝電路(Snubber circuit)量測波形 135
6.5 無刷直流馬達參數量測 137
6.6 電流量測波形 139
6.7 PID 步階響應波形 146
第七章 結論與展望 152
附錄A 153
參考文獻 156
作者簡介 159
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