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研究生:陳聯登
研究生(外文):Lain-Deng Chen
論文名稱:變電所161kVGIS設備分段開關操作暫態研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on 161 kV GIS Disconnector Switching Transients of Distribution Substation
指導教授:卓明遠
指導教授(外文):Ming-Yuan Cho
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:分段開關操作暫態161kV GIS設備
外文關鍵詞:Disconnector Switching Transients161 kV GISVFTO
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由於氣體絕緣開關設備 (gas insulated switchgear ,GIS)具備高絕緣力、高可靠度、維護容易及需求空間小等優勢條件,它已廣泛使用於電力系統超過40年。儘管GIS操作運轉已達數十年,仍存在某些問題,諸如開關操作或接地故障期間產生快速暫態過電壓(very fast transient overvoltages ,VFTO)、GIS外部容器外殼對地電壓(transient enclosure voltages,TEV)及暫態造成二次側設備誤動作或損壞。為能了解VFTO及TEV之特性,有賴於EMTP ATPDraw軟體模擬GIS內部元件模型。本論文目的分析電纜長度、操作不同開關對VFTO及變化量測不同位置對TEV。經模擬161kV GIS結果顯示VFTO最大值2.19 P.U。最大過電壓出現在開路端Bus bar處。更進一步,本論文提供降低VFTO及TEV,GIS容器外殼與地間安裝氧化鋅元件,藉以改善容器外殼對地放電火花現象。本研究價值提供設計者、製造廠家及運轉維護操作者一些重要參考。
GIS has been in operation for several years, some of the problems are of more attention. These problems include generation of Very Fast Transient Overvoltages (VFTO) during switching operations or earthing faults, the secondary breakdown inside GIS caused by VFTO and Transient Enclosure Voltages (TEV) outside the GIS. The VFTO and TEV levels are simulated by using EMTP ATPDraw models for all the equivalent circuits of the components of GIS. The method of simulation in GIS was employed by EMTP ATPDraw software.The electrical equivalent circuits chosen to represent the main components of GIS are implemented in the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP).
The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the effects of adding power cable length and operating disconnector switching in different place to the VFTO and TEV at various measuring point. Simulation results show that the maximum possible value of the VFTO levels is 2.19 per unit in the case of a 161 kV GIS has been observed. Moreover, the maximum over voltages occur at the open ends of the gas insulated bus bars.
中文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------- I
英文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------- II
誌謝 -------------------------------------------------------- IV
目錄 -------------------------------------------------------- V
表目錄 -------------------------------------------------------- VII
圖目錄 -------------------------------------------------------- IX
符號表 -------------------------------------------------------- XI
第一章 緒論---------------------------------------------------- 1
1-1 研究動機及目的------------------------------------------ 1
1-2 文獻回顧------------------------------------------------ 1
1-3 論文架構------------------------------------------------ 4
第二章 GIS設備與開關暫態------------------------------------ 6
2-1 GIS設備結構與特性------------------------------------ 6
2-1-1 GIS設備概述--------------------------------- 6
2-1-2 GIS與傳統AIS比較------------------------- 7
2-1-3 GIS構造說明--------------------------------- 7
2-1-4 GIS設計消弧原理----------------------------- 13
2-1-5 SF6氣體與弧光化合特性------------------------- 23
2-1-6 GCB啟斷特性 -------------------------------- 24
2-1-7 斷路器消弧原理-------------------------------- 31
2-1-8 分段開關滅弧與開啟特性------------------------ 37
2-2 GIS開關暫態現象-------------------------------------- 38
2-2-1 暫態------------------------------------------- 38
2-2-2 暫態來源--------------------------------------- 39
2-2-3 GIS暫態分類----------------------------------- 40
2-2-4 突波干擾路徑----------------------------------- 43
2-2-5 影響VFTO之因素-------------------------------- 43
2-2-6 開關操作前襲、再襲現象------------------------- 44

2-3 GIS特性參數對暫態的關係------------------------------ 45
2-3-1 突波阻抗對暫態影響---------------------------- 45
2-3-2 接地突波阻抗----------------------------------- 45
2-3-3 接地點對分佈對TEV影響------------------------- 46
2-4 GIS設備絕緣設計-------------------------------------- 48
2-4-1 絕緣協調定義----------------------------------- 49
2-4-2 絕緣協調之基本概念----------------------------- 49
2-4-3 絕緣協調設計時應考量之因素--------------------- 52
2-4-4 絕緣類型分類----------------------------------- 52
2-4-5 電力設備絕緣耐壓等級分類----------------------- 53
2-4-6 衝擊波定義------------------------------------- 53
2-4-7 變電所與輸電線絕緣協調------------------------- 54
2-5 VFTO對設備之影響--------------------------------------- 56
2-5-1 對SF6氣體與間隔器影響------------------------- 56
2-5-2 包封容器之影響--------------------------------- 56
2-5-3 對二次設備之效應------------------------------- 57
2-5-4 快速暫態對電纜影響----------------------------- 58
2-5-5 VFTO對金氧避雷器影響-------------------------- 59
2-5-6 對套管之影響----------------------------------- 59
2-5-7 對變壓器影響----------------------------------- 59
2-5-8 對CB、DS之影響-------------------------------- 59
第三章 161kV GIS設備相關數學模型建立------------------------- 60
3-1 暫態進行波分析------------------------------------------ 60
3-2 弧光電阻數學式推導-------------------------------------- 63
3-3 隔離開關接觸子弧光時間---------------------------------- 64
3-4 GIS內部突波阻抗數學式---------------------------------- 65
3-5 GIS外部對地突波阻抗數學式------------------------------ 65
3-6 架空線突波阻抗------------------------------------------ 65
3-7 電纜突波阻抗-------------------------------------------- 66
第四章 GIS電路模型建立-------------------------------------- 67
4-1 EMPT ATP模擬軟體簡介--------------------------------- 68
4-1-1 ATPDraw 之簡介------------------------------- 68
4-1-2 PlotXY 之簡介-------------------------------- 68
4-1-3 ATP 之應用---------------------------------- 69
4-1-4 本論文應用物件--------------------------------- 70
4-2 GIS內部元件模型建立---------------------------------- 75
4-2-1 系統電源模型---------------------------------- 76
4-2-2 包封容器對地突波阻抗模型----------------------- 77
4-2-3 斷路器CB電路模型----------------------------- 77
4-2-4 分段開關DS電路模型--------------------------- 78
4-2-5 接地開關 ES電路模型-------------------------- 78
4-2-6 套管式比流器BCT模型-------------------------- 79
4-2-7 比壓器PT模型--------------------------------- 79
4-3 GIS外部元件模型建立---------------------------------- 80
4-3-1 電力電纜模型----------------------------------- 80
4-3-2 電力變壓器模型--------------------------------- 81
第五章 GIS設備模擬分析與改善對策 82
5-1 案例變電所簡述------------------------------------------ 82
5-2 案例模擬分析-------------------------------------------- 83
5-2-1 操作不同開關模組對VFTO變化------------------- 83
5-2-2 變壓器檔電纜連絡線不同長度對VFTO影響---------- 89
5-2-3 加入弧光電阻對VFTO變化----------------------- 92
5-2-4 操作不同開關模組對TEV變化-------------------- 94
5-3 抑制VFTO與TEV改善對策-------------------------------- 100
5-3-1 插入電阻抑制VFTO----------------------------- 100
5-3-2 加裝突波限制器抑制 TEV------------------------ 102
5-4 評論---------------------------------------------------- 107
第六章 結論及未來研究方向-------------------------------------- 110
6-1 結論---------------------------------------------------- 110
6-2 未來研究方向-------------------------------------------- 111
參考文獻 -------------------------------------------------------- 112
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