(3.230.154.160) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/08 00:27
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:張汀沂
研究生(外文):Ting-Yi Chang
論文名稱:白藜蘆醇抗氧化及美白特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on the Anti-oxidation and Whitening Properties of Resveratrol
指導教授:張聰民張聰民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsong-Min Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:化妝品科技研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:美容學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:白藜蘆醇維生素C維生素E酪胺酸酶黑色素
外文關鍵詞:ResveratrolVitamin CVitamin ETyrosinaseMelanin
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
  • 點閱點閱:6608
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:933
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
白藜蘆醇(trans-3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene, Resveratrol),為一種多酚類化合物,常見於葡萄表皮、桑椹、花生及紅酒中,對植物體而言,具有抗真菌感染的作用,故白藜蘆醇也被視為一種植物的抗毒素(Phytoalexin)。根據以往研究證明,白藜蘆醇具有抗發炎、抗氧化、清除自由基、抗過敏及預防心血管疾病等作用;更有研究指出,白藜蘆醇亦為一種有效的癌症預防用藥,可用於抑制腫瘤生長。然而,白藜蘆醇與其他的抗氧化劑的交互作用,則無任何研究報告。本研究的主要目的,在於比較白藜蘆醇與維生素C、維生素E的抗氧化活性,並探討三者彼此相加後對抗氧化能力的影響。研究結果顯示,白藜蘆醇與維生素C或維生E相加後,其抗氧化能力比個別之抗氧化能力強,但未有明顯的協同作用。後續研究將進一步探討白藜蘆醇與維生素C、維生素E合併使用抗氧化的可能機轉。
而就美白的以往研究顯示,白藜蘆醇具有多種藥理活性,但截至目前為止,則甚少研究討論白藜蘆醇在皮膚保養方面的功效。本研究的主要目的,亦針對探討白藜蘆醇可能的美白功效。研究結果顯示,白藜蘆醇可以有效抑制蕈菇酪胺酸酶之酵素活性,且由酵素動力學分析結果推測,白藜蘆醇應為酪胺酸酶之非競爭性抑制劑。而白藜蘆醇與麴酸相加後,其抑制細胞外酪胺酸酶活性能力具有加成作用。此外,白藜蘆醇亦能明顯抑制老鼠B16F10黑色素瘤細胞內之酪胺酸酶活性,並降低細胞內之黑色素含量。後續研究將進一步設計含有白藜蘆醇之有效配方,並將兩者的結果應用於抗氧化或抗老化保養品及皮膚美白保養品的研發。
目 錄
誌謝..........1
中文摘要..........2
英文摘要..........4
目錄..........6
圖目錄..........9
表目錄..........12
第一章、前言..........14
第ㄧ節、皮膚的構造..........14
一、皮膚結構..........14
二、皮膚的功能..........18
三、皮膚的老化..........21
四、皮膚老化的自由基學說..........27
第二節、人體對抗自由基系統..........34
第三節、黑色素細胞..........43
一、黑色素的生成..........47
二、黑色素的功用..........48
第四節、酪胺酸酶影響皮膚顏色深淺之決定因子..........50
第五節、影響酪胺酸酶(Tyrosinase)活性之因素..........52
第六節、美白成份的介紹..........55
第七節、白藜蘆醇..........61
一、白藜蘆醇之抗氧化能力..........61
二、白藜蘆醇之抗發炎能力..........62
三、白藜蘆醇之抗癌能力..........62
第二章、材料與方法..........64
第一節、實驗用藥與儀器..........64
一、實驗用藥..........64
二、實驗儀器..........66
第二節、實驗方法..........68
一、抗氧化實驗..........68
1、2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)自由基清除能力測定
..........68
2、ABTS+自由基陽離子清除能力測定..........69
3、還原能力測試..........70
4、總酚含量測試..........71
二、美白實驗..........73
1、MTT細胞存活率測試..........73
2、蕈菇類酪胺酸酶活性測試..........74
3、酪胺酸酶酵素動力學測試..........75
4、黑色素含量測試..........78
5、細胞內酪胺酸酶活性測試..........79
6、西方墨點法..........80
第三章、結果與討論..........82
第一節、抗氧化實驗..........82
一、2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)自由基清除能力測定..........82
二、ABTS+自由基陽離子清除能力測定..........84
三、還原能力測試..........85
四、總酚含量測試..........86
第二節、美白實驗..........88
一、MTT細胞存活率測試..........88
二、蕈菇類酪胺酸酶活性測試..........89
三、酪胺酸酶酵素動力學測試..........90
四、黑色素含量測試..........90
五、細胞內酪胺酸酶活性測試..........91
六、西方墨點法..........92
第四章、結論..........94
第五章、參考文獻..........95
圖目錄
圖1-1、皮膚構造圖..........17
圖1-2、自由基對細胞的影響..........29
圖1-3、氧分子之氧化還原及激發狀態..........31
圖1-4、酵素抗氧化防禦系統..........39
圖1-5、Cu/Zn-SOD之結構式..........40
圖1-6、Mn-SOD之結構式..........41
圖1-7、非酵素抗氧化防禦系統..........42
圖1-8、真黑色素(Eumelanin)與類黑色素(Pheomelanins)生成機制
..........49
圖1-9、黑色素細胞..........46
圖1-10、白藜蘆醇之化學結構式..........63
圖2-1、各種酵素抑制反應的機制及其動力學行為..........77
圖1、白藜蘆醇與維生素C(50 μM) 之DPPH自由基清除能力
測定..........112
圖2、白藜蘆醇與維生素C(100 μM) 之DPPH自由基清除能
力測定..........113
圖3、白藜蘆醇與維生素E(50 μM) 之DPPH自由基清除能
力測定..........114
圖4、白藜蘆醇與維生素E(100 μM) 之DPPH自由基清除能
力測定..........115
圖5、白藜蘆醇與維生素C(50 μM)之ABTS+自由基陽離子清
除能力測定..........116
圖6、白藜蘆醇與維生素C(100 μM)之ABTS+自由基陽離子
清除能力測定..........117
圖7、白藜蘆醇與維生素C(50 μM) 之還原能力測定..........118
圖8、白藜蘆醇與維生素C(100 μM) 之還原能力測定..........119
圖9、白藜蘆醇與維生素C(100 μM) 之總酚含量測定..........120
圖10、白藜蘆醇與維生素E(100 μM) 之總酚含量測定..........121
圖11、白藜蘆醇與麴酸細胞存活率之測定..........122
圖12、白藜蘆醇及麴酸對蕈菇類酪胺酸酶活性抑制率之測定
..........123
圖13、白藜蘆醇抑制酪胺酸酶酵素活性動力學測試..........
圖14、白藜蘆醇與麴酸對細胞內黑色素生成抑制率之測定
..........125
圖15、白藜蘆醇與麴酸對細胞內酪胺酸酶活性抑制率之測定
..........126
圖16、白藜蘆醇對於酪胺酸酶蛋白質表現的影響..........127
圖17、白藜蘆醇對於酪胺酸酶蛋白質表現的量化影響..........128
圖18、白藜蘆醇對於TRP-1蛋白質表現的影響..........129
圖19、白藜蘆醇對於TRP-1蛋白質表現的量化影響..........130
圖20、白藜蘆醇對於TRP-2蛋白質表現的影響..........131
圖21、白藜蘆醇對於TRP-2蛋白質表現的量化影響..........132
表目錄
表1-1、皮膚的老化特徵…..........22
表1-2、自然老化與光老化的差別..........22
表1-3、自由基參與的臨床疾病..........30
表1-4、活性氧物質的來源..........32
表1-5、活性氧產生的方式..........33
表2-1、SDS-PAGE的製備v81
表一、不同濃度白藜蘆醇與維生素C(50、100μM)對DPPH自由
基清除能力之影響..........112
表二、不同濃度白藜蘆醇與維生素E(50、100μM)對DPPH自由
基清除能力之影響..........114
表三、不同濃度白藜蘆醇與維生素C(50、100μM)對ABTS+陽
離子自由基清除能力之影響..........116
表四、不同濃度白藜蘆醇與維生素C (50、100μM)對還原能
力之影響..........118
表五、不同濃度白藜蘆醇與維生素C及維生素 E (100 μM)對
總酚含量之影響..........120
表六、不同濃度白藜蘆醇與麴酸對細胞存活率之影響..........122
表七、不同濃度白藜蘆醇與麴酸對蕈菇類酪胺酸酶抑制率之測
定..........123
表八、不同濃度白藜蘆醇與麴酸對細胞內黑色素生成抑制率
之影響..........125
表九、不同濃度白藜蘆醇與麴酸對細胞內酪胺酸酶活性抑制
率之影響...........126
表十、不同濃度白藜蘆醇對於酪胺酸酶蛋白質表現的影響..........127
表十一、不同濃度白藜蘆醇對於TRP-1蛋白質表現的影響..........129
表十二、不同濃度白藜蘆醇對於TRP-2蛋白質表現的影響..........131
1、Alessio H. M., Goldfarb A. H.(1988). Lipid peroxidation and scavenger enzymes during exercise: adaptive response to training. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology. 64(4). 1333-1336.
2、Alexandre N., Jifu Z., David M., Carmen H., Wenwen M., Padmapriya A.,Mei H., Qi J.(2008). 1-(2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4-dimethoxy-3-methylphenyl) propane, a novel tyrosinase inhibitor with strong depigmenting effects. Chemical&Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 56(9). 1292-1296.
3、Anderson D., Phillips B. J.(1999). Comparative in vitro and in vivo effects of antioxidants. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 37. 1015-1025.
4、Aruoma O. I.(1994). Nutrition and health aspects of free radicals and antioxidant. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 32. 671-683.
5、Avissar N., Ornt D. B., Yagil Y., Horowitz S., Watkins R. H., Kerl E. A., Takahashi K., Palmer I. S., Cohen H. J.(1994). Human kidney proximal tubules are the main source of plasma glutathione peroxidase. The American Journal of Physiology. 266. 367-375.
6、Bao Y., Jemth P., Mannervik B., Williamson G.(1997). Reduction of thymine hydroperoxide by phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferases. FEBS Letters. 410. 210-212.
7、Benzie I., Szeto Y.(1999). Total antioxidant capacity of teas by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47. 633-6.
8、Bhattacharya I. D., Picciano M. F., Milner J. A.(1988). Characteristics of human milk glutathione peroxidase. Biological Trace ElementResearch. 18. 59-70.
9、Björnstedt M., Hamberg M., Kumar S., Xue J., Holmgren A.(1995). Human thioredoxin reductase directly reduces lipid hydroperoxides by NADPH and selenocystine strongly stimulates the reaction via catalytically generated selenols. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270(20). 11761-11764.
10、Blarzino C., Mosca L., Foppoli C., Coccia R., De Marco C., Rosei MA.(1999). Lipoxygenase/H2O2-catalyzed oxidation of dihdroxyindoles : synthesis of melanin pigments and study of their antioxidant properties. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 26(3-4). 446-453.
11、Brand-Williams. W., Cuvelier M. E., Berset C.(1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebenson Wiss Technol. 28. 25-30.
12、Burchill S. A., Virden R., Fuller B.B., Thody A. J.(1988). Regulation of tyrosinase synthesis by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in hair follicular melanocytes of the mouse. The Journal of Endocrinology. 116(1). 17-23.
13、Burchill S. A., Thody A. J., Ito S.(1986). Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, tyrosinase activity and the regulation of eumelanogenesis and phaeomelanogenesis in the hair follicular melanocytes of the mouse. The Journal of Endocrinology. 109(1). 15-21.
14、Byorksten J. A.(1958). A common molecular basis for the aging syndrome. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 8(10). 740-748.
15、Carla L., Fabrizia B., Benedetta C., Grazia C., Argante B.(2004). Differential sensitivity to resveratrol-induced apoptosis of human chronic myeloid(K562) and acute lymphoblastic (HSB-2) leukemia cells. Biochemical Pharmacology. 68. 2019-2030.
16、Chi-Feng H., Yin-Ku L., Zih-Rou H., Jia-You F.(2008). Delivery of resveratrol , a red wine polyphenol , from solutions and hydrogels via the skin. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 31(5). 955-962.
17、Chu F. F., Doroshow J. H., Esworthy R. S.(1993). Expression,characterization, and tissue distribution of a new cellular selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase, GSHPx-GI. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268(4). 2571-2576.
18、Chang. L. C.(1998). Application of Cosmetics Inspecting, Fayfar Publishing Co. Ltd. Taiwan. 243-246.
19、Chen. W. D., Zheng. H. W.(2000). New Cosmetics. He Ji Publishing Co. Ltd.
20、Dani C., Oliboni L.S., Vanderlinde R., Bonatto D., Salvador M., Henriques J.A.P.(2007). Phenolic content and antioxidant activities of white and purple juices manufactured with organically- or conventionally-produced grapes. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 45. 2574-2580.
21、Davies K. J., Quintanilha A. T., Brooks G. A., Packer L.(1982). Free radicals and tissue damage produced by exercise. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 107(4). 1198-1205.
22、Davies K. J, Quintanilha A. T, Brooks G. A, Packer L.(1982). Free radicals and tissue damage produced by exercise. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 107(4). 1198-1205.
23、Dziezak J. D.(1986). Preservatives:Antioxidant. Food Technology. 40. 94-102.
24、Eun-Kyung K., Kang-Beom K., Byung-Cheul S., Eun-A S., Young-Rae L., Jong-Suk K., Jin-Woo P., Byung-Hyun P., Do-Gon R.(2005). Scopoletin induces apoptosis in human promyeloleukemic cells, accompanied by activations of nuclear factor κB and caspase-3. Live Sciences. 77. 824-836.
25、Fridovich I.(1995),“Superoxide radicals and Superoxide dimutase”, Annual Review of Biochemistry. 64. 97-102.
26、Fuller B. B., Viskochil D. H.(1979). The role of RNA and protein synthesis in mediating the action of MSH on mouse melanoma cells. Life Sciences. 24(26). 2405-2415.
27、Fu-Hisung L., Jing-Yi L., Ravindra D. G., Joshua A. T., James A. B., Angelica Selim M., Nancy A. M., James M. G., Jan Z., Sheldon R. P.(2005). Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 125. 826-832.
28、Gilly R., Oded S., Itzhak B., Zohar K.(2003). Glycosylation of resveratrol protects it from enzymeic oxidation. The Biochemical Journal. 374. 157-163.
29、Gonic L., Wheelis M.(1985). The Cartoon Guide to Genetics.
30、Hai-Bo Z., Yun Y., Ya-Ni S., Ju-Ren Z.(2003). Resveratrol induces apoptosis in human esophageal carcinoma cells. World Journal Gastroenterol. 9(3). 408-411.
31、Harman D.(1956). Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. Journal of Gerontology. 11(3). 298-300.
32、Hitoshi M., Takamasa A., Hiromu S.(1995). Protective activity of hamamelitannin on cell damage of murine skin fibroblasts induced by UVB irradiation. Journal of Dermatological Science. 10. 25-34.
33、Hoekstra W. G.(1975). Biochemical function of selenium and its relation to vitamin E. Federation Proceedings. 34(11). 2083-2089.
34、Hsieh-Li H. M., Chang J. G., Jong Y. J., Wu M. H., Wang N. M., Tsai C. H., Li H.(2000). A mouse model for spinal muscular atrophy. Nature Genetics. 24(1). 66-70.
35、Hyung-Kyoon C., Yong-Suk L., Young-Suk K., So-Young P.,
Choong-Hwan L., Kwang-Woo H., Dae-Young K.(2008). Free-radical-scavenging and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of
Cheonggukjang samples fermented for various times. Food
Chemical. 106. 564-568.
36、James A. C., Peter J. K., Robert L. M., Tristan D. B., Barry S. L.(2004). Resveratrol-associated renal toxicity. Toxicological Sciences. 82. 614-619.
37、Jang M., Cai L., Udeani G. O., Slowing K. V., Thomas C. F., Beecher C. W., Fong H. H., Farnsworth N. R., Kinghorn A. D., Mehta R. G., Moon R. C, Pezzuto J. M.(1997). Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes. Science. 27. 218-220.
38、Jara J. R., Solano F., Garcia-Borron J. C., Aroca P., Lozano J. A.(1990). Regulation of mammalian melanogenesis. II: The role of metal cations. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1035(3).276-285.
39、James J. N., Raymond E. B., Vincent J. H., Richard A. K., Jean-Paul O., “The Pigmentary System 1998,” Oxford University Press, Inc.
40、Jacob, H. A. (1995). The integrated antioxidant system. Nutrition Research. 15. 755-766.
41、Jen-Wen L., Hsiu-Mei C., Yi-Chun L., Kuo-Ching W.(2008). Natural products with skin-whitening effects. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 16(2). 1-10.
42、Jiménez M., Kameyama K., Maloy W. L, Tomita Y., Hearing V. J.(1988).Mammalian tyrosinase:biosynthesis, processing, and modulation by melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 85(11). 3830-3834.
43、Josë L., Ezequiel A., Juan A. A., Reyes L., Eugenio U., Francisco O.(2004). Effects of cis-resveratrol on inflammatory murine macrophages:antioxidant activity and down-regulation of inflammatory genes. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 75. 1156-1165.
44、Julie A. R., Christine M. K.(2002). Dietary flavonoids: bioavailability, metabolic effects, and safety. Annual Review of Nutrition. 22. 19-34
45、Kahn. V., Ben-Shalom. N.(1998). N-acetyl-L-tyrosine(NAT) as a substrate for mushroom tyrosinase. Pigment Cell Research. 11. 24-33.
46、Kazuomi S., Hideki T., Remina I., Masaru T.(2008). Down-Regulation of tyrosinase expression by acetylsalicylic acid in murine B16 melanoma. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 31(1). 33-37.
47、Kenji O., Toshiyuki T., Tetsuro I., Munekazu I., Kenji M., Yukihiro A., Yoshinori N.(2003). Inhibitory effects of resveratrol derivatives from dipterocarpaceae plants on tyrosinase activity. Bioscience , Biotechnology , and Biochemistry. 67(7). 1587-1589.
48、Kobayashi. Y., Kayahara. H., Tadasa. K., Tanaka. H.(1996). Synthesis of N-kojic-amino acid and N-kojic-amino acid-kojiate and their tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 6(12). 1303-1308.
49、Liebler D. C.(1993). The role of metabolism in the antioxidant function of vitamin E. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 23(2). 147-169.
50、Luypaert J., Zhang M. H., Massart D. L.(2003). Feasibility study for the use of near infrared spectroscopy in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of green tea, Camellia sinensis(L.). Analytica Chimica Acta. 478. 303-312.
51、Li-Man H., Ming-Jai S., Wing-Keung C., Chin-Wei C., Wan-Fen C., Jan-Kan C.(2002). The protective effect of resveratrol on ischaemia-reperfusion injuries of rat hearts is correlated with antioxidant efficacy. British Journal of Pharmacology. 135. 1627-1633.
52、Lowell A.G. (1983). Biochemistry and Physiology of the skin. Oxford University Press, Inc.
53、Minussi R. C., Rossi M., Bologna L., Cordi L., Rotilio D., Pastore G. M., Durán N.(1993). Phenolic compounds and total antioxidant potential of commercial wines. Food Chemistry. 82. 409-416.
54、Martinello F., Soares S. M., Franco J. J., Santos A. C., Sugohara A., Garcia S. B., Curti C., Uyemura S. A.(2005). Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 44. 810-818.
55、Mitani H., Koshiishi I., Sumita. T., Imanri. T.(2001). Prevention of the photodamage in the hairless mouse dorsal skin by kojic acid as an iron chelator. European Journal of Pharmacology. 411. 169-174.
56、Moo-Sung K., Hong-Bum C.(2007). Melanogenesis inhibitory effects of methanolic extracts of Umbilicaric esculenta and Usnea longissima. The Journal of Microbiology. 45(6). 578-582.
57、Muhtadi E. H., Hakim L. D., Juliawaty Y. M., Syah S. A., Achmad J. L.,Emilio L. G.(2006). Cytotoxic resveratrol oligomers from the tree bark of Dipterocarpus hasseltii. Fitoterapia. 77. 550-555.
58、Nam-Ho S., Shi Yong R., Eun Ju C., She-Hoon K., IL-Moo C., Kyung-Rak M., Youngsoo K.(1998). Oxyresveratrol as the potent ihhibitor on dopa oxidase activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 243. 801-803.
59、Niggli H. J.(1990). Comparative studies on the correlation between pyrimidine dimmer formation and tyrosinase activity in cloudman S91 melanoma cells after ultraviolet-irradiation. Photochemistry and
Photobiology. 52(3). 519-524.
60、Nuchanart R., Somkid S., Luksamee W., Chulabhorn M., Mathuros R., Jutamaad S.(2007). Evaluation of free radical scavenging and antityrosinase activities of standardized longan fruit extract. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 45. 328-336.
61、Osman, A. M., Wong, K. K. Y., Fernyhough, A.(2006). ABTS radical-driven oxidation of polyphenols : Isolation and structural elucidation of covalent adducts. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 346. 321-329.
62、Park J. W., Choi Y. J., Jang M. A., Lee Y. S., Jun D. Y., Suh S. I., Baek W.K., Suh M. H., Jin I.N., Kwon T. K.(2001). Chemopreventive agent resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes, reversibly . inhibits progression through S and G2 phases of the cell cycle in
U937 cells. Cancer Letters. 163. 43-49.
63、Parker L.(1991). Protective role of vitamin E in biological systems. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 53. 1050-1055.
64、Pawelek J. M., Korner A. M.(1982). The biosynthesis of mammalian melanin. American Scientist. 70(2).136-45.
65、Prota G.(1996). Melanins and melanogenesis. Cosmetic and Toiletries Magazine,111. 43-51.
66、Pulido R., Bravo L., Saura-Calixto F.(2000). Antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols as determined by a modified ferric reducing / antioxidant power assay. Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry. 48. 3396-3402.
67、Quevedo W.C., Szabo G., Virks J., Sinesi S.J.(1965). Melanocyte populations in UV-irradiated human skin. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 45(4). 295-298.
68、Ramesh V., Hajime O., Pawan K. S. , Nilanjana M.(2006). Significance of wine and resveratrol in cardiovascular disease: French paradox revisited. Experimental and Clinical Cardiology. 11(3). 217-225.
69、Reiter R. J.(1998) Oxidative damage in the central nervous system : protection by melatonin. Progress in Neurobiology. 56. 359-384.
70、Roméro C., Aberdam E., Larnier C., Ortonne J. P.(1994). Retinoic acid as modulator of UVB-induced melanocyte differentiation. Involvement of the melanogenic enzymes expression. Journal of Cell Science. 107. 1095-1103.
71、Roveri A., Maiorino M., Ursini F.(1994). Enzymatic and immunological measurements of soluble and membrane-bound phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology. 233. 202-212.
72、Ross J. A., Kasum C. M.(2002). Dietary flavonoids : bioavailability,Metabolic effects, and safety. Annual Review of Nutrition. 22. 19-34.
73、Sánchez-Ferrer A., Rodriguez-Lopez J.N., Garcia-Canovas F., Garcia-Carmona F.(1995). Tyrosinase: a comprehensive review of its mechanism. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1247(1). 1-11.
74、Sattler W., Maiorino M., Stocker R.(1994). Reduction of HDL- and LDL-associated cholesterylester and phospholipid hydroperoxides by phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase and Ebselen (PZ51). Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 309(2). 214-221.
75、Sánchez-Ferrer A., Rodríguez-López J. N., García-Cánovas F.,García-Carmona F.(1995). Tyrosinase: a comprehensive review of its mechanism. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1247(1). 1-11.
76、Sanchez-Moreno C., Larrauri J. A., Saura-Calixto F.(1999). Free radical scavenging capacity of selected red ,rose and white wines. Journal of Food Science. 79. 1301-1304.
77、Schneider Y., Vincent F., Duranton B., Badolo L., Gosse F., Bergmann C., Seiler N., Raul F.(2000). Antiproliferative effect of resveratrol , a natural component of grapes and wind , on human colonic cancer cells. Cancer Letters. 158. 85-91.
78、Schechter S. R.(1996),“Fighting free radicals with antioxidant”,Health Foods Business, 6,28-29.
79、Scott S. L., Chen W. J., Bakac A., Espenson J. H.(1993). Spectroscopic parameters,electrode potentials, acid ionization constants, and electron exchange rates of the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radicals and ions. Journal of Physical Chemistry. 97. 6710-6714.
80、Shibata T., Pavel S., Smit N. P., Mishima Y.(1993). Differences in subcellular distribution of catechol-O-methyltransferase and tyrosinase in malignant melanoma. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 100 . 222-225.
81、Sindhu Mathew T. Emilia Abraham.(2005). In vitro antioxidant activity and scavenging effects of Cinnamomum verum leaf extract assayed by different methodologies. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 44. 198-206.
82、Subbaramaiah K., Chung W. J., Michaluart P., Telang N., Tanabe T., Inoue H., Jang M., Pezzuto J. M., Dannenberg A. J.(1998). Resveratrol inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 transcription and activity in phorbol ester-treated human mammary epithelial cells. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273(34). 21875-21882.
83、Sugumaran M., Duggaraju P., Jayachandran E., Kirk K. L.(1999). Formation of a new quinone methide intermediate during the oxidative transformation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acids: implication for eumelanin biosynthesis. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
371(1). 98-106.
84、Surh Y. J., Hurh Y. J., Kang J. Y., Lee E., Kong G., Lee S. J.(1999). Resveratrol, an antioxidant present in red wine, induces apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia(HL-60) cells. Cancer Letters. 140. 1-10.
85、Takako Y., You Jung K.(2007). Piceatannol inhibits melanogenesis by its antioxidative actions. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 30(11). 2007-2011.
86、Takahashi K., Avissar N., Whitin J., Cohen H.(1987). Purification and characterization of human plasma glutathione peroxidase : a selenoglycoprotein distinct from the known cellular enzyme. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 256(2). 677-686.
87、Tamaro S., Hudson D. K., Hartle S. D., Hursting N. P., Nunez T. T., Wang H. A., Young P. A., Jeffrey E. G.(2007). Inhibition of prostate cancer growth by muscadine grape skin extracts and resveratrol through distinct mechanisms.Cancer Research. 66(17). 8396-8405.
88、Tessitore L., Davit A., Sarotto I., Caderni G.(2000). Resveratrol depresses the growth of colorectal aberrant crypt foci by affecting bax and p21(CIP)expression. Carcinogenesis. 21(8). 1619-1622.
89、Thomas J. P., Maiorino M., Ursini F., Girotti A. W.(1990). Protective action of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase against membrane-damaging lipid peroxidation. In situ reduction of phospholipid and cholesterol hydroperoxides. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265(1). 454-61
90、Tripathi R. K., Chaya D. C., Ramaiah A.(1988). pH-dependent interconversion of two forms of tyrosinase in human skin. The Biochemical Journal. 252(2). 481-487.
91、Ursini F., Bindoli A.(1987). The role of selenium peroxidases in the protection against oxidative damage of membranes. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 44. 255-276.
92、Vaqar M. A., Farrukh A., Nihal A.(2003). Suppression of ultraviolet B exposure-mediated activation of NF-κB in normal human keratinocytes by resveratrol. Neoplasia. 5(1). 74-82.
93、Venkatasubramanian L., Maruthamuthu P.(1989). Kinetics and mechanism of formation and Decay of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-
ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulphonate) radical cation in aqueous
solution by inorganic peroxides. International Journal of Chemical Kinetics. 21. 399-421.
94、Vijayalaxmi R., Diane H., Lau-Cam C., Blase B.(2007). Evaluation of resveratrol and piceatannol cytotoxicity in macrophages, T cells, and skin cells. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 58(3). 293-304.
95、Weatherhead B., Logan A.(1981). Interaction of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, melatonin, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in the control of melanogenesis in hair follicle melanocytes in vitro. The Journal of Endocrinology. 90(1). 89-96.
96、Weng Z., Hendrickz M., Maesmans G., Gebruers K., Tobback P.(1991). Thermostability of soluble and immobilized horseradish peroxidase. Journal of Food Science. 56. 574-578.
97、Wong G., Pawelek J.(1975). Melanocyte-stimulating hormone promotes activation of pre-existing tyrosinase molecules in Cloudman S91 melanoma cells . Nature. 255(5510). 644-646.
98、Xuewu D., Genfu W., Tueming J.(2007). Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of litchi fruit phenolics in relation to pericarp browning prevention. Molecules. 12. 759-771.
99、Yeon H. K., Youn O. J., Chang W. C., Dongwook S., Soojin P., Jeonghae R., Sang Y. C.(2008). Inhibitory effects of cinnamic acid on melanin biosynthesis in skin. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 31(5). 946-948.
100、You-Jung K.(2007). Antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Gallic acid. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 30(6). 1052-1055.
101、Yumi A., Tomoko T., Hiroko A., Yoko F.(2007). Melanogenesis inhibition by an Oolong tea extract in B16 mouse melanoma cells and UV-inducde skin pigmentation in brownish guinea pig. Bioscience , Biotechnology , and Biochemistry. 71(8). 1879-1885.
102、Yu H., Chun-yan S., Jing H., Liu H., Lu Z., Zhang-bo C.(2007). Antimyeloma effects of resveratrol through inhibition of angiogenesis. Chinese Medical Journal. 120(19). 1672-1677.
103、方明發(1985),化妝品製造學,人光出版社,台南。
104、王曉芬(2007),市售四十五種精油之抗氧化能力、主要化學成分分
析及其在化妝品之應用,弘光科技大學生物產業研究所碩士畢業論文,1-97。
105、光井武夫(1992),新化妝品學,南山堂出版社,台北 。
106、周燕輝(1987),皮膚病,正中書局,台北,p.1-10.
107、張麗卿(1998),化妝品製造實務,台灣復文興業股份有限公司。
108、王子慶(2000),葡萄子與皮抗氧化性之研究,屏東科技大學食品科學系碩士畢業論文,1-121。
109、呂麗琴(2003),白藜蘆醇對人類大腸癌細胞株生長抑制作用之訊號傳遞機轉,實踐大學食品營養研究所碩士畢業論文,1-79。
110、李士瑛,黃進發,廖啟成(2000),天然抗氧化素材GSH、SOD及Astazanthin之開發與應用,生物產業,11,155-163。
111、吳育澤,蔡東湖(2006,6月),白藜蘆醇在人體的吸收與生物可利用率之探討,當代醫學,33(6),497-499。
112、拱玉郎(1997),天然抗氧化劑發展現況,食品工業,299(3),29-36。
113、林資哲(2003),紫錐菊咖啡酸衍生物含量與抗氧化能力分析,中興大學農藝學系碩士畢業論文,1-70。
114、林煥庭(2008),ABTS•+應用於毛細管區帶電泳進行選擇性線上自由基抓取物種偵測之研究,清華大學生醫工程與環境科學研究所碩士畢業論文,1-67。
115、林天送(1995),羥基自由基:毒性極高的破壞分子,健康世界,112, 6-10。
116、施益民,呂鋒洲(1989),自由基與各種疾病,當代醫學,16,399-407。
117、郭香吟(2003),中藥複方萃取物之抗老化與美白有效性之評估,國立台灣海洋大學食品科學系碩士畢業論文,1-99。
118、郭順宇(2008,12月),漫談白藜蘆醇,輔英醫訊,59,11-12。
119、徐明君(2004),Resveratrol與Piceatannol之抗氧化及抗發炎機制的探討,國立嘉義大學生物科技研究所碩士畢業論文,1-90。
120、陳威丞(2003),兼具酪胺酸酶抑制力及抗氧化力中藥材之篩選,大同大學生物工程學系碩士畢業論文,1-103。
121、陳惠英,顏國欽(1998),自由基、抗氧化防禦與人體健康,中華民國營養學會雜誌,23,105-121。
122、莊榮輝(2008),生物化學基礎,歐亞書局,台北。
123、張惠淇(2001),中藥美白化妝品其安全、品質與療效之評估,中國醫藥學院藥學研究所碩士畢業論文,1-219。
124、張建裕(2006),板藍根對於細胞激素相關基因的影響,大同大學生物工程研究所碩士畢業論文,1-67。
125、張瑋玲(2005),中草藥美白活性研究五倍子對B16黑色素細胞黑色素形成之抑制研究,臺北醫學大學醫學研究所碩士畢業論文,1-93。
126、許元昱,李旺祚,郭文勵譯(1992),組織學,合記圖書出版社。
127、黃效民(1996),黑色素之功能,食品工業月刊,8-12。
128、謝坤霖(2007),番木瓜果實水萃取物之抗氧化能力研究,靜宜大學食品營養學系碩士畢業論文,1-133。
129、謝秋蘭(2000),杜仲水萃取物抗氧化機能性之研究,國立中興大學食品科學研究所博士論文。
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 110、李士瑛,黃進發,廖啟成(2000),天然抗氧化素材GSH、SOD及Astazanthin之開發與應用,生物產業,11,155-163。
2. 110、李士瑛,黃進發,廖啟成(2000),天然抗氧化素材GSH、SOD及Astazanthin之開發與應用,生物產業,11,155-163。
3. 111、吳育澤,蔡東湖(2006,6月),白藜蘆醇在人體的吸收與生物可利用率之探討,當代醫學,33(6),497-499。
4. 111、吳育澤,蔡東湖(2006,6月),白藜蘆醇在人體的吸收與生物可利用率之探討,當代醫學,33(6),497-499。
5. 112、拱玉郎(1997),天然抗氧化劑發展現況,食品工業,299(3),29-36。
6. 112、拱玉郎(1997),天然抗氧化劑發展現況,食品工業,299(3),29-36。
7. 115、林天送(1995),羥基自由基:毒性極高的破壞分子,健康世界,112, 6-10。
8. 115、林天送(1995),羥基自由基:毒性極高的破壞分子,健康世界,112, 6-10。
9. 116、施益民,呂鋒洲(1989),自由基與各種疾病,當代醫學,16,399-407。
10. 116、施益民,呂鋒洲(1989),自由基與各種疾病,當代醫學,16,399-407。
11. 121、陳惠英,顏國欽(1998),自由基、抗氧化防禦與人體健康,中華民國營養學會雜誌,23,105-121。
12. 121、陳惠英,顏國欽(1998),自由基、抗氧化防禦與人體健康,中華民國營養學會雜誌,23,105-121。
13. 127、黃效民(1996),黑色素之功能,食品工業月刊,8-12。
14. 127、黃效民(1996),黑色素之功能,食品工業月刊,8-12。
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔