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研究生:柳映鈴
研究生(外文):Ying-Ling Liu
論文名稱:高雄縣/市3-6歲學齡前兒童口腔健康狀況與影響因子之探討
論文名稱(外文):A study of Oral Hygiene and Affected Factors of 3-6 Year-Old Preschool Children in Kaohsiung County/City
指導教授:黃純德黃純德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shun-Te Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:高雄醫學大學
系所名稱:口腔衛生科學研究所碩士在職專班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:牙醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:175
中文關鍵詞:學齡前兒童齲齒飲食習慣潔牙習慣城鄉差距
外文關鍵詞:Preschool childrencarieseating habitstooth-cleaning habitsareas of low urbanization
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高雄縣/市3-6歲學齡前兒童口腔健康狀況與影響因子之探討
中文摘要
背景:口腔健康是有幫助營養吸收及促進全身健康一個重要的因素,口腔健康狀況不良會使得咀嚼力下降,進而影響兒童的飲食。目前台灣學齡前兒童因飲食行為的改變導致齲齒率依舊高居不下,兒童之口腔問題急待改善。口腔狀況中導致咀嚼功能缺損原因是牙齒功能的喪失,而牙齒功能喪失在學齡前兒童主要是由齲齒所引起。以高雄縣與高雄市某公私立幼稚園3-6歲學齡前兒童為研究調查對象,期望透過口腔檢查及其主要照顧者問卷調查,來了解城鄉之間兒童口腔健康狀況及其影響因子之探討,進而提出預防口腔醫學的價值。
目的:擬探討高雄縣與高雄市3-6歲學齡前兒童口腔健康狀況及口腔習慣、飲食習慣、潔牙習慣及城鄉差距等相關因素。
方法:本研究對象以高雄縣與高雄市公私立幼稚園3-6歲兒童為母群體,共收集有效樣本625份。以口腔健康檢查及問卷收集相關口腔習慣、飲食習慣、潔牙習慣及照顧者對學齡前兒童口腔保健知識與態度等資料。資料先鍵入Microsoft Access之資料庫,再以JMP6.0等統計軟體來進行統計分析。
結果:高雄縣與高雄市3-6歲學齡前兒童齲齒狀況調查結果,高雄縣齲齒顆數為3.73顆、齲齒指數為4.68、齲齒率為76.15%、填補率為18.71%;高雄市齲齒顆數為0.97顆、齲齒指數為1.87、齲齒率為49.89%、填補率為48.93%。齲齒指數在年齡及城鄉之間均呈現統計上顯著的差異(p<0.05)。影響3-6歲學齡前兒童齲齒之重要因子為城鄉差距、兒童年齡層、母親教育程度、食物質地喜好、潔牙執行者及潔牙開始時間。
結論:本研究發現兒童齲齒指數因城鄉之間差距及隨年齡的增加而遞增,學齡前兒童齲齒指數提高,影響兒童偏好軟性質地的食物。改善城鄉之間的差距、良好的飲食習慣及潔牙習慣,將降低學齡前兒童齲齒的發生。

關鍵字:學齡前兒童、齲齒、飲食習慣 、潔牙習慣、城鄉差距
A Study of Oral Hygiene and Affected Factors of 3-6 Year-Old Preschool Children in Kaohsiung County/City

Abstract
Background: Oral hygiene is an important factor to improve the absorption of nutrition and enhance individual health. Poor oral hygiene condition have been proved to reduce the degree of chewing and hence influence children’s choice of diet. Preschool children in Taiwan have a high rate of caries. This high rate is influenced by a change in diet. The reason for the loss of tooth function of preschool children is due to caries. In order to understand the oral health status of children an investigation was conducted on 3-6 year-old preschool children and their main care takers at a private kindergarten in Kaohsiung County/City. The study also investigated factors which can prevent oral disease.
Objectives: The following factors were included: oral health status of 3-6 year-old preschool children, eating habits, tooth-cleaning habits, county/city and areas of low urbanization.
Method: This research survey samples collection focused on preschool children aged from 3 to 6 in Kaohsiung county/city with 625 valid samples received. Collected data from oral health inspection、oral habits、food intake、tooth brush and parent’s oral hygiene knowledge and attitude were included. A database was designed using Microsoft Access, and data were analyzed using JMP 6.0 to implement statistical analysis.
Results: The results of the caries state of 3-6 year-old preschool children in Kaohsiung county/city were as follows:The number of caries was 3.73,deft index was 4.68, and caries prevalence was 76.15% and the filling rate was 18.71% in Kaohsiung county. The number of caries was 0.97,deft index was 1.87 the caries prevalence rate was 49.89% and the filling rate was 48.93% in Kaohsiung city. The deft index was statistically significantly different by age(p<0.05).The important factors influencing caries of 3-6 year-old preschool children included areas of low urbanization , mother’s education level, preference of food texture, tooth brushing after meal, age to start brushing teeth.
Conclusion: Preschool children’s deft index increased progressively by area and as age increased. High deft index influences the preference on food with soft texture in children. Areas of low urbanization with good eating and tooth brushing habits were used to reduce the emergence of preschool children’s caries rate.



Keywords: Preschool children, caries, eating habits, tooth-cleaning habits, areas of low urbanization
目錄
頁次
致謝
中文摘要..................................................I
英文摘要................................................III
目錄......................................................V
中文表錄.................................................IX
英文表錄............................................... XII
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景.....................................1
第二節 研究目的.....................................4
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 學齡前兒童齲齒狀況...........................5
第二節 學齡前兒童飲食行為...........................9
第三節 學齡前兒童咀嚼相關性........................10
第四節 學齡前兒童口腔清潔行為......................14
第五節 學齡前兒童口腔習慣..........................15


第三章 材料與方法
第一節 研究對象....................................17
第二節 研究工具....................................17
第三節 研究假設....................................24
第四節 研究步驟....................................24
第五節 研究架構....................................26
第六節 統計分析....................................27
第七節 研究限制....................................28
第八節 名詞界說....................................29
第四章 結果
第一節 3-6歲兒童基本資料...........................31
第二節 3-6歲兒童父母親及照顧者基本資料.............31
一、 3-6歲兒童父親基本人口學....................31
二、 3-6歲兒童母親基本人口學.....................32
三、 3-6歲兒童下課後主要照顧者人口學.............33
第三節 3-6歲兒童各項口腔健康狀況...................34
一、 3-6歲兒童口腔健康狀況......................34
二、 口腔健康狀況與基本資料之關係...............34
第四節 3-6歲兒童口腔健康狀況與父母親及照顧者人口學.36
一、 兒童口腔健康狀況與父親基本人口學之關係.... 36
二、 兒童口腔健康狀況與母親基本人口學之關係.....37
三、 兒童口腔健康狀況與照顧者基本人口學之關係.. 38
第五節 3-6歲兒童日常生活習慣.......................39
一、 3-6歲兒童目前口腔習慣...................... 39
二、 3-6歲兒童飲食習慣.......................... 39
三、 3-6歲兒童食物質地喜好...................... 39
四、 3-6歲兒童咀嚼狀況.......................... 39
五、 兒童潔牙習慣............................... 40
第六節 3-6歲兒童口腔健康狀況與相關影響因素.........41
一、 口腔健康狀況與口腔習慣之關係............... 41
二、 口腔健康狀況與飲食(甜食)習慣之關係......... 41
三、 口腔健康狀況與食物質地喜好之關係........... 42
四、 口腔健康狀況與咀嚼狀況之關係............... 42
五、 口腔健康狀況與潔牙習慣之關係............... 43
六、 父母親對口腔保健知識與態度................. 44
七、 迴歸分析影響口腔健康重要因素............... 45
第五章 討論
第一節 資料收集情形.................................49
第二節 基本資料之討論...............................49
第三節 3-6歲兒童齲齒狀況............................50
第四節 父母親及照顧者與兒童齲齒狀況.................53
第五節 影響兒童齲齒狀況相關因素.....................53
一、 口腔習慣....................................54
二、 飲食習慣....................................54
三、 潔牙習慣....................................56
四、 父母親對口腔保健的知識與態度................57
五、 影響deft index 重要因素.....................58
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論........................................60
第二節 建議........................................61
參考文獻.................................................62
中文表格.................................................70
英文表格................................................106
附錄....................................................142
3-6歲學齡前兒童口腔健康習慣調查........................149




中文表格目錄
表1 高雄縣/市3-6歲兒童基本資料表.....................70
表2 3-6歲兒童父親之社會人口學資料.................... 71
表3 3-6歲兒童母親之社會人口學資料.................... 72
表4 3-6歲兒童下課後主要照顧者之社會人口學資料........ 73
表5 高雄縣市3-6歲兒童各項口腔健康狀況資料.............74
表6 高雄縣/市3-6歲兒童年齡、性別與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係...............75
表7 高雄縣/市3-6歲兒童年齡、性別與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係(續)...........76
表8 3-6歲兒童口腔健康狀況與高雄縣/市父親基本人口學比較.77
表9 3-6歲兒童口腔健康狀況與高雄縣/市父親基本人口學比較 (續).............................................78
表10 3-6歲兒童口腔健康狀況與高雄縣/市母親基本人口學比較.79
表11 3-6歲兒童口腔健康狀況與高雄縣/市母親基本人口學比較(續).............................................80
表12 3-6歲兒童口腔健康狀況與高雄縣/市之照顧者基本人口學比較................................................ 81
表13 3-6歲兒童目前口腔習慣............................ 82
表14 3-6歲兒童之飲食習慣(甜食)........................83
表15 3-6歲兒童之食物質地喜好.......................... 84
表16 3-6歲兒童之咀嚼狀況.............................. 85
表17 3-6歲兒童之潔牙習慣.............................. 86
表18 3-6歲兒童口腔習慣與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係...........................87
表19 3-6歲兒童飲食(甜食)習慣與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係...................88
表20 3-6歲兒童飲食(甜食)習慣與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係(續)................89
表21 3-6歲兒童食物質地喜好與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補率、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係.....................90
表22 3-6歲兒童咀嚼狀況與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係...........................91
表23 3-6歲兒童潔牙習慣與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係...........................92
表24 3-6歲兒童潔牙習慣與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係(續)..................... 93
表25 3-6歲兒童潔牙習慣與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係(續).....................94
表26 3-6歲兒童潔牙習慣與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係(續)..................... 95
表27 3-6歲兒童父母對口腔保健的知識..................... 96
表28 3-6歲兒童之父母對口腔保健的知識得分分佈情形.......97
表29 3-6歲兒童父母對口腔保健的態度答題之情形........... 98
表30 3-6歲兒童父母對口腔保健的態度得分情形.............99
表31 3-6歲兒童父母知識分數得分與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係..................100
表32 3-6歲兒童父母態度得分與deft指數、齲齒數、缺牙數、填補數、齲齒盛行率、填補率之關係....................101
表33 影響高雄縣/市3-6歲兒童deft重要因素之複迴歸分析..102
表34 影響高雄縣/市3-6歲兒童齲齒盛行率重要因素之對數迴歸分析...............................................103
表35 國內0-6歲兒童之齲齒狀況之比較....................104
表36 國內3-6歲兒童之齲齒狀況之比較....................105
表37 國內3-6歲兒童之齲齒狀況之比較(續)... ............105




Index of Table
Table 1 Distribution of 3-6 year-old children in Kaohsiung County/City………………………………………………….106
Table 2 The demographic distribution of 3-6 year-old children''s father……………………………………………………… ..107
Table 3 The demographic distribution of 3-6 year-old children''s mother……………………………………………………….108
Table 4 Distribution of 3-6 year old children''s watcher……………..109
Table5 Distribution of oral status with 3-6 year-old children in Kaohsiung County/City……………………………………. 110
Table6 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by children''s age and gender……………………………………………….111
Table7 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by children''s age and gender(continued)………………………………….112
Table8 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by feather demography………………………………………………….113
Table9 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by feather demography (continued)...................................................114
Table10 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by mother demography………………………………………………….115
Table11 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by mother demography (continued)......................................................116
Table12 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by watcher…………………………………………………… 117
Table13 3-6 year-old children''s oral habits………………………...118
Table14 3-6 year-old children''s eating habits……………………...119
Table 15 3-6 year-old children''s food texture……………………...120
Table 16 3-6 year-old children''s mastication condition……………..121
Table 17 3-6 year-old children''s tooth-brush habits………………... 122
Table18 d,e,f,deft index Caries prevalence and filling rate by 3-6 year-old children''s oral habits…………………………...123
Table19 d,e,f,deft index Caries prevalence and filling rate by 3-6 year-old children''s eating habits(eating sweet)…………...124
Table20 d,e,f,deft index Caries prevalence and filling rate by 3-6 year-old children''s eating habits(eating sweet;continued).125
Table21 d,e,f,deft index Caries prevalence and filling rate by 3-6 year-old children''s food texture……………………………126
Table22 d,e,f,deftindex,Caries prevalence and filling rate by 3-6 year-old children''s mastication……………………………127
Table23 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by 3-6 year-old children dietary habits……………………………128
Table24 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by 3-6 year-old children dietary habits(continued)……………… 129
Table25 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by 3-6 year-old children dietary habits(continued)……………… 130
Table26 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by 3-6 year-old children dietary habits(continued)……………… 131
Table27 According to parents to oral health knowledge…………….132
Table28 Distribution of knowledge score according to parents to oral health………………………………………………………133
Table29 According to 3-6 year-old child''s parents attitude score of oral health………………………………………………………134
Table30 Distribution of attitude score according to parents to oral health………………………………………………………135
Table31 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by parent''s knowledge score………………………………………….. 136
Table32 d,e,f,deft index,Caries prevalence and filling rate by parent''s attitude score…………………………………………….137
Table33 Multiple linear regression analysis on risk factor associated with 3-6 year-old children deft index in Kaohsiung County/City………………………………………………..138
Table34 Logistic regression analysis on risk factors associated with 3-6 year-old caries prevalence in Kaohsiung County/City…….139
Table 35 Comparison of national caries status by 0-6 year-old children…………………………………………………….140
Table 36 Comparison of national caries status by 0-6 year-old children………………………………………………….....141
Table 37 Comparison of national caries status by 0-6 year-old children(continued)……………………………………..... 141
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4、黃純德。台灣六歲以下兒童口腔狀況調查。國民健康局九十三年度科技研究發展計畫。
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