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研究生:陳冠燁
研究生(外文):Chen, Kuan-Yeh
論文名稱:工作壓力及其後果:以自我效能為調節變項
論文名稱(外文):The relationship between work stressors and their consequences: Self efficacy as a moderator
指導教授:高旭繁高旭繁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kao, Hsu-Fan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:玄奘大學
系所名稱:應用心理學系碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:工作壓力源壓力後果自我效能
外文關鍵詞:work stressorstrainself-efficacy
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本研究從工作壓力源及自我效能兩部份切入,探討工作場域中的壓力來源及員工對自己與工作環境之自我效能的知覺,對工作滿意度、工作表現、個人身心健康症狀等壓力後果所產生的影響,壓力與個人生理、心理症狀呈現正向關係,但與自我效能則呈反向關係,因此藉由評估員工對自我效能的不同認知,探究其工作壓力是否能較有效的被調節,尤其在工作壓力感受越高的環境中,自我效能可否產生緩衝作用,弱化工作壓力對壓力後果的影響。
研究工具使用自陳式量表,由兩岸三地(台灣、香港、大陸)員工填答,並將樣本加總以增加統計力量,使研究結果在華人地區更具可推性。研究結果發現,三個壓力後果分別被不同工作壓力源所影響:「工作滿意度」的預測因子為「組織限制」、「缺乏自主性」及「組織氣氛」;「個人身心健康症狀」的預測因子為「人際衝突」,但「工作表現」則無法預測。
自我效能之部分,對三個壓力後果皆具有預測力。在調節效果方面,可緩衝工作壓力源中「組織政治氛圍」對「工作滿意度」的負面影響,並與「組織限制」產生交互作用,使「個人身心健康症狀」之反應隨壓力感受而有差異,若將症狀分為「身心症狀」與「行為變化」,會發現自我效能僅對「行為變化」具調節作用,可影響工作壓力源中「組織限制」、「缺乏自主性」以及「人際衝突」與個人行為變化之關係。
若仔細探究工作表現的五項指標與工作壓力源、自我效能的相關性,並進行層級式迴歸分析,則可看出自我效能對「出勤率」、「專業知識」及「與同事之間的關係」具有調節效果,能改變工作壓力源對工作表現的影響。
The aim of the research was to explore relations between various work stressor and strain, in the cultural context of Greater China, including Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the Mainland. In addition to job satisfaction, work performance, personal well-being indicated by physical and behavioral symptoms, was also examined as the strain factor. Both the main effect and possible moderating effect of self-efficacy were explored in the work stress process. Using structured questionnaires, a total sample of 380 full-time employees in the three regions were surveyed.
Analyses revealed that for Chinese employees in all three regions, the main nexus of work stress – strain was established. However, different indicators of strain were significantly predicted by different sources of work stress: (1) “lack of structure”, “lack of autonomy” and “organizational climate” predicted job satisfaction; (2) “interpersonal conflict” predicted behavioral symptoms.
Self-efficacy was found to be related to all three indicators of strain, demonstrating its main effect on stress outcome: the higher self-efficacy was generally related to reduce strain. More importantly, we found that self-efficacy buffered the noxious effects of “tension between work and organizational politics” on job satisfaction and “lack of autonomy” on behavioral symptoms. Contrary to expectation, the higher self-efficacy on stress exacerbated that of “lack of structure” and “interpersonal conflict” on behavioral symptoms.
Although this moderating effect needs further replication in future studies, it serves to underline the role of self-efficacy in the work stress process for Chinese employees working in the collectivistic culture.
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究問題與目的………………………………………………… 5
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 壓力的意涵及相關研究………………………………………… 6
第二節 工作壓力的意涵及相關研究…………………………………… 11
第三節 工作壓力後果之概念及相關研究……………………………… 24
第四節 自我效能的意涵及相關研究…………………………………… 32
第五節 工作壓力及其後果與自我效能的關係………………………… 40
第三章 研究設計
第一節 研究架構………………………………………………………… 45
第二節 研究假設………………………………………………………… 46
第三節 研究方法………………………………………………………… 48
第四節 資料分析………………………………………………………… 55
第五節 量表之信度分析………………………………………………… 55
第四章 研究結果
第一節 樣本描述…………………………………………………………… 58
第二節 研究變項描述性統計分析………………………………………… 61
第三節 變項間之相關分析………………………………………………… 61
第四節 層級式迴歸分析…………………………………………………… 69
第五節 自我效能的調節作用……………………………………………… 77
第五章 討論與建議
第一節 研究結果概述……………………………………………………… 90
第二節 群體差異…………………………………………………………… 96
第三節 「自我效能」與工作壓力後果………………………………………99
第四節 「自我效能」的調節作用……………………………………………99
第五節 研究限制與建議………………………………………………… 100
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………… 104
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