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研究生:黃于倫
研究生(外文):Yu-Lun Huang
論文名稱:以模糊多準則決策探討高科技業女性工作壓力及產業策略
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Work Stress and Strategies for High Technological Industry Women by Using FMCDM
指導教授:邱瑞滿
指導教授(外文):Jui-Man Chiu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:開南大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:女性工作壓力高科技業模糊層級分析法模糊積分模糊多準則決策
外文關鍵詞:Hi-Tech industry womenWorking stressAdaptive capabilityMCDMFuzzy AHPFuzzy integral
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隨著全球市場競爭日益激烈,世界各先進國家無不致力於發展高科技產業,以取得全球的競爭優勢,而高科技產業,具有市場變化快速、產品生命週期極短、複雜性高、技術創新持續不斷等特性,其所有產業活動都和時間在競賽。在這激烈多變化、充滿高度不確定性的產業環境中,其從業人員所感受到的工作壓力可想而知。工作壓力將對員工的心理、生理及行為產生負向的影響,而影響組織的績效。因此,工作壓力源之研究成為管理階層所關注並企求解決之課題。
近年來,因為女性教育程度的提升、自我肯定與自我實現的觀念及經濟壓力下,促使大量的女性投入高工作壓力的高科技產業,再加上中國傳統家庭對於婦女角色扮演之要求,使得高科技業女性須有很高的心理與生理素質來適應這些環境;因此本研究以高科技業女性員工為研究對象,探討其工作壓力的主要來源,及其產業因應策略。
本研究以模糊多準則決策 (Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making) 找出產業減壓策略優先序。我們將高科技業女性工作壓力來源之評估準則歸類為三大構面:個人構面、組織構面及工作搆面,共包括十八個評估高科技業女性工作壓力源準則;另外,高科技產業減壓策略共分為六大方案。我們以高科技業女性員工為調查對象,並以模糊層級分析法與模糊積分進行資料分析及運算。首先利用模糊層級分析法決定十八個評估準則之個別權重,其次再分別以簡單加權法及模糊積分求得減壓策略在所有評估準則下之模糊綜效,以及用解模糊運算求得各工作壓力來源之權重順序。
本論文研究27家高科技產業共計回收了507筆有效問卷,分析後得到以下結論:(1)高科技業的女性工作者,對於工作壓力源之評估準則的重視程度依序為「工作負荷」、「工作職位」、「工作環境」、「工作期間懷孕」、「工作地點」、「抗壓能力」、「工作興趣」、「學習能力」、「薪資制度」、「陞遷制度」、「工作年資」、「個性」、「福利制度」、「家庭因素」、「與上司間關係」、「與同儕間關係」、「組織文化」、「性別歧視」。(2)高科技業的女性工作者認為舒緩壓力之策略中,認為最有幫助之提升適應能力策略依序是「增進員工之工作技能」、「改進員工薪資及福利制度」、「提供完善工作環境」、「明定在組織中之女性權益保障辦法」、「提供休閒娛樂之機會」、「提供交通輔助措施」。
The competition of global markets is intense day by day. The advanced countries all devote in developing high-technological (Hi-Tech) industry for obtaining many competitive advantages. However, the Hi-Tech industry contains many characteristics: the technical change is fast, the life cycles of products are short, the technical complexity is high, and the technological innovation is incessant, so all the organizational activities of the industry race with time. It can be imagined that in the highly uncertain environment, the work stress of all employees of the industry are high. The work stress have bad effects on the psychologies, physiologies, and behaviors of these employees. Then they indirectly influence the organizational performance. Hence, the sources of work stress are concerned by the employees’ selves and management levels of the organizations, and are needed to be solved.
In recent years, women’ educational levels rise; these women have self-affirmative and self-realizable concepts, and they also have economical pressures, such that they need to have high psychological and physiological qualities to adapt the environment. In this paper, we use the High-Tech women to act as our research subjects. We obtain the weights of the criteria evaluating the sources of these women’ work stress and the priorities of the strategies improving adaptive capability to this stress by using a multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach.
Firstly, we divide the criteria of the sources of these women’ stress into three phases: personal phase, organizational phase, and working phase. There are total eighteen criteria in the three phases. Also, we divide all possible strategies into six alternatives. Secondly, we use fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) to obtain the weights of these criteria. Thirdly, we use a simple-addition-weight and fuzzy integral method, respectively, to obtain fuzzy synthetic utilities of the alternatives. Finally, we execute defuzzy operations to these fuzzy synthetic utilities and then obtain the priorities of these alternatives.
We investigate 27 firms of the Hi-Tech industry and receive 507 valid questionnaires. The obtained empirical results are: (1) the priorities of the criteria emphasized by the Hi-Tech women in the ranking order are “working load,” “working position,” “working environment,” “being pregnant during working,” “working location,” “resistant capability of pressures,” “working interest,” “learning capability,” “salary system,” “promotion system,” “period of service,” “personality,” “benefit system,” “family factor,” “relationships with boss,” “relationships with peer,” “organizational culture,” and “gender discrimination,” and (2) the priorities of the alternatives for improving women’ adaptive capability of pressures in the ranking order are “enhancing the working skills of employees,” “refining employees’ salary and benefit systems,” “providing a consummate working environment,” “stipulating the alternatives for protecting women’ rights and interests in the organization,” “providing the opportunities of rest and recreation,” “providing auxiliary alternatives for transportation.”
目 錄

致謝詞.....................I
摘要......................II
ABSTRACT.................IV
目錄..................... VI
表目錄...................VIII
圖目錄...................X

第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究架構與流程 4
第二章 文獻探討 6
2.1 工作壓力之定義、理論與模式 6
2.1.1 壓力的定義與分類 6
2.1.2 工作壓力相關理論 9
2.1.3 工作壓力來源與反應 11
2.1.4 工作壓力之模式 15
2.1.5 性別與工作壓力 18
2.2 產業減壓策略 20
2.3 高科技產業定義與特性 23
2.4 多準則決策 26
2.4.1 決策問題種類 26
2.4.2 多準則決策分析 28
2.4.3 多準則決策在群體決策的應用 30
第三章 方法論 32
3.1 研究分析架構 32
3.2 研究方法 36
3.2.1 模糊理論 36
3.2.2 模糊集合(Fuzzy Set) 36
3.2.3 模糊數(Fuzzy Numbers) 36
3.2.4 模糊運算 38
3.3 模糊層級分析法 39
3.4 模糊積分(FUZZY INTEGRAL) 41
第四章 資料分析-以高科技業女性為例 45
4.1 問題描述與資料收集 45
4.2 基本統計量分析 46
次數與百分比分析 46
4.3 不同工作壓力構面權重下產業策略優先序決定 52
4.3.1 評估準則權重計算結果 52
4.3.2 以簡單加權法決定產業策略先序設定結果 53
4.3.3 以模糊積分決定產業策略優先序設定結果 55
4.4 相同工作壓力構面權重下產業策略優先序決定 59
4.4.1 評估準則權重計算結果 59
4.4.2 以簡單加權法決定產業策略優先序設定結果 60
4.4.3 以模糊積分決定產業策略優先序設定結果 61
第五章 結論 63
5.1 研究結論與發現 63
5.2 研究建議與未來研究方向 67

表 目 錄

表2- 1 工作壓力定義匯整 10
表2- 2 決策問題的四大類別與其相關方法 26
表2- 3 模糊多屬性決策的分類 27
表3- 1 高科技業女性工作壓力源評估準則之定義描述(本研究整理) 34
表3- 2 高科技產業減壓策略之定義描述(本研究整理) 35
表4- 1 問卷發放公司統計資料(問卷對象:高科技業女性) 46
表4-2 高科技產業別次數與百分比分佈 47
表4- 3 年齡次數與百分比分佈 47
表4- 4 婚姻狀況次數與百分比分佈 48
表4- 5 教育程度次數與百分比分佈 48
表4- 6 公司工作年資次數與百分比分佈 49
表4- 7 通勤時間次數與百分比分佈 49
表4- 8 平均月收入次數與百分比分佈 50
表4- 9 隸屬部門次數與百分比分佈 50
表4- 10 工作職務次數與百分比分佈 51
表4- 11 評估準則之模糊權重、BNP值及排名(不同構面權重下) 52
表4- 12 高科技業女性工作者壓力源之重要程度排名(不同構面權重下) 53
表4- 13 模糊績效矩陣 54
表4- 14 以簡單加權法之產業策略綜效權重及優先序(不同構面權重下) 55
表4- 15 產業策略之模糊綜效及其BNP值 (不同構面權重下) 55
表4- 16 六大策略重要度的排名(記次) 56
表4- 17 在不同 值所得到之產業策略優先序 (不同構面權重下) 57
表4- 18 在不同 值所得到之產業策略優先序(不同構面權重下) 58
表4- 19 評估準則之模糊權重、BNP值及排名(相同構面權重下) 59
表4- 20 高科技業女性工作者壓力源之重要程度排名(相同構面權重下) 60
表4- 21 產業策略之模糊綜效及其BNP值 (相同構面權重下) 60
表4- 22 在不同 值所得到之策略優先序(相同構面權重下) 61
表4- 23 在不同 值所得到之產業策略優先序(相同構面權重下) 62


圖 目 錄

圖1- 1 研究流程與架構 5
圖2- 1 壓力之刺激模式 7
圖2- 2 壓力之反應模式 8
圖2- 3 壓力之交互模式 8
圖2- 4 壓力的四種基本類別 9
圖 3- 1 概念架構圖 33
圖 3- 2 三角模糊數示意圖 37
圖 3- 3 梯形模糊數示意圖 38
圖 3- 4 RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE TYPES OF MEASURES DISCUSSED 42
圖 3- 5 模糊積分示意圖 44
圖 5- 1 高科技業女性工作壓力與產業策略模型 67
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