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研究生:呂美君
研究生(外文):Mei-Chun,Lu.
論文名稱:國家文化、領導風格對工作滿意度與組織公民行為之影響-以台、日、越螺絲螺帽廠商為例
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of National Culture and Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior--A Study of Fastener Firms in Taiwan, Japan and Vietnam
指導教授:林亮宏林亮宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liang-Hung, Lin.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:國際企業系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:173
中文關鍵詞:國家文化領導風格工作滿意度組織公民行為
外文關鍵詞:national cultureleadership stylejob satisfactionorganizational citizenshipbehavior
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本研究以台、日在越南設廠之螺絲螺帽廠商為研究對象,主要在探討台、日、越員工對於國家文化、領導風格的認知、工作滿意度與組織公民行為是否有所差異。以及國家文化、領導風格、工作滿意度與組織公民行為之間互相影響的關係。分析方法包含敘述性統計、信度分析、因素分析、單因子變異數分析、相關分析與迴歸分析。本研究共發出包含中文、日文及越文合計400份問卷,回收330份,有效問卷為258份,問卷有效回收率為64.5%。
研究結果分述如下:
一、台、日、越員工對於各構面因素的認知差異
(一)在國家文化各構面因素中,台、日、越之員工除了「權力距離」和「不確定避免」沒有顯著差異之外,在其餘構面因素上皆有顯著的差異。
(二)三個國家的員工在領導風格各構面皆有不同的結果,其中越南的員工似乎最偏重和主管之間的「交換」關係。
(三)台灣和越南員工的滿意程度較高,明顯高於日本員工的滿意程度。
(四)對於組織公民行為的認知,對於「工作本份行為」和「利他行為」,越南員工的分數都是最高的,而日本則呈現偏低的情形。越南員工對於本國藉同事有較高的「利他行為」,這也可以解釋越南員工在發動群起罷工事件,其所表現出的團結性,也反映在企業中同國藉的越南員工間的互動關係。但是在「組織公益行為」方面,台灣的分數最高,為3.46,其次為日本的員工,為3.26,最低則為越南的2.97。越南員工對於自己所處的外資企業中其表現出的「組織公益行為」,相較於台、日兩國之員工之分數為低,此項結果與越南員工「個人主義」與「剛性作風」分數較高相呼應,「組織公益行為」分數低表示在工作上,未能顧及組織利益的行為表現,例如罷工這樣的事件就很容易發生在越南員工身上。
二、國家文化的影響
(一) 「個人主義」和「長期導向」對交易型領導和轉換型領導而言,都是顯著的影響因素,「長期導向」亦對放任型領導風格皆有顯著的影響。
(二) 對工作滿意度而言,「長期導向」和「個人主義」為最大的影響因素,其次依序為「避免不確定」、「剛性作風」,而「權力距離」則是沒有顯著的影響。
(三) 「長期導向」和「個人主義」對組織公民行為各構面較具有顯著的影響。
三、領導風格的影響
(一) 「交易型領導」的影響最大,其次為「轉換型領導」,影響力最小的為「放任型領導」。
(二) 「轉換型領導」對於「工作本份行為」和「利他行為」的影響力最大;「交易型領導」對於「組織公益行為」的影響力最大。另外「放任型領導」則對「工作本份行為」沒有顯著的影響,其餘領導風格因素對組織公民行為各構面皆有顯著的影響。
四、工作滿意度對組織公民行為的影響
就迴歸分析而言,組織公民行為各構面都是「內在滿意度」的影響力大於「外在滿意度」。除了「外在滿意度」對「組織公益行為」沒有顯著的影響之外,滿意度各因素對組織公民行為各構面皆有顯著的影響。
This research takes the Taiwanese and Japanese fastener firms in Vietnam as object of study, discussing the differences of national cultures, cognition of leadership styles, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviors between employees from Taiwan, Japan and Vietnam, as well as the correlations between national cultures, cognition of leadership styles, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. The analytical methodologies include descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, factor analysis, one-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis and regression analysis. 400 questionnaires in Chinese, Japanese and Vietnamese were distributed, 330 returned; 258 were valid, and the valid response rate was 64.5 percent.
The results of study indicate:
1. The employees’ different levels of understanding of the above factors
a. In national culture factors, the employees have remarkably different understanding levels except in “power distance” and “uncertainty avoidance.”
b. The employees of the three countries show different results in the leadership styles factors; amongst all, Vietnamese employees seem to lay particular stress on the “exchange” relation with their supervisors.
c. Taiwanese and Vietnamese employees’ satisfaction rate is higher than that of Japanese employees.
d. In cognition of organizational citizenship behavior, Vietnamese employees have the highest score on “in-role behavior” and “altruistic behavior,” while Japanese employees have lower score. The fact that Vietnamese employees show more altruistic behavior towards other co-workers from their country explains their solidarity when on strike and their interaction with each other within the same enterprise. However, Taiwanese employees score 3.46, highest, in organizational welfare behavior, followed by Japanese, 3.26, and the Vietnamese, 2.97, the lowest. The score of the Vietnamese employees matches the result that they have the highest scores on “individualism” and “unyielding style.” The lower the score on organizational welfare behavior indicates the easier it is for Vietnamese employees to go on strike for they do not attend to the benefit of the organization.
2. The influence of national culture
a. “Individualism” and “long-term orientation” have great influence on transactional and transformational leadership; “long-term orientation” also has great influence on laissez-faire leadership.
b. For job satisfaction, “long-term orientation” and “individualism” are the most influential factors, then second, “uncertainty avoidance”, and then third, “unyielding style.” “Power distance” does not give much influence.
c. “Long-term orientation” and “individualism” have remarkable influence on the organizational citizenship behavior factor.
3. The influence of leadership styles
a. “Transactional leadership” has greater influence than “transformational leadership.” “Laissez-faire leadership” has the least influence.
b. “Transformational leadership” has most significant influence on “in-role behavior” and “altruistic behavior.” “Transactional leadership” has most significant influence on “organizational welfare behavior.” “Laissez-faire leadership” on the other hand, has no significant influence on “in-role behavior.” The rest leadership styles have significant influence on all factors.
4. The influence of job satisfaction on organizational citizenship behavior
In terms of regression analysis, the influence of “internal satisfaction” is greater than “external satisfaction” on organizational citizenship behavior factors. Except that “external satisfaction” has no significant influence on “organizational welfare behavior,” all satisfaction factors have great influence on organizational citizenship behavior factors.
摘要 III
Abstract V
誌謝 VIII
まえがき IX
目錄 X
表目錄 XII
圖目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究流程 3
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 越南的歷史背景與發展現況 5
第二節 國家文化 13
第三節 領導風格 19
第四節 工作滿意度 36
第五節 組織公民行為 48
第六節 國家文化、領導風格、工作滿意度與組織公民行為之相關研究 53
第七節 螺絲螺帽產業概述 57
第三章 研究設計與方法 59
第一節 研究架構 59
第二節 研究假設 60
第三節 研究變數的操作型定義 61
第四節 研究設計 62
第五節 問卷設計 63
第六節 分析方法及架構 71
第七節 信度與效度分析 72
第四章 資料分析與研究結果 74
第一節 信度檢定與有效樣本分析 74
第二節 因素分析 77
第三節 台日越員工對國家文化、領導風格、工作滿意度與組織公民行為認知差異分析 79
第四節 相關分析 93
第五節 國家文化差異對領導風格、工作滿意度與組織公民行影響 99
第六節 領導風格對工作滿意度與組織公民行為的影響 105
第七節 工作滿意度對組織公民行為的影響 109
第五章 結論與建議 112
第一節 結論 112
第二節 研究限制 118
第三節 研究建議 119
參 考 文 獻 122
附 錄 一、「國家文化差異與主管領導風格對工作滿意度與組織公民行為之影響─以台、日、越企業為例」問卷 137
附 錄 二、「國家文化差異與主管領導風格對工作滿意度與組織公民行為之影響─以台、日、越之員工為例」越文問卷 142
附 錄 三、「國家文化差異與主管領導風格對工作滿意度與組織公民行為之影響─以台、日、越之員工為例」日文問卷 152
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