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研究生:李正彥
研究生(外文):Zheng-Yan Lee
論文名稱:意識與無意識記憶的運作:刺激收錄在不同隱示測驗中對兩類記憶的作用
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Conceptual Encoding on Conscious and Unconscious Memory in Different Implicit Tests
指導教授:鄭昭明鄭昭明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chao-Ming Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:佛光大學
系所名稱:心理學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:MBD 法意識記憶無意識記憶隱示測驗重複促發效果處理層次
外文關鍵詞:Dissociation of memory in implicit testsMetacognition-based dissociation procedureConscious process of memoryUnconscious process of memoryLevel of processing
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本論文在三種隱示測驗(implicit test)-「詞幹填充」(stem-completion)、「詞辨識」(word identification)與「詞聯想」(word association)測驗下,觀察練習詞的「淺層處理」(筆劃複雜度評定)、「深層處理一」(愉快性評定)與「深層處理二」(相關性評定)如何影響測驗裡這些詞的意識與無意識記憶;
其中「淺層-深層」為「處理層次」(level-of-processing)變項,二種深層處理的差異,「深層二」比「深層一」複雜,前者實驗刺激以配對詞的方式呈現,字數較後者多,且更偏向概念性處理。意識、無意識記憶依照「以監測為基底的分離法」(metacognition-based dissociation method,簡稱MBD 法;Cheng, Lin, & Tsai,
2008)分離。結果顯示,三種練習情況對三種測驗裡的「意識記憶估計值」皆產生正向影響,其中有一致的正向「處理層次效果」,「深層一」與「深層二」的操弄在「詞幹填充」和「詞聯想測驗」的結果有交互作用:「詞幹填充測驗」中,「深層一」處理的意識記憶表現優於「深層二」處理,「詞聯想測驗」裡「深層二」的意識記憶優於「深層一」;二種深層處理在「詞辨識測驗」的意識記憶差異未達顯著。「詞聯想測驗」裡的無意識記憶未獲益於任三種練習情況;「詞幹填充測驗」裡,無意識記憶獲益於淺層與深層一的處理,但未獲益於深層二的處理,其中「淺層-深層一」與「淺層-深層二」呈現「逆轉處理層次效果」;無意識記憶在「詞辨識測驗」中獲益於淺層處理,未獲益於二種深層處理,與「詞幹填充測驗」有相同組型的「逆轉處理層次效果」。本論文的實驗結果以Cheng等人提出的意識、無意識記憶運作機制驗證及討論。
This study investigated how shallow processing (complexity rating) and two levels of deep processing (pleasantness rating and conceptual relatedness rating) of study words affect conscious memory (CM) and unconscious memory (UM) of the words with three implicit tests: word-stem completion, word association, and word identification. The metacognition-based dissociation procedure developed by Cheng, Lin, and Tsai (2008) was used to separate CM from UM in each test. The three experiments consistently produced a positive effect of level-of-processing (LoP) on the estimate of CM. There was an interaction of Deep Processing
× Test on the estimate of CM: the estimate of CM in word-stem completion benefited more from pleasantness rating than from conceptual relatedness rating, and that in word association benefited more from conceptual relatedness rating than pleasantness rating. The estimate of UM benefited from shallow and pleasantness rating in word-stem completion, from shallow condition in word-identification, and produced reversed LoP effect. None of the three study conditions produced an effect on the estimate of UM in word association. The results of this study is discussed with the mechanisms underlying CM and UM proposed by Cheng et al. .
目 錄
緒論---------------------------------------------------------------- 1
單一測驗中分離CM與UM的實驗法---------------------------------------- 4
適用隱示測驗的記憶分離方法-以「監測為基底」的分離法-------- 4
使用MBD法的實徵研究----------------------------------------- 9
Cheng對二類記憶機制的觀點-------------------------------------------11
意識記憶----------------------------------------------------11
無意識記憶--------------------------------------------------12
研究目的------------------------------------------------------------14
實驗一、詞幹填充測驗------------------------------------------------16
實驗方法----------------------------------------------------16
結果與討論--------------------------------------------------21
實驗二、詞聯想測驗--------------------------------------------------24
實驗方法----------------------------------------------------24
結果與討論--------------------------------------------------25
實驗三、詞辨識測驗--------------------------------------------------28
實驗方法----------------------------------------------------28
結果與討論--------------------------------------------------30
綜合討論------------------------------------------------------------33
意識記憶----------------------------------------------------33
無意識記憶--------------------------------------------------36
概念性重複效果的存在與否------------------------------------37
實驗中 過低的問題-------------------------------------------38
本研究的限制與對MBD未來發展的建議---------------------------40
參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------41
附錄一、實驗詞------------------------------------------------------47
附錄二、實驗指導語--------------------------------------------------52
附錄三、實驗一詞幹填充作業答案本------------------------------------56
附錄四、實驗二詞聯想作業答案本--------------------------------------62
附錄五、實驗三詞辨識作業答案卷--------------------------------------84

表 目 錄
表一、以詞幹填充測驗為例,MBD中各項記憶表現的來源------------------- 8
表二、劉洧柔(2006)實驗二研究資料依照MBD更新後的記憶效果-----------10
表三、依照Cheng等人(2008)觀點對三個實驗記憶效果的預測-------------17
表四、參與者在實驗一各情況的記憶表現--------------------------------23
表五、參與者在實驗二各情況的記憶表現--------------------------------27
表六、參與者在實驗三各情況的記憶表現--------------------------------32
表七、三個實驗的記憶效果整理----------------------------------------34
表八、三個實驗的 與基線反應比較-------------------------------------39

圖 目 錄
圖一、筆劃數判斷作業流程圖------------------------------------------19
圖二、詞辨識測驗流程圖(不含練習)----------------------------------29
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