跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.192.247.184) 您好!臺灣時間:2023/02/06 11:36
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:許偉婷
研究生(外文):Wei-Ting Hsu
論文名稱:海參內臟酵素水解液之抗氧化能力及其對自發性高血壓大鼠血壓之影響
論文名稱(外文):Antioxidative capacities of enzymatic hydrolysates from the organs of sea cucumbers and its antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rat
指導教授:盧義發盧義發引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Fa Lu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:營養科學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:海參高血壓抗氧化胜肽酵素水解液自發性高血壓大鼠
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:796
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:185
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究分為兩個部分,以體外實驗探討海參內臟之酵素水解液中是否具有抑制血管收縮素轉換酶及抗氧化之胜肽形成;另在短期動物實驗中,餵食自發性高血壓大鼠 (spontaneously hypertension rat, SHR) 不同劑量及不同分子量的海參內臟之酵素水解液,能否具有降低血壓的效果。實驗中將海參內臟粉末,分別加入胃蛋白酶與凝乳胰蛋白酶 (PC) 或Prozyme 6與Flavourzyme (P6F) 進行水解得到之水解產物。體外實驗中,P6F水解液具較佳之血管收縮素轉換酶 (ACE) 抑制能力,且總抗氧化能力、還原能力及清除DPPH自由基之能力之抗氧化活性皆較PC水解液顯著地佳。P6F水解液再經由超過濾劃分,分子量小於1 kD之區分具有最佳之ACE抑制作用及抗氧化活性;進一步將分子量 1 kD以下的劃分物利用膠體層析分離後,分子量約在430 Da之區分具最佳之ACE抑制能力而約在990 Da之區分最具抗氧化活性。動物實驗中,以單次不同濃度之P6F水解液管餵 SHR,結果顯示當給予 900 mg/kg BW之劑量時,於3小時後即可顯著降低收縮壓 (p<0.05),並可持續至6小時。在給予分子量小於1 kDa之胜肽溶液,於SHR體內可有效降低血壓。綜合上述,經酵素水解之海參內臟能生成具有降血壓及抗氧化物質,並對SHR有降低血壓之效果。
The study was divided into two parts. In vitro, the enzymatic hydrolysis of the organs of sea cucumbers (OSC) were used to elucidate if there’s any antioxidative and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) materials generated. In vivo, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were gavaged and feed with the hydrolysate or the different fraction of hydrolysate for a short-term to find out whether it have any antihypertensive effects .The hydrolysates obtained by proteolized with pepsin and chymotrypsin (PC) or Prozyme 6 and Flavourzyme (P6F). In vitro studies, results indicated that P6F hydrolysate had higher ACEI as well as higher activity in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. The P6F hydrolysates were separated by ultrafiltration membranes, the fraction of MW<1 kDa was found having the highest ACEI and antioxidativity activity. The fraction of MW<1 kDa was further separated by gel filtration chromatography. The peptide with molecular weight of approximately 430 and 990 Da possessed the strongest activity of ACEI and antioxidation respectively. In animal studies, oral administration of P6F hydrolysate with the dose of 900 mg/kg bw to SHR exerted a significant lowering effect (p<0.05) on SBP after 3 h and lasted to 6 h. In addition, the fraction of MW<1 kDa of the hydrolysate had an antihypertensive effect significantly in SHR. In conclusion, the enzymatic hydrolysis of OSC may generate the hydrolysate with ACEI and antioxidative capacities, and exert an antihypertensive effect in SHR.
中文摘要...................................................Ⅰ
英文摘要..................................................Ⅱ
致謝.....................................................Ⅲ
目錄......................................................Ⅳ
表目錄....................................................Ⅶ
圖目錄....................................................Ⅷ
附圖目錄...................................................Ⅸ
壹、 緒言...............................................1
貳、 文獻回顧...........................................2
一、 高血壓簡介.........................................2
(一) 定義.............................................2
(二) 高血壓之分類.......................................3
(三) 造成高血壓相關因素................................5
(四) 控制及預防高血壓..................................5
二、 血管收縮素轉化酶....................................6
(一) ACE之生化特性......................................6
(二) ACE對血壓的影響.....................................8
(三) 血管收縮素轉化酶抑制劑..............................10
三、 自由基與氧化壓力....................................12
(一) 自由基和活性氧.....................................12
(二) 氧化壓力與氧化傷害.................................13
四、 海參與海參內臟.....................................15
(一) 海參簡介...........................................15
(二) 海參的生理功能.....................................16
(三) 海參內臟之生理功能.................................16
五、 蛋白質水解物之簡介..................................17
(一) 降血壓活性胜肽.....................................18
(二) 抗氧化活性胜肽.....................................24
六、 高血壓自發性大鼠簡介................................28
七、實驗目的...............................................29
參、 材料與方法.........................................30
一、 藥品與器材.........................................30
(一) 實驗材料..........................................30
(二) 分析用試藥........................................30
(三) 儀器設備..........................................31
(四) 實驗流程圖........................................33
1. 酵素水解物之體外實驗..................................33
2. 體內實驗之流程........................................34
二、實驗方法............................................36
(一) 海參內臟之前處理......................................36
(二) 水解條件..............................................36
(三) 水解物可溶性蛋白質含量測定.............................36
(四) 胜肽濃度之測定.........................................37
(五) 水解液機能性之測定.....................................38
(六) 機能性胜肽之分離與收集................................40
(七) 自發性高血壓鼠活體實驗.................................42
(八) 統計分析..............................................43
肆、結果與討論.............................................44
一、水解物可溶性蛋白質含量及胜肽濃度........................44
二、海參內臟酵素水解液之機能性比較............................46
(一) 酵素水解液抑制血管收縮素轉化酶 (ACE) 之能力.............46
(二) 酵素水解液之抗氧化能力..................................47
三、機能性胜肽之分離與收集..................................50
(一) 不同分子量區分之機能性.............................50
(二) 分子量小於 1000 Da 之膠體層析......................51
(三) 劃分收集物中主要抑制 ACE 之胜肽的分離純化...........53
四、酵素水解液對自發性高血壓大鼠 (SHR) 血壓短期作用之影響.....54
(一) 不同劑量之酵素水解液對 SHR 心跳、收縮壓及舒張壓之影響..54
(二) 不同分子量之酵素水解液對SHR心跳、收縮壓及舒張壓之影響..56
伍、結論..................................................58
陸、參考文獻...............................................76

表目錄

表一、高血壓的定義.................................................3
表二、海參內臟之酵素水解液對血管收縮素轉換酶 (ACE) 之抑制能力...59
表三、海參內臟之酵素水解液總抗氧化力及清除 DPPH 自由基之能力比較60
表四、海參內臟之酵素水解液還原力比較..........................61
表五、海參內臟之蛋白酵素水解液中不同區分抑制ACE 之能力.........62
表六、海參內臟之蛋白酵素水解液中不同區分之抗氧化性比較..........63
表七、Sephadex G-15 各劃分物的 ACE 有效抑制百分比............64
表八、 Sephadex G-15 各劃分物之抗氧化性比較..................65
表九、單次灌食不同劑量海參內臟之蛋白酶水解液對自發性高血壓大鼠心跳
之影響..................................................66
表十、單次灌食不同劑量海參內臟之蛋白酶水解液對自發性高血壓大鼠收縮壓
之影響...................................................67
表十一、單次灌食不同劑量海參內臟之蛋白酶水解液對自發性高血壓大鼠舒張壓之影響..............................................68
表十二、單次灌食不同分子量之海參內臟之蛋白酶水解液對自發性高血壓大鼠心跳之影響..............................................69
表十三、單次灌食不同分子量之海參內臟之蛋白酶水解液對自發性高血壓大鼠收縮壓之影響...............................................70
表十四、單次灌食不同分子量之海參內臟之蛋白酶水解液對自發性高血壓大鼠舒張壓之影響...............................................71

圖目錄

圖一、血管收縮素轉化酶 (ACE) 之活化位置與 ACEI 胜肽之結合模擬圖…7
圖二、RAS及KKS作用途徑........................................11
圖三、Captopril 作用原理...........................................12
圖四、海參內臟粉末經胃蛋白酶、凝乳胰蛋白酶水解之可溶性蛋白質及
胜肽含量變化......................................................72
圖五、海參內臟粉末經 Prozyme 6、Flavourzyme 水解之可溶性蛋白質及
胜肽含量變化......................................................73
圖六、海參內臟水解液 (分子量<1,000之區分) 之膠體層析圖譜...........74
圖七、由Sephadex G-15 劃分物之 E 區分所得的高效液相層析圖.........75

附圖目錄

附圖一、單次管灌不同劑量海參內臟之蛋白酶水解液對自發性高血壓大鼠
收縮壓之變化.....................................................93
附圖二、單次管灌不同劑量海參內臟之蛋白酶水解液對自發性高血壓大鼠
舒張壓之變化.....................................................94
附圖三、單次管灌不同分子量之海參內臟之蛋白酶水解液對自發性高血壓
大鼠收縮壓之變化.................................................95
附圖四、單次管灌不同分子量之海參內臟之蛋白酶水解液對自發性高血壓
大鼠收縮壓之變化.................................................96
附圖五、海參內臟之酵素水解液還原力比較...........................97
白禮源等編譯 (1996) 甘龍醫用生理學,Appleton and Lange,藝軒,台北市。
行政院衛生署衛生統計資訊網http://www.doh.gov.tw/statistic/index.htm
余思賢 (2005) 雞精殘餘物之酵素水解液對降血壓及抗氧化能力之研究。輔仁大
學食品營養學系碩士論文。
李宗哲 (2007) 以廢棄雞爪開發具抗氧化與降高血壓效果酵素水解物之研究。國
立中興大學動物科學系所碩士論文。
林子青 (2003) 貝類熱水抽出物與水解物中胜肽對血管升壓素轉換酶之抑制與其純化。國立台灣海洋大學食品科學系碩士論文。
邱麗華 (2005) 甲魚酵素水解物胜肽對抑制血管收縮素轉化酶及降血壓功能之研
究。輔仁大學食品營養學系碩士論文。
吳蕙君 (2003) 肉精與鯖魚肉水解物抗氧化胜肽類之研究。國立台灣海洋大學食品科學系博士論文。
胡燕君 (2003) 透抽水溶性蛋白質酵素水解物抗氧化特性之研究。國立台灣海洋大學食品科學系碩士論文。
國民健康局,高血壓防治手冊。
國家實驗動物中心 (1997) 實驗動物品系特徵。生命科學簡訊。11:pp.6。
陳冠文 (2007) 蛋白酶輔助乳酸菌發酵牛乳之乳清對心血管的生理效果。國立台灣海洋大學食品科學系博士論文。
陳慧芳 (2006) 米蛋白水解物胜肽對抑制血管收縮素轉化酶活性及降血壓之效果。輔仁大學食品營養學系碩士論文。
陳怡宏 (2001) 蛋白質酵素水解物與醫療調理營養。食品工業月刊。33:58-63。
許雅芳 (2003) 鯖柴魚水解物中胜肽對血管升壓素轉換酶之抑制與其純化。國立臺
灣海洋大學水產食品科學系碩士學位論文。
黃志強 (2007) 牛初乳水解物中之抗氧化胜肽研究。大葉大學生物產業科技學系碩士論文。
彭詩純 (2003) 鯖魚肉酵素水解物之游離胺基酸及胜肽與抗氧化性及苦味之關
係。國立臺灣海洋大學水產食品科學系碩士學位論文。
梁詠涵 (2008) 海參內臟之抗氧化及抗致突變性之研究。輔仁大學食品營養學系碩士論文。
楊欣怡 (2008) 大豆蛋白水解物對不同疾病動物模式血壓調節的作用。台北醫學
大學藥學系博士論文。
塗佳琪 (2004) 蜂王蛹蛋白及其酵素水解物對血管收縮素轉換酵素之抑制活性研究。大葉大學生物產業科技學系碩士論文。
孫慧吟 (2008) 酵素種類、水解率及胜肽分子量對脫脂淘汰鴨胸肉水解物特性及抗氧化性之影響。東海大學食品科學系碩士論文。
劉禧賢 (2003) 海參體蛋白多醣之分離及其抗氧化、抗致突變性與降血脂之研究。
國立中興大學食品科學系博士論文。
賴愛姬 (2002)「老年期營養與疾病」。富林出版社,pp.27-40。
Adler-Nissen J (1979) Determination of the degree of hydrolysis of food protein
hydrolysates by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. J Agric Food Chem 27:1256-1262.
Borsig L, Wang L, Cavalcante MC, Cardilo-Reis L, Ferreira PL, Mourao PA, Esko JD and Pavao MS (2007) Selectin-blocking activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan from sea-cucumber: Effect on tumor metastasis and neutrophil recruitment. J Biol Chem 282:14984-14991.
Chance B, Sies H and Boveris A (1979) Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiol Rev 59:527-605.
Cheeseman KH and Slter TF (1993) An introduction to free radical biochemistry. Br
Med Bull 49:481-493.
Chen, HM, Muramoto K and Yamauchi F (1995) Structural analysis of antioxidative peptides from soybean beta-conglycinin. J Agric Food Chem 43:574-578.
Chen J, Lovatelli A, Conand C, Purcell S, Uthicke S, Hamel JF and Mercier A (2004) Present status and prospects of sea cucumber industry in China. In “Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management”. Eds Fisheries Technical Paper 463: 25-38.
Chen HM, Muramoto K, Yamauchi F, Fujimoto K and Nokihara K (1998) Antioxidative properties of histidine-containing peptides designed from peptide fragments found in the digests of a soybean protein. J Agric Food Chem 46:49-53.
Chen HM, Muramoto K, Yamauchi F and Nokihara K (1996) Antioxidant activity of designed peptides based on the antioxidative peptide isolated from digests of a soybean protein. J Agric Food Chem 44:2619-2623.
Chen Q, Xuan G, Fu M, He G, Wang W, Zhang H and Ruan H (2007) Effect of angiotensin І-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from rice dregs protein on antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16:281-285
Cheung HS, Wang FL, Ondetti MA, Sabo EF and Cushman DW (1980) Binding of peptide substrates and inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme. J Biol Chem 255:401-407.
Chiu LH, Hsu GS and Lu YF (2006) Antihypertensive capacity of defatted soft-shelled turtle powder after hydrolysis by gastrointestinal enzymes. J Food Biochem 30:589-603.
Cook NR (1995) Implications of small reductions in diastolic blood pressure for primary prevention. Arch Intern Med 155:701-709.
Cushman DW and Cheung HS (1971) Spectrophotometric assay and properties of the angiotensin converting enzyme of rabbit lung. Biochem Pharmacol 20:1637-1648.
Davalos A, Miguel M, Bartolome B and Lopez-Fandino R (2004) Antioxidant activity of peptides derived from egg white protein by enzymatic hydrolysis. J Food Prot 67:1939-1944.
Diaz M and Decker EA (2004) Antioxidant mechanisms of caseinophosphopeptides and casein hydrolysates and their application in ground beef. J Agric Food Chem 52:8208-8213.
Douglas JG and Hopfer U (1994) Novel aspect of angiotensin receptors and signal transduction in the kidney. Annu Rev Physiol 56:649-669.
Erdos EG and Skidgel RA (1987) The angiotensin Ⅰconverting enzyme. Lab Invest 56:345-348.
Esterbauer H, Dieber-Rotheneder M and Striegl H (1991) Role of vitamin E preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. Am J Clin Nutr 53:314-321.
Fahmi A, Morimura S, Guo HC, Shigematsu T, Kida K, and Uemura Y (2004) Production of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from sea bream scales. Process Biochemistry 39:1195-1200.
Fanton JC and Ward PA (1982) Role of oxygen-derived free radicals and metabolites
in leukocyte-dependent inflammatory reaction. Am J Physiol 107:397-413.
Ferreira SH, Bartelt DC and Greene LJ (1970) Isolation of bradykinin-potentiating peptides from Bothrops jararaca venom. Biochemistry 9:2583-2593.
Fonseca RJC and Mourao PAS (2006) Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate as a new oral antithrombotic agent. Thromb Haemost 96:822-889.
Fray JC, Simon CD and Honeyman TW (1984) Renin-angiotensin system in hypophysectomized rats. Ι. Control of blood pressure. Am J Physiol 46:84-88.
Fredalina BD, Ridzwan BH, Abidin AA, Kaswandi MA, Zaiton H, Zali I, Kittakoop P and Jais AM (1999) Fatty acid composition in local sea cucumber, stichopus chlornontus, for wound healing. Gen Pharmacol 33:337-340.
Fridovich I (1989) Superoxide dismutases. An adaptation to a paramagnetic gas. J Biol Chem 264:7761-7764.
Frokjaer S (1994) Use of hydrolysates for protein supplementation. Food Technol. 48:86-88.
Fujita H, Yamagami T and Oshima K (2001) Effects of an ACE-inhibitory agent, katsuobushi oligopeptide, in the spontaneously hypertensive rat and in borderline
and mildly hypertensive subjects. Nutr Res 21:1149-1158.
Gomez-Ruiz JA, Ramos M and Recio I (2003) Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides in Manchego cheeses manufactured with different starter cultures. Int Dairy J 12:697-706.
Grendling KK, Nurphy TJ and Alexander RW (1993) Molecular biology of the rennin angiotensin system. Circulation 87:1816-1828.
Guo H, Ekusa A, Iwai K, Yonekura M, Takahata Y and Morimatsu F (2008) Royal jelly peptides inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro and in vivo. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 54:191-195.
Guyton SM (1991) Textbook of Medical Physiology. In:The Liver As an Organ. pp 771-774. W. B. Saunders, ed., Philadelphia.
Halliwell B (1987) Free radicals and metal ions health and disease. Proc Nutr Soci 46: 13-26.
Halliwell B and Gutteridge JM (1994) In “Antioxidants in Nutrition, Health, and Disease.” pp 90-110. Oxford University Press. USA.
Hartmann R and Meisel H (2007) Food-derived peptides with biological activity:From research to food applications. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 18:1-7.
He HL, Chen XL, Sun CY, Zhang YZ and Zhou BC (2006) Analysis of novel angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from protease-hydrolyzed marine shrimp Acetes chinensis. J Pept Sci 12:726-733.
Hernández-Ledesma B, Dávalos A, Bartolomé B and Amigo L (2005) Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. identification of active peptides by HPLC-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem 53:588-593.
Hopper NM and Turner AJ (1987) Isolation of two differentially glycosylated forms of peptidyl-dipeptidase A (angiotensin converting enzyme) from pig brain: a re-evaluation of their role in neuropeptide metabolism. Biochem J 241:625-633.
Hsieh BS (1978) Prorenin in essential hypertension. J Formosan Med Assoc 77:35-43.
Hsieh BS and Chen WY (1981) Renal prostaglandin E in essential hypertension: Studies in patients with suppressed rennin activity. J Formosan Med Assoc 80:575-581.
Hsieh BS, Tseng WP, Chen CM and Chen WY (1975) Renin activities in hypertensive patients. J Formosan Med Assoc 74:739-746.
Hyun JW and Chin HK (2000) Utilization of bovine blood plasma proteins for the production of angiotensin Ι converting enzyme inhibitory peptides. Process Biochem 36:65-71.
Imalay JA and Fridovich I (1991) Assay of metabolic superoxide production in Escherichia Coli. J Biol Chem 226:6957-6965.
Jang A and Lee M (2005) Purification and identification of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from beef hydrolysates. Meat Sci 69:653-661.
Je JY, Park PJ, Byun HG, Jung WK and Kim SK (2005) Angiotensin Ι converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide derived from the sauce of fermented blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Bioresour Technol 96:1624-1629.
Je JY, Park PJ, Kwon JY and Kim SK (2004) A novel angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) frame protein hydrolysate. J Agric Food Chem 52:7842-7845.
Je JY, Qian ZJ and Kim SK (2007) Antioxidant peptide isolated from muscle protein of bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana Shaw. J Med Food 10:401-407.
Je JY, Qian ZJ, Lee SH, Byun HG and Kim SK (2008) Purification and antioxidant properties of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) dark muscle peptide on free radical-mediated oxidative systems. J Med Food 11:629-637.
Jone DP, Coates RJ, Flagg EW, Eley JW, Block G, Greenbery RS, Gunter EW and Jackson B (1992) Glutathione in food listed in the national cancer institutes’s health habits and history food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Cancer 17:57-75.
Jung WK, Qian ZJ, Lee SH, Choi SY, Sung NJ, Byun HG and Kim SK (2007) Free radical scavenging activity of a novel antioxidative peptide isolated from in vitro gastrointestinal digests of Mytilus coruscus. J Med Food 10:197-202.
Kamiya H and Kasai H (1996) Oxidative DNA lesions and mutagenesis. J Enviro Mutagen Res 18:181-189.
Kasai T (2003) Lipid contents and fatty acid composition of total lipid of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus and konowata (salted sea cucumber entrails). Food Sci Technol Res 9:45-48.
Katayama K, Anggraeni HE, Mori T, Ahhmed AM, Kawahara S, Sugiyama M, Nakayama T, Maruyama M and Muguruma M (2008) Porcine skeletal muscle troponin is a good source of peptides with angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Agric Food Chem 56:355-360.
Kawasaki T, Delea CS and Bartter FC (1987) The effect of high sodium and low-sodium intakes on blood pressure and other related variables in human subjects with iodopathic hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 52:661-666.
Kim SA, Byum HG, Park PJ and Shahidi F (2001) Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides purified from bovine skin gelatin hydrolysate. J Agric Food Chem 49:2992-2997.
Kim SY, Je JY and Kim SK (2007) Purification and characterization of antioxidant peptide from hoki (Johnius belengerii) frame protein by gastrointestinal digestion. J Nutr Biochem18:31-38.
Kim SK, Je JY and Park PJ (2005) Antioxidant activity of a peptide isolated from Alaska Pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) frame protein hydrolysate. Food Res Int 38:45-50.
Kuba M, Tanaka K, Tawata S, Takeda Y and Yasuda M (2003) Angiotensin I- converting enzyme inhibitory peptides isolated from tofuyo fermented soybean food. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:1278-1283.
Kudoh K, Matsumoto M, Onodera S, Takeda Y, Ando K and Shiomi N (2003) Antioxidative activity and protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage of a potato protein hydrolysate. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 49:451-455.
Laragh JH, Bear L, Brunner HR, Buhler FG, Ealey JE and Vaughan ED (1972) Renin, angiotensin and aldosterone system in pathogenesis and management of hypertensive vascular disease. Am J Med 52:633-652.
Lee JE, Bae IY, Lee HG and Yang CB (2006) Tyr-Pro-Lys, an angiotensin Ι converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica). Food Chem 99:143-148.
Lee DH, Kim JH, Park JS, Choi YJ and Lee JS (2004) Isolation and characterization of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from the edible mushroom Tricholoma giganteum. Peptides 25:621-627.
Levine M., Rumsey S. and Daruwala R (1999) Criteria and recommendations for vitamin C intake. JAMA 281:1415-1423.
Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R and Collin R (2005) Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality:a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 360:1903-1913.
Li B, Chen F, Ji B and Wu Y (2007) Isolation and identification of antioxidative peptides from porcine collagen hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry. Food Chem 102:1135-1143.
Li GH, Le GW, Liu H and Shi YH (2005) Mung-bean protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase exhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Food Sci Technol Int 11:281-287.
Li GH, Shi YH, Liu H and Le GW (2006) Antihypertensive effect of Alcalase generated mung bean protein hydrolysates in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur Food Res Technol 222:733-736.
Li GH, Wan JZ, Le GW and Shi YH (2006) Novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides isolated from Alcalase hydrolysate of mung bean protein. J Pept Sci 12:509-514.
Li GH, Qu MR, Wan JZ and You JM (2007) Antihypertensive effect of rice protein hydrolysate with in vitro angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16:275-280.
Li GH, Le GW, Shi YH and Shrestha S (2004) Angiotensin Ι-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins and their physiological and pharmacological effects. Nutr Res 24:469-486.
Lin TY, Hung TP, Chen CM and Hsu TC (1956) Studies on hypertension among urban
Chinese in Taiwan (Formosa). 1. mean blood pressure readings. J Formosan Med Assoc 55:131-138.
Lo WM and Li-chan EC (2005) Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion of soy protein. J Agric Food Chem 53:3369-3376.
Matsufuji H, Mastui T, Seki E, Osajima K, Nakashima M and Osajima Y (1994) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides in an alkaline protease hydrolyzate derived from sardine muscle. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58:2244-2245.
Matsui T, Li HC and Osajima Y (1999) Preparation and characterization of novel bioactive peptides responsible for angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition from wheat germ. J Pept Sci 5:289-297.
Matsui T, Yukiyoshi A, Doi S, Sugimoto H, Yamada H and Matsumoto K (2002) Gastrointestinal enzyme production of bioactive peptides from royal jelly protein and their antihypertensive ability in SHR. J Nutr Biochem 13:80-86.
Megias C, Pedroche J, Yust MM and Giron-calle J (2007) Affinity purification of copper chelating peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates. J Agric Food Chem 55:3949-3954.
Mendis E, Rajapakse N and Kim SE (2005) Antioxidant properties of a radical-scavenging peptide purified from enzymatically prepared fish skin gelatin hydrolysate. J Agric Food Chem 53:581-587.
Miguel M, Lopez-Fandino R, Ramos M and Aleixandre A (2005) Short-term effect of egg-white hydrolysate products on the arterial blood pressure of hypertensive rats. Br J Nutr 94:731-737.
Miguel M, Recio I, Gomez-Ruiz JA, Ramos M and Lopez-Fandino R (2004) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of peptides derived from egg white proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis. J Food Prot 67:1914-1920.
Miguel M, Recio I, Ramos M, Delgado MA and Aleixandre MA (2006) Antihypertensive effect of peptides obtained from Enterococcus faecalis fermented milk in rats. J Dairy Sci 89:3352-3359.
Miller NJ, Rice-Evans C, Davies MJ, Gopinathan V and Milner A (1993) A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clin Sci 84:407-412.
Miyoshi S, Ishikawa H, Kaneko T, Fukui F, Tanaka H and Maruyama S (1991) Structures and activity of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in an alpha-zein hydrolysate. Agric Biol Chem 55:1313-1318.
Molina MF, Sanchez-Reus I, Iglesias I and Benedi J (2003) Quercetin, a flavonoid antioxidant, prevents and protects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver. Biol Pharm Bull 26:1398-1402.
Muguerza B, Ramos M, Sanchez E, Manso MA, Miguel M, Aleixandre A, Delgado MA and Recio I (2006) Antihypertensive activity of milk fermented by Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from raw milk. Int Dairy J 16:61-69.
Nakano D, Ogura K, Miyakoshi M, Ishii F, Kawanishi H, Kurumazuka D, Kwak C, Ikemura K, Takaoka M, Moriguchi S, Iino T, Kusumoto A, Asami S, Shibata H,
Kiso Y and Matsumura Y (2006) Antihypertensive effect of angiotension Ⅰ- converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from a sesame protein hydrolysate in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:1118-1126.
Natesh R, Schwager SLU, Evans HR, Sturrock ED and Acharya KR (2004) Structural
details on the binding of antihypertensive drugs captopril and enalaprilat to human testicular angiotensin Ι-converting enzyme. Biochemistry 43:8718-8724.
Neal B, MacMaahon S and Chapman N (2000) Effect of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs:Results of prospectively designed overviews of randomized trials. Lancet 356:1955-1964.
Ondetti MA, Rubin B and Cushman DW (1977) Design of specific inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme: new class of orally active antihypertensive agents. Science 196:441-444.
Oshima G, Shimabukuro H and Nagasawa K (1979) Peptide inhibitors of angiotensin
Ι converting enzyme in digests of gelatin by bacterial collagenase. Biochim Biophys Acta 566:128-137.
Oyaizu M (1986) Studies on products of browning reaction: Antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glutamine. Jpn J Nutr 44:307-315.
Panasiuk R, Amarowicz R, Kostyra H and Sijtsma L (1998) Determination of α-amino nitrogen in pea protein hydrolysates: a comparison of three analytical methods. Food Chem 62:363-367.
Qian ZJ, Je JY and Kim SK (2007) Antihypertensive effect of angiotensin I converting enzyme-inhibitory peptide from hydrolysates of bigeye tuna dark muscle, Thunnus obesus. J Agric Food Chem 55:8398-8403.
Qian ZJ, Jung WK, Byun HG and Kim SK (2007) Protective effect of an antioxidative peptide purified from gastrointestinal digests of oyster, Crassostrea gigas against free radical induced DNA damage. Bioresour Technol 99:3365-3371.
Quaglia GB and Orban E (1987) Enzymic solubilisation of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) by commercial proteases. J Sci Food Agric 38:263-269.
Quiros A, Hernandez-Ledesma B, Ramos M, Amigo L, and Recio I (2005) Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of peptides derived from caprine kefir. J Dairy Sci 88:3480-3487.
Raghavan S, Kristinsson HG and Leeuwenburgh C (2008) Radical scavenging and reducing ability of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates. J Agric Food Chem 56:10359-10367.
Rajapakse N, Eresha M, Byun HG and Kim SK (2005) Purification and in vitro antioxidative effects of giant squid muscle peptides on free radical-mediated oxidative systems. J Nutr Biochem 16:562-569.
Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M and Rice-Evans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biol Med 26:1231-1237.
Riordan JF, Harper JW and Martin M (1986) The catalytic mechanism of angiotensin converting enzyme and related zine enzymes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 8:29-34.
Rodenas J and Mitjavila MT (1995) Simultaneous generation of nitric oxide and phytoestrogen and antioxidant supplementation on oxidative DNA damage assessed using the comet assay. Mutat Res 485:169-171.
Saiga A, Iwai K, Hayakawa T, Takahata Y, Kitamura S, Nishimura T, and Morimatsu F (2008) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides obtained from chicken collagen hydrolysate. J Agric Food Chem 56:9586-9591.
Saiga A, Okumura T, Makihara T, Katsuta, Morimatsu F and Nishimura T (2006) Action mechanism of an angiotensin Ι converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from chicken breast muscle. J Agric Food Chem 54:942-945.
Saiga A, Okumura T, Makihara T, Katsuta S, Shimizu T, Yamada R and Nishimura T (2003) Angiotension Ι converting enzyme inhibitory peptides in a hydrolyzed chicken breast muscle extract. J Agric Food Chem 51:1741-1745.
Saito Y, Wanezaki K, Kawato A, and Imayasu S (1994) Structure and activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from Sake and Sake lees. Biosci Biotech Biochem 58:1767-1771.
Schmidl MK, Tayior SL and Nordlee JA (1994) Use of hydrolysate based products in
special medical diets. Food Technol 48:77-85.
Seppo L, Jauhiainen T, Poussa T and Korpela R (2003) A fermented milk high in bioactive peptides has a blood pressure lowering effect in hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 77:326-330.
Shimada K, Fujiawa K, Yahara K and Nakamura T (1992) Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the antioxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. J Agric Food 40:945-948.
Sies H (1991) Oxidative stress: from basic research to clinical application. Am J Med 91:31-38.
Suetsuna K and Chen JR (2001) Identification of antihypertensive peptides from peptic digest of two microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina Platensis. Marine Biotechnol 3:305-309.
Temple NJ (2000) Antioxidants and diseases: more questions than answers. Nutr Res
20:449-459.
Theodore AE, Raghavan S, And Kristinsson HG (2008) Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from alkaline-aided channel catfish protein isolates. J Agric Food Chem 56:7459-7466.
Thomas JA (1994) Oxidative stress, oxidant defense, and dietary constituents. In modern nutrition in health and disease 8th ed. Lea & Febiger, Phil. pp 501-502.
Timmermans PB, Wong PC, Chiu AT, Herblin WF, Benfield P, Carini DJ, Lee RJ, Wexler RR, Saye JA and Smith RD (1993) Angiotensin Ⅱ receptors and Angiotensin Ⅱ receptor antagonists. Pharmacol Rev 45:201-251.
Tsai JS, Lin TC, Chen JL and Pan BS (2006) The inhibitory effects of freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea, Muller) muscle protein hydrolysates on angiotensin Ι-converting enzyme. Process Biochem 41:2276-2281.
Tsai JS, Chen TJ, Pan BS, Gong SD and Chung MY (2008) Antihypertensive effect of bioactive peptides produced by protease-facilitated lactic acid fermentation of milk. Food Chem 106:552-538.
Tsuge N, Eikawa Y, Nomura Y, Yamamoto M and Sugisawa K (1991) Antioxidative activity of peptides prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of egg-white albumin. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 65:1635-1641.
Townsend RR, McFadden CB, Ford V and Cadee JA (2004) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of casrin protein hydrolysate (C12 peptide) in human essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens 17:1056-1058.
Vasdev S, Longerich L and Singal P (2002) Nutrition and hypertension. Nutr Res 22:111-123.
Velletri PA, Billingsley ML and Lovenberg W (1985) Thermal denaturation of rat pulmonary and testicular angiotensin-converting enzyme isozymes. Effect of chelator and CoCl2. Biochem Biophys Acta. 839:71-82.
Vercruysse L, Camp JV, and Smagghe G (2005) ACE inhibitory peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysates of animal muscle protein: a review. J Agric Food Chem 53:8106-8115.
Wang YK, He HL, Chen XL, Sun CY, Zhang YZ and Zhou BC (2008) Production of novel angiotensin Ⅰ converting enzyme inhibitory peptides by fermentation of marine shrimp Acetes chinensis with Lactobacillus fermentum SM 605. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79:785-791.
Wickens AP (2001) Ageing and the free radical theory. Respir Physiol 128:379-391.
Wu KW, Hsieh BS and Tsai HF (1990) Exaggerated natriuresis in salt-sensitive essential hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens 12:1359-1403.
Wu HC, Shiau CY, Chen HM and Chiou TK (2003) Antioxidant activities of carnosine, anserine, some free amino acids and their combination. J Food Drug Anal 11:148-153.
Yamaguchi N, Yokoo Y and Fujimaki M (1979) Antioxidative activities of protein hydrolysates. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 26:65-70.
Yang HY, Yang SC, Chen JR, Tzeng TH and Han BC (2004) Soybean protein hydrolysate prevents the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Brit J Nutr 92:507-512.
Yang Y, Tao G, Liu P and Liu J (2007) Peptide with angiotensin Ⅰ converting enzyme inhibitory activity from hydrolyzed corn gluten meal. J Agric Food Chem 55:7891-7895.
Yoshikawa M, Fujita H, Matoba N, Takenaka Y, Yamamoto T, Yamauchi R, Tsuruki H and Takahata K (2000) Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins preventing lifestyle-related diseases. Biofactors 12:143-146.
Zalba G, Beaumont FJ, Gorka SJ, Fortuno A, Fortuno MA and Etayo JC (2000) Vascular NADH/NADPH oxidase is involved in enhanced superoxide production in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 35:1055-1061.
Zaman MA, Oparil CF and Calhoun DA (2002) Drugs targeting the rennin angiotensin aldosterone system. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 8:621-636
Zheng XQ, Li LT, Liu XL, Wang XJ, Lin J and Li D (2006) Production of hydrolysate with antioxidative activity by enzymatic hydrolysis of extruded corn gluten. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73:763-770.
Zhong Y, Khanma and Shahidi F (2007) Compositional characteristics and antioxidant properties of fresh and processed sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa). J Agric Food Chem 55:1188-1192.
Zhu L, Chen J, Tang X and Xiong YL (2008) Reducing, radical scavenging, and chelation properties of in vitro digests of alcalase-treated zein hydrolysate. J Agric Food Chem 56:2714-2721.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top