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研究生:許有志
研究生(外文):Yu-chih Hsu
論文名稱:無線感測器網路之最小跳躍路由協定
論文名稱(外文):A Minimum Hop Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.
指導教授:張光瓊
指導教授(外文):Kuang-chiung Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:龍華科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:路由協定無線感測器網路節能效益
外文關鍵詞:Routing ProtocolWireless Sensor NetworksEnergy Efficient
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近年來,各式各樣的無線感測器網路已經被研發並應用到不同的領域上,由數個至上千個極小的感測器節點所構成的一個資料通訊網路系統,而這些僅靠電池供電的感測器節點,經由相互合作來完成資料的傳遞。
本論文規劃一種最小跳躍的資料路由協定。由於無線感測器網路完全取決於電池的使用壽命,所以我們提出的路由協定採用跳躍次數(hop count)和電池能量(energy level)作為衡量的標準,當感測器節點做計算和資料通訊時儘可能保存較多的電池能量。此外,當某一個感測器節點故障或耗盡電量時,此路由協定也能夠有效地適應網路拓樸的變動並立即尋找另一個最佳的傳遞路徑。本論文中的模擬結果也確實顯示出此路由協定的穩健性與節能性。
In the recent year, a variety of wireless sensor network (WSN) research and development has been applied to different areas. WSN is a data communication system that consists of from several to thousands of tiny wireless sensor nodes. These battery powered sensor nodes cooperate with each other to accomplish data transmission.
In this thesis, we design a data routing protocol, which is a minimum hop routing protocol. Due to the nodes depend entirely on the lifetime of the battery power, the proposed routing protocol chooses hop counts and battery energy levels as metrics, in order to conserve as much energy as possible in both computations and data communications. In addition, when some of the nodes fail or run out of battery, the routing protocol could effectively adapt the change and find an alternative path. The robustness and the performance of the proposed routing protocol were tested, and the results turned out to be successful.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌 謝 iii
目 錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 文獻探討 2
1.3 論文架構 7
第二章 無線感測器網路背景知識 8
2.1 無線感測器網路回顧 8
2.1.1 網路架構 8
2.1.2 無線感測器硬體 9
2.1.3 協定堆疊 11
2.2 無線感測器網路通訊協定 15
2.2.1 通訊協定分類 15
2.2.2 設計考量 18
2.2.3 效能評估 20
第三章 通訊協定設計 22
3.1 網路架構 22
3.2 協定設計 22
3.3 功率消耗改善 31
第四章 系統實作與測試 32
4.1 實驗平台 32
4.2 程式架構 34
4.3 功能驗證 39
4.4 節能與時間延遲 54
第五章 結論 56
參考文獻 57
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[6] J. N. Al-Karaki and A. E. Kamal, “routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: A survey,” IEEE Wireless Communications, pp. 6-28, Dec. 2004.
[7] S. Hedetniemi and A. Liestman, “a survey of gossiping and broadcasting in communication network,” Network, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 319-349, 1988.
[8] W. R. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, and H. Balakrishnan, “adaptive protocol for information dissemination in wireless sensor networks,” Proceedings of the ACM Mobi-Com, pp. 174-185, USA, Aug. 1999.
[9] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, “directed diffusion: A scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks,” Proceedings of the ACM Mobi-Com, Boston, MA, pp. 56-67, 2000.
[10] Smart Dust Project, http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/
[11] A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, J. Anderson, “wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring,” ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, Sep. 2002.
[12] K. Sphraby, D. Moinli, and T. Znati, Wireless Sensor Networks: Technology, Protocols, and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2007.
[13] D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, and S. Kumar, “next century challenges: Scalable coordination in sensor networks,” Proceedings of the ACM Mobi-Com, ’99, Seattle, WA, Jan. 2000.
[14] V. Raghunathan, C. Schurgers, S. Park, M. B. Srivastava,“energy-aware wireless microsensor networks,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 40-50, Mar. 2002.
[15] 夏偉翔,無線感測器網路佈署與效能分析之研究,碩士論文,台北科技大學電腦與通訊研究所,台北,2007。
[16] 施威銘研究室,無線網路架設實務,旗標出版股份有限公司,2002。
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