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研究生:廖錦平(釋妙哲)
研究生(外文):Campi Kam Ping Liu
論文名稱(外文):Study of the Chapter on Dāna Pāramitā: Based on the Mahāyāna Sūtra on the Way to the Six Pāramitās by Prajñā
指導教授:索羅寧索羅寧引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kirill Solonin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:佛光大學
系所名稱:佛教學系
學門:人文學門
學類:宗教學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:60
外文關鍵詞:DānaDāna PāramitāDharma DānaThe Mahāyāna Sūtra on the Way to Six PāramitāsPrajñā (translator)
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“Giving gifts is a social act that unavoidably takes one outside oneself and puts one in contact with an other or others. That the logic of the gift, then, is infused with assumptions of reciprocity should also not be surprising… ”

Giving is no ordinary action. In Buddhism, giving or dāna is a part of establishing relationships between the sangha and the society. Dāna in India originally meant the giving of alms to monks. However, as Buddhism entered China, the concept of giving changed. Over time, dāna was no longer just offering of food or necessary materials, but a way towards the path of Buddhahood. In Mahāyāna Buddhism, dāna as a pāramitā, a perfection, that is cultivated by bodhisattvas helps relieves the suffering of all sentient beings. The greatest gift to give is Dharma. It surpasses all material gifts and even the giving of one’s own family. For it is the Dharma that can lead sentient beings towards a path of peace and joy by allowing them to understand the reality of their situation and the way out of it.
This thesis will bring to light the meaning of dāna, dāna pāramitā, and Dharma dāna as written in the Chapter on Dāna Pāramitā in The Mahāyāna Sūtra on the Way to Six Pāramitās. Prajñā, an Indian monk who went to China during the Tang dynasty, translated this text. As a result, the Emperor Dezong recognized the importance of his translation work and had it placed in the Buddhist catalogues. The text outlines the way a bodhisattva should practice the six pāramitās and how the text is significant in protecting the nation. It is these qualities that led the emperor to highly praise it. Buddhist circles have often quoted from the text up until the Yuan dynasty.
The thesis is divided into five chapters. The first chapter sheds light on the sources and methodology used in writing the thesis. The second chapter begins on Prajñā, the translator and his role in the Tang dynasty as he translated many texts during that time. Particularly the The Mahāyāna Sūtra on the Way to Six Pāramitās, how important was the text and the role it played during the Tang-Song dynasties. The third chapter brings to light the meaning of dāna pāramitā and Dharma dāna as it is discussed in The Mahāyāna Sūtra on the Way to Six Pāramitās. The fourth chapter is the translation with footnotes of “Chapter 5 on Dāna Pāramitā” from the text. Lastly, the significance of dāna as summarized in the conclusion. The Chinese version of the chapter is placed in the appendix for reference.
ABSTRACT ..…..…..…………………………………………… iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ….……………………………………… iv

ABBREVIATIONS …...………………………………………… v

CHAPTER I: Introduction ………………………………………… 7
A. Sources ……………………………………………… 9

CHAPTER II: Prajñā and DLP in Tang …………………………………12

A. Prajñā (translator) …………………………………………………. 12
a. Spreading Buddhism into China ……………………… 12
b. Translation ………………………………………………… 14

B. The Mahāyāna Sūtra on the Way to Six Pāramitās Background ……....…. 17
a. Placement in Catalogues …………………19
b. Content of The Mahāyāna Sūtra on the Way to Six Pāramitās……. 20
c. Significance in Tang-Song China ……………… 20

CHAPTER III: Dāna in Chinese Buddhism .…………………… 22

A. Translating Dāna into Chinese …………….…… 22

B. From Dāna to Dāna Pāramitā ……………..………………… 24
a. Dharma Dāna ………………………………… 26

CHAPTER IV: Translation:
The Mahāyāna Sūtra on the Way to Six Pāramitās (fascicle four) …… 28

CHAPTER V: Conclusion …………………………………………… 52

BIBLIOGRAPHY .…………………………………………………….. 53

APPENDIX …………………………………………………………………… 58
Primary

Annen (安然), compiled. Zhu A She Li Zhen Yan Mi Jiao Bu Lei Zhong Lu《 諸阿闍梨真言密教部類總錄 》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol. 55, Fascicle 2176.

Bhikkhu Bodhi and Thera Nyanaponika, trans. Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: An Anthology of Suttas from the Anguttara Nikaya. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Bodhi Society, 1999.

Henan (恒安), compiled. Xu Zhen Yuan Shi Jiao Lu《續貞元釋教錄 》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol. 55, Fascicle 2158.

Kūkai, compiled. Goshōrai Mokuroku《 御請來目錄 》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol. 55, Fascicle 2161.

Kumarajiva, trans. Vajracchedika Prajñā Pāramitā《金剛般若波羅蜜經》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol. 8, Fascicle 235.

Prajñā, trans. Sūtra on the Way to Six Pāramitās of Mahāyāna Principle《大乘理趣六波羅蜜多經》. Fo Guang Buddhist Canon, pp23-237.

Prajñā, trans. Sūtra on the Way to Six Pāramitās of Mahāyāna Principle《大乘理趣六波羅蜜多經》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol. 8, Fascicle 261.

-------- et al, trans. AvataMsaka Sūtra 《 大方廣佛華嚴經》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol.50, Fascicle 2061.

-------- Mahāyāna Sūtra of Mind Ground Contemplation 《大乘本生心地觀經》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol. 3, Fascicle 159.

-------- Zhu Fo Jing Jie She Zhen Shi Jing《 諸佛境界攝真實經 》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol.18, Fascicle 868.

-------- and Liyan (利言), trans. Heart Sūtra《 般若波羅密多心經》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol.8, Fascicle 254.

-------- and Muniśrī (牟尼室利), trans. The Sūtra on the Merit of Longevity through Building StUpas《 佛說造塔延命功德經 》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol.19, Fascicle 1026.

-------- and Muniśrī (牟尼室利), Da Hua Yan Zhang Zhe Wen Fo Na Luo Yan Li Jing《 大華嚴長者問佛那羅延力經》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol.14, Fascicle 547.

Unknown, compiled. Lu Wai Jing Deng Mu Lu《 錄外經等目錄 》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol.55, Fascicle 2175.

Unknown transl. Sūtra on the Five Types of Merits for Offering Food 《 施食獲五福報經 》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol.2, Fascicle 132.

Yuanzhao, compiled. Da Tang Zhen Yuan Xu Kai Yuan Shi Jiao Lu《大唐貞元續開元釋教錄 》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol. 8, Fascicle 261.

--------- Zhen Yuan Xin Ding Shi Jiao Mu Lu《 貞元新定釋教目錄 》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol. 8, Fasicle 261.

Zanning, compiled. Song Biography of Eminent Monks《宋高僧傳》. Taishō Tripitaka Vol.50, Fascicle 2061.

Showa Era's Comprehensive Catalogue of Dharma Treasure (Shōwa hōbō sōmokuroku 昭和法寶目錄). Taishō Tripitaka.


Secondary

Berking, Helmuth. Sociology of Giving. Translated by Patrick Camiller London: SAGE Publications, 1999.

Brekke, Torkel. Religious Motivation and the Origins of Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.

Conze, Edward. Buddhist Wisdom: The Diamond Sūtra and The Heart Sūtra. New York: Random House: 2001.

Ch’en, Kenneth. Buddhism in China. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964.

Dayal, Har. Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit Literature. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1932.

Findly, Ellison Banks. Dāna : Giving and Getting in Pali Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2003.

Kieschnick, John. The Eminent Monk. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press,1997.

Mauss, Marcel. The Gift. Translated by W.D. Halls. London: Routledge, 2002.

Master Hsing Yun. Of Benefit to Oneself and Others: A Critique of the Six Perfections. Translated by Dr. John Balcom. Edited by Brenda Bolinger. Los Angeles: Buddha’s Light Publishing, 2002.

Nattier, Jan. The Bodhisattva Path: Based on the Ugrapariprccha, a Mahāyāna Sūtra. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2007.

Schopen, Gregory. Figments and fragments of Mahāyāna Buddhism in India: more collected papers. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005.

----------. Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

Schrift, Alan D. The Logic of the Gift: Toward an Ethic of Generosity. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Williams, Paul. Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. New York: Routledge, 1989.


Journal

Gimello, Robert M. “Ch'eng-kuan on the Hua-yen Trinity.” Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal No. 9 (July 1996) pp. 341-411. http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-BJ001/bj60469.htm (accessed April 25, 2009).

Reiko Ohnuma "Internal and External Opposition to the Bodhisattva's Gift of His Body." Journal of Indian Philosophy 28, no. 1(February 1, 2000): 43-75.

---------. “The Gift of the Body and the Gift of Dharma.” History of Religions, Vol. 37, No. 4 (May,1998), pp323-359.

Michael J Walsh "The Economics of Salvation: Toward a Theory of Exchange in Chinese Buddhism." American Academy of Religion. Journal of the American Academy
of Religion 75, no. 2 (June 1, 2007): 353-382.





Dissertations

Cheng, Kim. “Merit-making in Chinese Buddhism.” PhD diss., University of the West, 2004.

Dixon, Heather A. “The Economics of Obligation: Sacrifice and Gift-giving in Hindu and Buddhist Food Offering.” MA diss., University of Regina, 2003.

Green, Ronald S. KUkai, Founder of Japanese Shingon Buddhism: Portraits of His Life, PhD diss., University of Wisconstin, 2003.


Chinese Sources

Chen, Bert (陳柏達). Ways to Liberation – The Six Pāramitās 《 圓滿生命的實現 - 布施波羅蜜 》. Taipei: The Grand East Book Co., Ltd. (東大圖書), 1992.
Venerable Master Hsing Yun. (星雲大師). The Diamond Sūtra《金剛經講話》. 中國佛教經典寶藏類選白話版: 15. Taipei: Fo Guang Cultural Enterprises, Ltd., 1997.
Liu, Yih-tsih (劉奕賜). “The Essentials of the Six Pāramitās Sūtra〈大乘理趣六波羅蜜多經要義〉.”Hua-Kang Buddhist Journal (華岡佛學學報) 5, (1981) : 289-309.
Shiroishi, Ryokai (白石凌海). “The Development of Dāna Thought (4) : Dāna Thought in the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra〈布施概念的變遷(四) : 般若經中的布施思想〉.” Translated by Hsu Yang (許洋). Yuan Kuang Buddhist Journal (圓光佛學學報) 5 (2000.12): 153-168.

Weinstein, Stanley. Buddhism under the T’ang〈唐代佛教 〉. Translated by Shih Yifa. Taipei: Fo Guang Cultural Enterprise Co., Ltd (佛光文化), 1999.


Japanese Sources

“Shou Hu Guo Jie Zhu Tuo Luo Ni Jing 《守護國界主陀羅凡經》”. (新國譯大藏經: 密教部3). Tokyo: Ookura Shuppan Kabushiki Kaisha(大藏出版株式會社), 2000.

“Yao Lue Nian Song Jing, Zhu Fo Jing Jie She Zhen Shi Jing and so on.” (新國譯大藏經: 密教部5).Tokyo: Ookura Shuppan Kabushiki Kaisha(大藏出版株式會社), 2000.
References

Comprehensive Dictionary of Chinese (漢語大詞典). Ed. Luo Zhu-feng (羅竹風). 12 vols. Taipei: Tunghua Bookstore, 1997.

Digital Dictionary of Buddhism. Ed. Charles Muller. <http://www. acmuller.net/ddb>. Edition of 2009/4/30.

Fo Guang Dictionary (佛光大辭典). 6 vols. Kaoshiung: Fo Guang Cultural Enterprises Ltd., 1998.

Mochikuchi Bukkyō daijiten (The Great Dictionary of Buddhism 望月佛教大辭典). Ed. Mochizuki Shinkō. 望月. 信享. , et al. 10 vols. Taipei: Horizon Publishing Co., 1979.
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