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研究生:王慧媛
研究生(外文):Wang, Hui-Yuan
論文名稱(外文):A Comparison between Peter Drucker’s Non-profit Organization Management Theory and Fo Guang Shan Buddhist Order’s Management
指導教授:釋永東釋永東引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih, Yung Dong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:佛光大學
系所名稱:佛教學系
學門:人文學門
學類:宗教學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:121
外文關鍵詞:ManagementMaster Hsing YunPeter F. DruckerFo Guang ShanNon-profit Organization
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Fo Guang Shan (FGS) Buddhist Order is the most international and largest Chinese Buddhist Order at present. Founded in 1967, up until FGS’ 40th Anniversary, it has developed so fast that the total number of FGS monasteries around the world surpassed 200 temples in 33 countries; and its constituent organizations at present total more than four hundred worldwide. Buddhist monasteries were established primarily for spiritual purposes, but when an establishment grows gradually, it requires a managerial system for the sustainable development.
Peter F. Drucker is considered the father of modern management and was one of the top ten management gurus. He said, “Management is the organ of institutions, the organ that converts a mob into an organization, and human efforts into performance.” He is one of the first who wrote about the management of Non-profit Organizations.
The main purpose of this study is to contribute to our understanding of the managerial practice of this religious Non-profit Organization by comparing Peter F. Drucker’s teachings with Master Hsing Yun’s management philosophy at FGS and in his daily management practices based on observing the five functions of management: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.
This research will adopt in-depth interviews to collect data about FGS management practice. The mission of this Buddhist Order seems to be quite clear; the strategic planning is guided by the Board of Directors according to the needs of society; FGS practices an alternated leadership; and the monasatics change their working posts to learn new skills every three years. FGS develops the potential in each individual; the most important characteristics of leaders are to be tolerant, and to have a mind of offering, that is, giving satisfaction, happiness and Dharma joy. Team work and consensus is the key relation between them, and the leaders have a double challenge of serving people and working on their internal cultivation.
Master Hsing Yun is very wise for having founded Buddha Light’s International Association, an association that gathers lay devotees and volunteers together with the monastics for the propagation of Dharma.
The management principles of Non-profit Organization taught by Peter F. Drucker are most applicable to real life practices, while FGS management practice contains vast and deeper elements for discussion.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations 1
1.2 Research Objectives 4
1.3 Importance of the Research 6
1.4 Research Scope and Limitations 8
1.5 Research Procedure 9
1.6 Organization of the Study 10
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 Definitions 12
2.2 Peter F. Drucker and His Relevant Writings about Management 16
2.3 Master Hsing Yun and his Relevant Teachings on Management 27
2.4 Fo Guang Shan (FGS) Buddhist Order 33
2.5 Summary of the Chapter 45
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 47
3.1 Qualitative Research 47
3.2 Research Design 48
3.3 Question Design 52
3.4 Research Subjects 54
3.5 Data Collection Procedures 57
3.6 Data Analyzing Procedures 59
CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 60
4.1 Coding 60
4.2 Analysis and Interpretation of the Results 62
4.3 Comparison between Peter F. Drucker’s Theory and FGS Management Practice 74
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 81
5.1 Conclusions 81
5.2 Suggestions 84
BIBLIOGRAPHY 87
APPENDIX 94
Appendix 1: List of Master and Doctoral Degree Theses in Taiwan about Fo Guang Shan (FGS) 94
Appendix 2: List of Master and Doctoral Degree Theses in Taiwan about Peter F. Drucker 99
Appendix 3: Textual Answers from the In-depth Interviews 100
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A) English Sources
i. Book
1. Barbie, Earl. The Basic Social Research. 3rd. ed. Toronto: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.
2. Campling, John, David Poole, Retha Wiesner, and John R. Schermerhorn Jr. Management. 3rd Asia-Pacific Edition. Australia: John Wiley & Sons Australia, 2008.
3. Connors, Tracy Daniel. The Nonprofit Handbook. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Son, 2001.
4. Denzin, Norman K and Yvonna S. Lincoln, The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research. CA: Thousand Oaks, 2005.
5. Drucker, Peter F. Adventures of a Bystander. New York: John Wiley, 1998.
6. Drucker, Peter F. An Introductory View of Management. Taipei: Hwa-Tai Book, 1980.
7. Drucker, Peter F. Classic Drucker: From the Pages of Harvard Business Review. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2008.
8. Drucker, Peter F. Concept of the Corporation. NJ: Transaction Publisher, 1993
9. Drucker, Peter F. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practice and Principles. Taipei: Huang Chia, 1985.
10. Drucker, Peter F. Management Challenges for the 21st Century. New York: Harper business, 2001.
11. Drucker, Peter F. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. Taipei: Mei Ya Publications, 1974.
12. Drucker, Peter F. Managing in Turbulent Times. NY: Harper & Row Publishers Inc., 1980.
13. Drucker, Peter F. Managing the Non-Profit Organization: Principles and Practices. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1990.
14. Drucker, Peter F. The Age of Discontinuity: Guidelines to Our Changing Society. Taipei: Huang Jia Books Ltd., 1969.
15. Drucker, Peter F. and Joseph A. Maciariello. The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the Right Things Done. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004.
16. Drucker, Peter F. The Drucker Foundation Self-Assessment Tool: Participant Workbook. Revised ed. CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1999.
17. Drucker, Peter F. The Ecological Vision. NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1993.
18. Drucker, Peter F. The Essential Drucker: Selections from the Management Works of Peter F. Drucker. New York: HarperCollins Publisher, 2001.
19. Drucker, Peter F. The Practice of Management. Oxford: Heinemann Professional, 1993.
20. Fayol, Henri. General and Industrial Management. Trans. by Constance Starrs. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1949.
21. Fu, Zhiying. Bright Star, Luminous Cloud: the Life of a Simple Monk. Trans. by Robert H. Smitheram Ph. D. CA: Buddha’s Light Publishing, 2008.
22. Fu, Zhiying. Handing Down the Light. Trans. by Amy Lui-Ma. LA: Hsi Lai University Press, 2000.
23. Gillham, Bill. The Research Interview. London: Continuum, 2000.
24. Gray, Paul S. and John B. Williamson, The Research Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
25. Griffin, Ricky W. Management, 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996.
26. Koontz, Harold, Cyril O’Donnel, and Heinz Weihrich. Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984.
27. Kvale, Steinar. InterViews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. 9th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998.
28. Lofland, John, David Snow, Leon Anderson, and Lyn H. Lofland. Analyzing Social Settings: A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis. 4th. ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2006.
29. Marshall, Catherine and Gretchen B. Rossman, Designing Quallitative Research. CA: Sage Publications Press, 2006.
30. Reider, Rob. Improving the Economy, Efficiency, and Effectiveness of Not-for-Profits. NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
31. Robbins, Stephen P., and David A. De Cenzo. Fundamentals of Management. NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998.
32. Rubin, Herbert J. and Riene S. Rubin. Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1995.
33. Salamon, Lester M. “The Resilient Sector: The State of Nonprofit America.” In The State of Nonprofit America, edited by Lester M Salamon, 3-52. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.
34. Salamon, Lester M. and Helmut, K. Anheier Editors. Defining the Nonprofit Sector: A Cross-National Analysis. NY: Manchester University Press, 1997.
35. Sallis, Edward and Kate Sallis. People in Organizations. London: Macmillan Education, 1988.
36. Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Student and Researchers. 7th. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
37. Ven. Master Hsing Yun. A Buddhist Approach to Management. Trans. by Otto Chang, Ph.D. Hacienda Heights, CA: Buddha’s Light International Association, 2001.
38. Ven. Master Hsing Yun, Trans. Tom Graham. Lotus in a Stream: Essays in Basic Buddhism. New York: Weatherhill, 2000.
39. Ven. Master Hsing Yun. The Everlasting Light: Dharma Thoughts of Master Hsing Yun. Sanchung: Fo Guang Cultural Enterprise, 2001.
40. Wood, John C. and Michael C. Wood, eds. Henri Fayol: Critical Evaluations in Business and Management. New York: Routledge, 2002.

ii. Thesis
1. Stuart, Chandler “Establishing a Pure Land on Earth: the Foguang Buddhist Perspective on Modernization and Globalization” Ph. D Thesis, Harvard University, 2000.

iii. Articles and Journals
1. Blank, Sally J. “Managing for a Mission in Girl Scouting,” Management Review. 76, 4 (Apr. 1987): 56-58.
2. Drucker, Peter and Shaker A. Zahra. “An Interview with Peter Drucker.” The Academy of Management Executive Vol.13, No.3 (August 2003): 9-12. http://www.jstor.org/pss/4165974 (accessed March 23, 2009).
3. Greenwood, Ronald G. “Management by Objectives: As Developed by Peter Drucker, Assisted by Harold Smiddy.” The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, (Apr., 1981): 225-230.
4. Klein, S. “Drucker as Business Moralist” Journal of Business Ethic 28, (2000): 121-128.

iv. Magazines
1. Baekeland, Joan D. “Peter F. Drucker (1909-2005): Ahead of the Curve.” Impressions, no. 29, 2007/2008, 140-4 .
2. Byrne, John A. and Lindsey Gerdes. “The Man Who Invented Management: Why Peter Drucker’s Ideas Still Matter.” BusinessWeek, November 28, 2005. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_48/b3961001.htm (accessed March 10, 2009).
3. Clarke, Kristin. ”What Would Drucker Do?” Associations Now 3, no. 12, 2007, 48-53.
4. Colvin, Geoffrey. “Peter Drucker: 1909-2005.” Fortune, Vol. 152 No. 11, November 28, 2005. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2005/11/28/8361937/index.htm (accessed March 19, 2009).
5. Drucker, Peter and Peter Senge. “Meeting of the Minds.” Across the Board 37 no10, 2000: 16-21.
6. Michaels, James W., “Side Lines.” Forbes, March 10, 1997. http://www.forbes.com//forbes/97/0310/5905014a.html (accessed March 23, 2009).
7. Rubin, Harriet. “Peter's Principles.” Inc., v20 March 1998: 62
8. Schlender, Brent. “Peter Drucker Sets Us Straight.” Fortune, 149 no1 2004: 114-18.
9. Schneider, Mica. “Rating the Management Gurus.” BusinessWeek, October 15, 2001. http://www.businessweek.com/bschools/content/oct2001/bs20011015_3309.htm (accessed March 10, 2009).


v. Web-sites
1. http://www.hsilai.org/en/e_hsilai/temple_history/history.htm
2. http://www.cgu.edu/pages/292.asp
3. http://peter-drucker.memory-of.com/About.aspx
4. http://www.pfdf.org

B) Chinese Sources
i. Books
1. 星雲法師,《合掌人生》,〈台北:講義堂,民國97年〉。 (Master Hsing Yun, A Joined Palms Life. Taipei: Jiang Yi Tang, 2007.)
2. 星雲法師,《領眾之道》,星雲日記〈台北:佛光出版社,民國86年〉。Master Hsing Yun, “The Path of Leading the Multitude”, in The Diary of Master Hsing Yun (Taipei: Fo Guang Publishing, 1997.)
3. 佛光山宗委會,《佛光山40週年: 1~10冊》,〈高雄:佛光山文化教育基金會,民國96年〉。 (Fo Guang Shan Religious Affairs Committee. Fo Guang Shan 40th Anniversary Edition Vol.1-10. Kaohsiung: FGS Foundation for Buddhist Culture and Education, 2007.)
4. 佛光山宗委會,《佛光山徒眾手冊》,〈高雄:宗委會,民國95年〉。(Fo Guang Shan Religious Affairs Committee. Fo Guang Shan Handbook for Order Members (Kaohsiung: FGS Religious Affairs Committee, 2006.)
5. 滿義法師,《星雲模式的人間佛教》,〈臺北市:天下文化2005〉。 (Ven. Man Yi. Humanistic Buddhism of the Pattern Hsing Yun. Taipei: Tian xia Cultural, 2005. )
ii. Journals
1. 星雲法師《佛教對「應用管理」的看法》,普門學報,No.32,95年3月。 ﹝Master Hsing Yun, “The Applied Management from the Buddhist Perspective” Universal Gate Buddhist Journal 32 (Mar 2006).﹞275~310.
iii. Websites
1. htpp://www.tzuchi.org
2. htpp://www.fgs.org.tw
3. htpp://www.ddm.org.tw
4. htpp://www.ctworld.org.tw
5. http://www.templozulai.org.br
6. http://www.moi.gov.tw/stat/news_content.aspx?sn=2502
7. http://www.fgs.org.tw/master/masterA/books/de lectus/hsingslogan/02/02-44.htm Ven. Master Hsing Yun, Personnel Management in Buddhism《佛教的人事理學》.
8. http://www.fgs.org.tw/master/masterA/books/delectus/history/02-13.htm
Ven. Master Hsing Yun, The Utmost Management’s Teachings《最高的管理學》.
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