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研究生:廖啟元
研究生(外文):Chi-Yuan Liao
論文名稱:常見地下水污染物對厭氧污泥之甲烷化毒性影響
指導教授:胡慶祥胡慶祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Shyung Hwu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:乙酸利用甲烷生成菌活性厭氧污泥植種比表面積毒性甲苯乙苯二甲苯甲基第三丁基醚三氯乙烯四氯乙烯
外文關鍵詞:acetoclastic methanogenic activityanaerobic sludgeinoculumspecific surface areatoxicitybenzenetolueneethylbenzenexyleneBTEXMTBETCEPCE
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常見之地下水污染物包括:苯、甲苯、乙苯、二甲苯、甲基第三丁基醚、四氯乙烯及三氯乙烯等。生物整治法在成本方面較其他物理化學方法低,藉由微生物分解污染物,較不會產生二次污染的機會。其中厭氧處理法擁有耗能少、產生污泥量低且又能提供能源之優點,而厭氧微生物菌群中,甲烷生成菌最為敏感且耐毒性最低,因此本研究探討上述七種常見地下水污染物對九種實廠厭氧污泥之甲烷化毒性影響。論文針對兩種生物因子:污泥來源與比甲烷活性,及一種物理變因:比表面積做探討和比較。研究結果顯示,不同污泥在30 oC批次毒性試驗下,上述污染物之50%抑制濃度(IC50)值依序分別為12.7-23.2、4.7-7.9、1.1-2.0、1.2-2.7、7.6-132.9、0.2-0.4、1.7-3.3 mM。各污染物中,以PCE對厭氧污泥甲烷化毒性最高,BTEX中則以乙苯對甲烷生成菌之抑制較大。污泥來源和比甲烷活性與IC50較無直接相關之影響,而比表面積則存在著顯著的相對關係,比表面積越小,厭氧污泥之耐毒性越大。本研究建議使用厭氧顆粒污泥作為現場(on-site)處理地下水用生物反應器之植種污泥,因為其比表面積遠低於懸浮污泥,能有效降低毒性效應之影響。
Nine anaerobic sludges were screened in order to obtain the most suitable methanogenic inoculum for the anaerobic treatment of groundwater containing common pollutants. The selection was made on the basis of the toxicity of seven model compounds, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE), to acetoclastic methanogens in different sludges. The effects of two biological factors, sludge origin and specific acetoclastic methanogenic activity, and a physical factor, specific surface area of sludge, on the degree of toxicity were investigated and compared. Values of the fifty percent inhibition concentration (IC50) of B, T, E, X, MTBE, PCE and TCE obtained from 30 oC batch toxicity tests ranged from 12.7 to 23.2, 4.7 to 7.9, 1.1 to 2.0, 1.2 to 2.7, 7.6 to 132.9, 0.2 to 0.4 and 1.7 to 3.3 mM for the various sludges examined. In general, the chlorinated compounds had higher toxicity to acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria. Among BTEX, ethylbenzene exerted the highest toxicity to acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria. It was found that the toxicity of all pollutants to anaerobic sludges was not dependent upon the two biological factors. Instead, it was closely correlated to the specific surface area of sludge. Suspended sludges, which have higher specific surface areas, suffered much greater inhibition than did granular sludges. This paper suggests the use of granular sludges as appropriate inocula for bioreactors treating
contaminated groundwater.
目錄
摘要...............................I
Abstract..........................II
目錄...............................III
圖目錄..............................V
表目錄.............................VIII
第一章 前言
1-1 研究緣起........................1
1-2 研究目的........................2
第二章 文獻回顧
2-1 地下水污染......................4
2-1-1 甲基第三丁基醚(MTBE)...........5
2-1-2 苯、甲苯、乙苯、二甲苯(BTEX)....7
2-1-3 含氯碳氫有機污染物(PCE、TCE)...15
2-2 污染之處理方法..................19
2-2-1 物理技術......................19
2-2-2 化學方法......................21
2-2-3 生物程序......................23
2-3 厭氧理論........................25
2-3-1 厭氧生物處理反應機制...........26
2-3-2 厭氧生物處理之影響因子..........32
2-3-3 厭氧顆粒污泥..................35
2-4 BTEX、MTBE、PCE、TCE之厭氧分解...37
2-4-1 BTEX厭氧分解..................37
2-4-2 MTBE厭氧分解..................38
2-4-3 PCE、TCE厭氧分解..............39
第三章 材料與方法
3-1 厭氧污泥........................41
3-1-1 污泥流洗......................45
3-1-2 污泥TS/VS分析.................45
3-1-3 污泥粒徑量測..................45
3-1-4 厭氧污泥特性分析...............46
3-2 實驗用藥品......................48
3-2-1 主要碳源......................48
3-2-2 無機營養鹽....................48
3-2-3 還原劑與輔助因子...............49
3-2-4 緩衝溶液......................49
3-2-5 實驗用水......................52
3-2-6 丙酮..........................52
3-3 分析設備與方法...................53
3-3-1甲烷之分析.....................53
3-3-2 pH之測定......................54
3-3-3 比甲烷活性....................54
3-3-4 甲烷檢量線之建立...............55
3-4 實驗設計與步驟...................56
3-4-1 實驗設計......................56
3-4-2 再活化試驗....................58
3-4-3 活性試驗......................59
3-4-4 毒性試驗......................59
第四章 結果與討論
4-1 污泥再活化與活性試驗.............62
4-1-1 污泥再活化....................62
4-1-2 活性試驗......................65
4-2 毒性試驗........................66
4-2-1 苯對污泥之毒性.................66
4-2-2 甲苯對污泥之毒性...............70
4-2-3 乙苯對污泥之毒性...............74
4-2-4 二甲苯對污泥之毒性.............78
4-2-5 BTEX對污泥之毒性分析比較........82
4-2-6 甲基第三丁基醚對污泥之毒性與比較..83
4-2-7 四氯乙烯對污泥之毒性............88
4-2-8 三氯乙烯對污泥之毒性............92
4-2-9 PCE、TCE對污泥之毒性分析比較....96
4-3 不同變因與毒性之比較..............97
4-3-1 污泥來源......................97
4-3-2 比甲烷活性....................98
4-3-3 比表面積......................105
第五章 結論與建議
5-1 結論............................111
5-2 建議............................113
參考文獻............................114
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