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研究生:劉思宜
研究生(外文):Ssu-Yi Liu
論文名稱:二元影像中利用互斥邏輯運算的高容量資料隱藏方法
論文名稱(外文):A Novel High Capacity Data Hiding Method for Binary Images Using Exclusive-OR Operation
指導教授:楊權輝楊權輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chyuan-Huei Thomas Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:玄奘大學
系所名稱:資訊科學學系碩士班
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:資料隱藏隱匿學高容量互斥不易被察覺
外文關鍵詞:data hidingsteganographyhigh capacityXORimperceptible
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本文提出一個高容量的二元影像資訊隱藏方法,資訊隱藏用於二元影像的困難處在於二元影像只有黑與白兩種顏色,只能在容量與不易被察覺之間作抉擇,而高容量是本篇論文著重的地方。基於安全性考量,本文的方法在嵌入前會先使用擬亂數產生器(Pseudo Random Number Generator)將機密資料打亂。掩護影像先分割成不重疊的4×4區塊,每一個4×4區塊再分割成四個重疊的3×3子區塊,機密資料將嵌入在每個子區塊中。基於嵌入容量的考量,本方法只略過全黑或全白的4×4區塊,略過這些不適合嵌入的區塊,可以避免嵌入後的影像輕易被辨別出來。所以機密資料只嵌入在非全黑或全白的4×4區塊中,該區塊可以劃分成四個重疊的3×3子區塊,分別利用第一個子區塊中間與左上的像素、第二個子區塊中間與右上的像素、第三個子區塊中間與左下的像素、第四個子區塊中間與右下的像素作互斥(Exclusive-OR)邏輯運算,每一個3×3子區塊可以嵌入一個位元資訊。萃取的方法很簡單,只要將每個3×3子區塊中間的像素與角落的像素作互斥邏輯運算,如果互斥邏輯運算所得到的結果為1,代表此子區塊內嵌入的位元為1,否則為0。收集所有萃取出來的位元資訊,經過擬亂數產生器打亂回覆原始的排列順序,就可完整萃取出機密資料。由實驗結果顯示,本文提出的方法保有高嵌入容量且不易被察覺。
In this paper we propose a high capacity data hiding method working on binary images. Hiding data in a binary image is more difficult since it has only black or white two colors. It is a trade off between capacity and imperception. We focus on the capacity in this paper. In general we shuffle the secret data by a pseudo-random number generator before hiding to support more secure. We divide the cover image, which the secret data will be concealed, into non-overlapping four by four sub-blocks. Then we repartition each four by four sub-block into four overlapping three by three sub-blocks. Due to consider embedding more data in the cover image, we only skip the all blacks or all whites in four by four sub-blocks. It avoids to observed easily and prevent perceptible simply. We embed the secret data in each four by four sub-block if it is not all the same color. We consider all four three by three sub-block to check the XOR between upper left and center, upper right and center, bottom left and center or bottom right and center, then embed one bit in each three by three sub-block. The extraction way is simply to test the XOR between the four corner pixels and centers of each three by three sub-block. If XOR equal 1, the embedding bit is 1, otherwise is 0. All embedding bits are collected and shuffled back to the original order. The secret data are extracted completely. The experimental results show that the method provides the large embedding capacity and keeps imperceptible.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
致謝 IV
目錄 V
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 序論 01
1.1 研究背景與動機 01
1.2 研究目的 03
1.3 論文架構 03
第二章 文獻回顧 05
2.1 資料隱藏 05
2.2 二元影像資料隱藏技術 06
第三章 本文提出的方法 12
3.1 嵌入程序與規則說明 13
3.2 嵌入演算法 20
3.3 萃取演算法 25
3.4 另一種區塊劃分方法(5×5區塊) 27
第四章 實驗結果 30
第五章 結論與未來工作 44
參考文獻 45
[1]H. Ajetrao, P.J. Kulkarni, and N. Gaikwad, “A Novel Scheme of Data Hiding in Binary Images,” International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications, 2007 Page(s):70-77.
[2]J. Chen, T.S. Chen, and M.W. Cheng, “A New Data Hiding Method in Binary Image,” International Symposium on Multimedia Software Engineering, 2003 Page(s):88-93.
[3]A.T.S. Ho, N.B. Puhan, A. Makur, P. Marziliano, and Y.L. Guan, “Imperceptible Data Embedding in Sharply-Contrasted Binary Images,” International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision Conference, 2004 Page(s):958-963.
[4]K.H. Jung, K.S. Ha, and K.Y. Yoo, “Data Hiding in Binary Images by Pixel-Value Weighting,” International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, 2008 Page(s):262-265.
[5]R.J. Li and L.W. Chang, “Data Hiding in Binary Images for Annotation by Parity Check,” International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communications, 2006 page(s): 764-767.
[6]H.Q. Liang, W.B. Ran, and X.X. Niu, “A secure and High Capacity Data Hiding Scheme for Binary Images,” International Conference on Wavelet Analysis and Pattern Recognition, 2007 Page(s):224-229.
[7]T.H. Liu and L.W. Chang, “An Adaptive Data Hiding Technique for Binary Images,” International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2004 Page(s):831-833.
[8]G. Pan, Y. Wu, and Z. Wu, “A Novel Data Hiding Method for Two-Color Images”, International Conference on Information and Communications Security, 2001 Page(s):261-270.
[9]H.W. Tseng, F.R. Wu, and C.P. Hsieh, “Data Hiding for Binary Images Using Weight Mechanism,” International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, 2007 Page(s):307-310.
[10]Y.C. Tseng, Y.Y. Chen, and H.K. Pan, “A Secure Data Hiding Scheme for Binary Images,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2002 VOL. 50, NO. 8, Page(s):1227-1231.
[11]M. Venkatesan, P.M. Devi, K. Duraiswamy, and K. Thiagarajah, “A New Data Hiding Scheme with Quality Control for Binary Images Using Block Parity,” International Symposium on Information Assurance and Security, 2007 Page(s):468-471.
[12]M. Wu, and B. Liu, “Data Hiding in Binary Image for Authentication and Annotation,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 2004 VOL. 6, NO. 4, Page(s): 528-538.
[13]C.H. Thomas Yang and K.C. Lee, “A data hiding technique in binary image by using distance transform without look-up tables,” International Conference on Advanced Information Technologies, 2007.
[14]H. Yang and A.C. Kot, “Data Hiding for Bi-Level Documents Using Smoothing Technique,” International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2004 Page(s):692-695.
[15]H. Yang and A.C. Kot, “Pattern-Based Data Hiding for Binary Image Authentication by Connectivity-Preserving,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 2007 VOL. 9, NO. 3, Page(s):475-486.
[16]H. Yang, A.C. Kot, S. Rahardja, and X. Jiang, “High Capacity Data Hiding for Binary Images in Morphological Wavelet Transform Domain,” International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 2007 Page(s):1239-1242.
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