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研究生:吳怡萱
研究生(外文):I-Hsuan Wu
論文名稱:同時且快速地以高效液相層析梯度沖提法分析化妝品之美白劑
論文名稱(外文):Simultaneously and rapidly determine bleaching agents in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography with gradient elution
指導教授:呂祖尚林正輝林正輝引用關係何宗漢何宗漢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsu-Shang LeuCheng-Hui LinTsung-Han Ho
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程與材料工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:高效液相層析梯度沖提等位沖提熊果素氫醌麴酸維他命C葡萄糖苷維他命B3
外文關鍵詞:high-performance liquid chromatographygradient elutionisocratic elutionHydroquinoneArbutinKojic acidAscorbyl glucosideNiacinamideANDA
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利用高效液相層析法分析法定量化妝品中常見親水性美白劑-氫醌、熊果素、麴酸、維他命C糖苷及維他命B3。此方法之樣品前處理步驟只需使用去離子水(Deionized water)溶解化妝品而不用耗費大量有機溶劑,因此前處理步驟省時且環保。
第一部分,發展簡單、可靠及快速的梯度沖提之高效液相層析法,同時測定美白化妝品中氫醌及熊果素兩種美白劑。沖提液以體積比為15%的甲醇內含濃度為0.020 M之磷酸鹽緩衝溶液;沖提液流速先以1 mL/min可在6分鐘內即可完成氫醌和熊果素的分離。接著將流速提高至2 mL/min進行沖提,能於25分鐘內完成真實樣品的分析與原先需花45分鐘完成真實樣品分析節省了20分鐘)。
第二部份:發展簡單、可靠及快速的等位冲提之高效能液相層析法同時測定美白化妝品中麴酸、維他命C葡萄糖苷和維他命B3三種美白劑。沖提液以體積比為15%的甲醇內含濃度為0.020 M之磷酸鹽緩衝溶液;沖提液流速以0.8 mL/min可在8分鐘內即可完成麴酸、維他命C葡萄糖苷及維他命B3三種美白劑的分離,且不需再改變條件進行層析即可完成分離真實樣品的分析。
本研究以intra-assay(同一天連續測定六次)及inter-assay(每天測定六次,連續測定五天)進行準確度(以偏差表示)範圍介於-3.05~5.60%,精密度低於11.55%(相對標準偏差)。五種美白劑之線性濃度範圍皆高達100倍,待測樣品之可偵測濃度相當廣泛;線性回歸之r2大於0.995之線性可靠度之上。
添加適當標準品於市售美白軟膏、凝膠、化妝水、乳液中,其回收率介於88.93%~126.51%,變異係數介於0.13%~9.20%。
本分析系統應用於市售醫療用氫醌乳膏與美容用熊果素、麴酸、維他命C葡萄糖苷化妝水及維他命B3乳液含量之測定分別為2.2、1.62、3.15、1.86、1.99% (重複分析三次,相對標準偏差依序是2.56、3.12、 4.42、 4.02、2.80 %),其準確度(以偏差表示)分別為-10、18.6、-5、7、0.5%。測得之結果顯示本分析方法之準確度及精密度皆於可接受範圍內。
A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for quantifying five of the most common used hydrophilic whitening agent-Hydroquinone (HQ), Arbutin (AR), Kojic acid (KA), Ascorbyl glucoside (AA-2G) and Niacinamide (VitB3), has been developed. Only deionized water was used as the solvent in the hydrophilic bleaching agents dissolved and sampling coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) system of examining. We discussed the parameters (percentage of polarity in the mobile phase and rate flow of mobile phase) affect the separation of whitening components and find out the optimum condition. The performance characteristics (linearity, detection limit, spike recovery, precision and accuracy) were carefully validated of HPLC/UV this study.
Part I, Simultaneously and rapidly determine bleaching agents-HQ and AR in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography with gradient elution. Our results indicate that HQ and AR separated well within 6 min on a reverse-phase Hypersil Fluophase PFP column when eluting with 0.020 M phosphate buffer solution in 15% (v/v) methanol at pH 5.5. The analytes were detected at the wavelength of 275 nm. The rate of mobile phase is 1.0 mL/min to 2.0 mL/min. The commercial cosmetics can be run within 25 min (originally needing to take 45 minutes to run the real sample.)
Part II, Simultaneously and rapidly determine bleaching agents-KA, AA-2G and VitB3 in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography with isocratic elution. Results indicated that standard samples-KA, AA-2G and VitB3 separated and commercial cosmetics run well within 8 min on a reverse-phase Hypersil Fluophase PFP column when eluting with 0.020 M phosphate buffer solution in 15% (v/v) methanol at pH 5.5. The analytes were detected at the wavelength of 270 nm. The rate of mobile phase is 1.0 mL/min.
The HPLC/UV system has been developed to determine in six commercial cosmetics including two medicated and four non- medicated cosmetics. The accuracy (% bias) for intra-day (n=6) and inter-day (n=30, five consecutive days) ranged from -3.05 to 5.60% with precision less than 11.55% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.). Recovery obtained between 88.93% to 126.51% by adding standards into medicated cosmetics and the coefficients of variance between 0.13% to 9.20%. The linearity of calibration curve were found to be linear in the 2.2~220.0 ppm (HQ), 5.4~540.0 ppm (AR), 2.8~280 ppm (KA), 6.5~650.0 ppm (AA-2G), and 1.8~180 ppm (VitB3). The correlation coefficients of linear regression analysis were within the range 0.9968~1.0000. The detection limits of these compounds are 0.408 ppm for HQ, 0.022 ppm for AR, 0.010 ppm for KA, and 0.007 ppm for VitB3.
The content of HQ in the medicated cosmetic are 2.2% (2.56% R.S.D., n=3); in contrast to the percentage given by the manufacturer is 2%, the accuracy (% bias) is -10%. The contents of AR, AA-2G and VitB3 in the non-medicated cosmetics are 3.15%, 1.86% and 1.99%, (4.42%, 4.02%, 2.80% R.S.D., n=3), respectively; in contrast to the percentage given by the manufacturer are 2%, 3% and 2%, the accuracy (% bias) were -5%, 7%, 0.5%.
We used this procedure to assay four commercially available bleaching cosmetics; our results confirmed not only the precision of the method but also the claims made on the labels of the cosmetics. This approach provides a very simple means to determine the contents of HQ, AR, KA, AA-2G and VitB3 in various dosages in bleaching cosmetics.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
總目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論1
1-1 研究緣起與目的1
1-2 皮膚的構造與機能3
1-2-1 皮膚的基本特徵3
1-2-2 皮膚組織結構3
1-3 黑色素相關介紹5
1-3-1 黑色素細胞5
1-3-2 酪胺酸酶的簡介5
1-3-3 膚色與黑色素6
1-3-4 黑色素的合成路徑6
1-3-5 黑色素細胞的分化及黑色素在皮膚的代謝途徑7
1-4 美白劑之介紹及作用原理7
1-4-1 美白成分遏止黑色素生成之作用機制種類7
1-4-2 美白劑簡介 9
1-4-3 化妝品的經皮吸收16
1-5 美白劑之有效性16
第二章 文獻回顧30
2-1 氫醌之分析30
2-2 熊果素之分析32
2-3 維他命C及其衍生物之分析33
2-4 麴酸、維他命C葡萄糖苷、維他命B3之分析 34
第三章 實驗部分37
3-1 藥品和溶劑 37
3-2 儀器設備38
3-3 儀器分析原理39
3-3-1 HPLC 簡介39
3-3-2 HPLC構造39
3-4 研究方法41
3-4-1 標準品美白劑之配製41
3-4-2 分析方之建立42
3-4-3 初分離條件42
3-4-4 緩衝液pH值43
3-5 分析方法驗證43
3-5-1 Intra-assay及Inter-assay之準確度及精密度43
3-5-2 線性濃度範圍44
3-5-3 以添加回收率之方法測定準確度44
第四章 結果與討論63
4-1 選擇適合分析各美白劑之條件63
4-1-1 由紫外光可見光檢測器選定最佳波長63
4-1-2 適當之沖提液組成比例63
4-1-3 實驗方法之可行性分析64
4-2 真實樣品之分析65
4-2-1 同時快速以梯度沖提法分析真實樣品氫醌與熊果素65
4-2-2 同時快速以等位沖提法分析麴酸、他命C葡萄糖苷及維他命B3 65
4-3 分析方法驗證65
4-3-1 Intra-assay及Inter-assay之精密度及準確度65
4-3-2 線性濃度範圍66
4-3-3 以添加回收率評估之準確度67
4-3-4 真實樣品之分析67
第五章 總結103
第六章 參考文獻104
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