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研究生:劉郁旻
研究生(外文):Yu-Min Liu
論文名稱:台中都會區大專生居家多粒徑微粒濃度之探討
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of Residential Multi-Sized Particulate Concentrations for College Students in Taichung Metropolitan County
指導教授:張立德張立德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Te Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:160
中文關鍵詞:居家室內環境儀器比對多粒徑微粒濃度
外文關鍵詞:multi-sized particulate concentrationsresidential indoor environmentinstrument collocation
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本研究之目的在於探討台中地區大專生居家多粒徑微粒濃度之變化情形,參與本研究之個案為非吸菸者,且大多居住於台中市西屯區,於2007年1月22日至2008年1月11日間分別於平日時間進行5天之監測活動,共計完成35名個案暨168個採樣人天之居家監測。

本研究首先利用哈佛衝擊器(Harvard Impactor, HI)驗證攜帶式微粒濃度監測儀(IAQcheck™ Portable Dust Monitor, series 1.108, Grimm Inc.)及哈佛個人環境採樣器(Harvard Personal Environmental Monitoring Sampler, Harvard PEM)之表現後,以攜帶式微粒濃度監測儀取得不同房屋類型之室內環境多粒徑微粒即時濃度變化,並搭配居家環境特性問卷、時間活動日誌資料及哈佛個人環境採樣器,進行居家多粒徑微粒濃度之變化情形之探討。

研究結果顯示,與哈佛衝擊器相比,攜帶式微粒濃度監測儀與Harvard PEM皆有不錯的一致性,其中攜帶式微粒濃度監測儀之溫溼度感應器表現良好,而攜帶式微粒濃度監測儀與Harvard PEM之表現則有較大差異。而進行居家微粒濃度監測之對象,以單獨居住者為眾,有70%以上的時間皆待在家中,其次為教室及其他非家中室內場所,較少時間在交通工具上。

家戶之時序微粒濃度變化結果顯示,室內微粒濃度會由於室內環境中之人類活動而影響,其中以PM10之波動最大。而受氣象型態之影響,各粒徑微粒濃度之最大值多發生於1、2月份,最小值則均發生於6月份;以季節進行區分時,發現各粒徑微粒濃度多以乾季時較高,溼季時較低,且達統計上之顯著差異。進一步以時段來區分,由於人類活動等因素,細粒徑微粒濃度於夜間時段高於日間,而粗粒徑微粒則以日間時段高於夜間。

本研究中由房屋類型之區分可知,居家室內微粒濃度會由於活動人數及受外界影響程度而有所差異,各粒徑微粒濃度顯著以多人同住1房且無其他活動空間之房屋類型為最高,而以多人同住1房且有其他活動空間之房屋類型為最低。而微粒濃度隨居住面積之增加而大致有下降之趨勢;建築材質部分,則以水泥隔間、牆壁表面材質為油漆者之微粒濃度較高。
The aim of this study was to measure residential multi-sized particulate concentrations for 35 non-smoking college students in Taichung metropolitan area. During January 2007 to January 2008, residential monitoring was conducted using the IAQcheck™ Portable Dust Monitor (IAQcheck™ Portable Dust Monitor, series 1.108, Grimm Inc.) for 5 consecutive weekdays for each participant, with total sampling days of 168.

To understand the performance of each instrument, Harvard Impactor (HI) was collocated with IAQcheck™ Portable Dust Monitor and Harvard PEM as a standard. The real time particulate concentration data was linked to residential characteristics, residential indoor activities and Harvard PEM.

Results showed that IAQcheck™ Portable Dust Monitor and sensors for temperature and moisture performed well. Most subjects were living along, and spending more than 70% of the time at home, followed by classroom and other non-residential indoors, less time in transport.

Multi-sized particulate concentrations did fluctuate due to residents’ daily activities in residential indoor environments (such as movement and cleaning), especially for PM10. Affected by the impact of weather patterns, the maximum concentration of each particulate size tends to occur in January and February, and the minimum concentration occurred in June. Levels of dry season particulate size tend to significantly higher than wet season. Further to distinguish between periods, concentrations of smaller sized particles were higher in nighttime, and concentrations of bigger sized particles were higher in daytime, affected by human activities.

Levels of residential indoor particulate fluctuate due to the building type. Concentrations of each particulate size were higher in building type 3, and lower in building type 4. Concentrations of particles tend to increases with particle size. Finally, levels of residential indoor particles were higher in cement partition, lower in wooden partition; levels of residential indoor particles were higher in wall surface material for paint, lower in wooden.
摘要…………………………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
Abstract………………………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
目錄…………………………………………………………………………… Ⅴ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………… Ⅷ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………… Ⅹ

第一章 前言………………………………………………………………… 1
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………… 3
 2.1 微粒之健康影響……………………………………………………… 3
 2.2 室內微粒來源………………………………………………………… 5
 2.3 各國室內多粒徑微粒之研究………………………………………… 8
  2.3.1 美國……………………………………………………………… 8
  2.3.2 歐洲……………………………………………………………… 10
  2.3.3 澳洲……………………………………………………………… 10
  2.3.4 南亞……………………………………………………………… 11
  2.3.5 台灣……………………………………………………………… 11
第三章 材料與方法………………………………………………………… 13
 3.1 研究設計與流程……………………………………………………… 13
 3.2 研究對象……………………………………………………………… 14
 3.3 儀器設備簡介………………………………………………………… 15
  3.3.1 攜帶式微粒濃度監測儀………………………………………… 15
  3.3.2 哈佛個人環境採樣器…………………………………………… 17
  3.3.3 哈佛衝擊器……………………………………………………… 18
  3.3.4 HOBO溫度/溼度記錄器………………………………………… 18
  3.3.5 IAQ-CALC室內空氣品質監測器………………………………… 18
 3.4 採樣策略……………………………………………………………… 19
  3.4.1 室內環境採樣…………………………………………………… 19
  3.4.2 室外大氣環境採樣……………………………………………… 20
  3.4.3 居家環境特性問卷與時間活動日誌…………………………… 20
  3.4.4 儀器比對………………………………………………………… 21
 3.5 資料整理與分析……………………………………………………… 22
  3.5.1 品質保證與品質管制
(Quality Assurance / Quality Control, QA/QC)………………… 22
   3.5.1.1 濾紙調理與保存…………………………………………… 22
   3.5.1.2 偵測極限(Limit of Detections, LODs)……………………… 23
   3.5.1.3 資料整理…………………………………………………… 23
  3.5.2 資料分析………………………………………………………… 24
第四章 結果………………………………………………………………… 28
 4.1 儀器及樣本表現……………………………………………………… 28
  4.1.1 樣本背景值與偵測極限………………………………………… 28
  4.1.2 IAQ-CALC室內空氣品質監測器………………………………… 29
  4.1.3 攜帶式微粒濃度監測儀………………………………………… 29
  4.1.4 哈佛個人環境採樣器…………………………………………… 30
 4.2 家戶基本特性描述…………………………………………………… 31
  4.2.1 居家環境特性…………………………………………………… 32
  4.2.2 研究對象之時間活動型態……………………………………… 33
  4.2.3 居家室內通風…………………………………………………… 34
  4.3 居家微粒暴露評估……………………………………………… 34
   4.3.1 居家多粒徑微粒暴露………………………………………… 34
   4.3.2 居家之時序微粒分析………………………………………… 36
   4.3.3 居家特性之微粒分析………………………………………… 38
   4.3.4 室內外微粒濃度……………………………………………… 39
第五章 討論………………………………………………………………… 41
 5.1 樣本之LOD…………………………………………………………… 41
 5.2 儀器表現……………………………………………………………… 42
 5.3 個案及家戶特性……………………………………………………… 43
 5.4 居家微粒暴露………………………………………………………… 44
  5.4.1 居家之時序微粒暴露…………………………………………… 45
  5.4.2 居家特性之微粒濃度…………………………………………… 46
  5.4.3 室內外微粒濃度………………………………………………… 47
第六章 結論與建議………………………………………………………… 48
第七章 參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 50

附錄一 居家環境特性問卷………………………………………………… 150
附錄二 活動日誌…………………………………………………………… 157
附錄三 研究同意書………………………………………………………… 159
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