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研究生:黃耀主
研究生(外文):Yao-Chu Huang
論文名稱:水稻糯性突變品系的理化特性及其於麻糬麵包之應用
論文名稱(外文):Physicochemical properties of the waxy rice mutant and its application on gummy bread
指導教授:郭孟怡郭孟怡引用關係
指導教授(外文):Meng-I Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:稻米突變種理化特性麵糰麵包微結構流變特性質地
外文關鍵詞:ricemutantphysicochemical propertiesdoughbreadmicrostructurerheological propertiestexture
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稻米為亞洲地區的重要主食之ㄧ,可以根據不同的品種,製作成各式各樣的加工產品,甚至可利用米穀粉開發不含有麵筋的米麵包,而米穀粉和米澱粉的理化特性是評估其應用方式的重要指標。麻糬麵包為新式的烘培產品,廣受消費者喜愛,具有酥脆的外殼以及耐嚼的獨特口感,其主要原料為修飾澱粉和水。然而目前的消費市場強調有機和天然的產品,因此研發以天然原料為主的麻糬麵包有其必要性。本研究的目的為探討不同期作水稻臺農67號誘變糯性品系米穀粉與米澱粉的理化特性,以及評估麻糬麵包的加工最適性和探討突變糯性品系米穀粉取代修飾澱粉對其麵糰的流變特性與麵包質地的影響。研究結果顯示,依照精白米的長度與粒形,突變糯性品系編號SA402和編號SA486為稉米,SA419以及SA512為秈米。秈米的米穀粉之糊化黏度值皆高於稉米的米穀粉。另外,突變品系米穀粉與米澱粉的理化特性會受到期作的影響。製作麻糬麵包時隨著配方中水的比例增加,麵糰於流變試驗的臨界應力越小,而麻糬麵包的體積、比體積以及多孔性越高。由麵糰微結構分析可發現,配方中水比例增加或減少,皆會產生蛋白質與脂質混合後的聚集,進一步影響麻糬麵包的外觀與剖面質地。而改變麵糰的攪打時間,對麵糰的流變特性和微結構以及麻糬麵包的質地特性之影響較不顯著。以突變品系糯性米穀粉取代修飾澱粉製作麻糬麵包,隨著米穀粉取代比例增加麻糬麵包的質地特性愈差。而以SA419米穀粉製作的麻糬麵包質地較以SA402米穀粉製作的麻糬麵包佳;以SA402米穀粉製作的麵糰之微結構有較明顯且不均勻分佈的蛋白質和脂質混合後之聚集。因此,水稻臺農67號誘變糯性品系SA419具有特殊理化特性適合做為麻數麵包之原料;物性儀、雷射掃描式共軛焦顯微鏡,以及動態流變儀等儀器,適合用於評估麻糬麵包的質地及其麵糰的微結構和流變特性,並可進一步解釋麻糬麵包形成的機轉。
Rice is the staple of Asian people’s diet. Diverse rice processed foods could be manufactured based on rice variety. Rice flour is recently used for making the gluten-free rice bread. The physicochemical properties of rice flour and starch are important indicators for evaluation its applications. Gummy bread is a novel and popular baking product. It possesses crisp crust and unique chewy crumb texture. The main ingredients of gummy bread are modified starch and water. However, the organic and nature products are highlighted presently in the consumer market. Therefore, formulating a nature-based ingredient for gummy bread is crucial for the producer. The objectives of this research were to study the physicochemical properties of rice flours and starches from Tainung 67 waxy rice mutants in different crop years, to evaluate the optimized condiction for gummy bread processing, and to investigate the effect of substitution of waxy mutant rice flours for modified starch on the microstructure and rheological properties of dough and the texture of gummy bread. The result showed that based on the length and grain shape of milled rice, the waxy rice mutants SA402 and SA486 were belonged to japonica rice and SA419 and SA512 were belonged to indica rice. The viscosity values of indica rice flour were higher than that of japonica rice flour. The physicochemical properties of rice mutants were affected by crop year. For gummy bread making, the critical stress of dough was decreased, but the volume, specific volume, and porosity of bread were increased with increasing the ratio of water in the formula. The microstructure analysis of dough revealed that increase or decrease the ratio of water in the formula resulted in the aggregation of the mixture of protein and lipid. This might affect the appearance and texture of gummy bread. Altering the mixing time of dough did not change the rheological properties and microstructure of dough and the texture of gummy bread significantly. The texture of gummy bread decreased with increasing the degree of rice flour subsititution. The texture of gummy bread made by SA419 was better than that of bread made by SA402 since the dough prepared with SA402 had more uneven distributed aggregates from the mixture of protein and lipid. In conclusion, rice mutant SA419 possesses unique physicochemical properties and could be used as ingredient for gummy bread making. Texture analyzer, confocal scanning laser microscopy, and dynamic rheometer were suitable for observing the texture of gummy bread and the microstructure and rheological property of dough. Those information could further be used for explaining the mechanism of gummy bread formation.
第一章、緒言 1
第二章、文獻回顧 2
一、稻米 2
(一)、品種與分類 2
(二)、加工與應用 6
(三)、米澱粉的理化特性 10
二、水稻臺農67號突變品系 14
三、烘焙產品 18
(一)、介紹 18
(二)、麵糰的流變特性 22
(三)、麵包的品質 25
四、修飾澱粉於烘焙產品上的利用 28
第三章、材料與方法 33
一、試驗架構 33
二、試驗材料 35
(一)、試驗材料 35
(二)、試驗藥品 35
三、試驗方法 36
(一)、米粒外觀 36
(二)、米澱粉的分離 37
(三)、成分分析 37
1、水分的測定 37
2、粗蛋白的測定 38
3、總澱粉的測定 39
(四)、視直鏈澱粉的測定 40
(五)、膨潤力與溶解度測定 41
(六)、成糊特性分析 43
(七)、分子量分佈 43
(八)、熱性質分析 44
(九)、麻糬麵包製作 45
(十)、麵糰流變特性的測定 46
(十一)、麵糰微結構觀察 47
(十二)、麵包品質的測定 48
1、體積的測定 48
2、多孔性的測定 48
3、外觀與剖面圖 48
4、質地的測定 49
(十三)、統計分析 50
第四章、結果與討論 52
一、臺農67號誘變品系的外觀與理化特性 52
(一)、精白米的外觀 52
(二)、米穀粉的組成分與視直鏈澱粉含量 52
(三)、膨潤力與溶解度 57
(四)、成糊特性 60
(五)、分子量分佈 63
(六)、討論 69
二、麻糬麵包及其麵糰的結構和流變特性 73
(一)、配方中水比例的影響 73
(二)、麵糰攪打時間的影響 87
(三)、討論 94
三、米穀粉取代對麻糬麵包及其麵糰的結構和流變特性的影響 99
(一)、米穀粉取代的影響 99
(二)、討論 115
第五章、結論 117
第六章、未來研究方向 118
第七章、參考文獻 119
附錄一、臺農67號糯性誘變品系之米澱粉的水分含量 128
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