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研究生:蘇建宇
研究生(外文):Chien-yu Su
論文名稱:由農作廢棄物中萃取糠醛製備酚-醛樹酯
論文名稱(外文):Extract furural from crop residue feedstocks and prepare the phenol-furural resin
指導教授:黃清江黃清江引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Chiang Hwang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:明道大學
系所名稱:材料科學與工程學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:農作廢棄物;糠醛;酚-醛樹脂;生質材料
外文關鍵詞:furfural-phenol plasticsFurfuralfarm crops residuefresh nature material
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本研究之目的在於探討不同種類的農作廢棄物與不同酸類與水共熱,水解萃取其中的小分子物質糠醛(Furfural),並將其以酚類聚合成酚-醛樹脂(Furfural-Phenol Plastics)。
在農作廢棄物中取稻米桿、玉米桿與榨汁後剩下的甘蔗渣,取其地上部的部分將其烘乾依比例分成上、中、下三部分作為實驗材料。酸類的選取以硫酸(H2SO4)、硝酸(HNO3)、鹽酸(HCl)與磷酸(H3PO4),濃度為5N、3N、1N、0.5N(當量濃度)將其與農作廢棄物共熱到沸騰開始計時4小時,取蒸餾冷凝出的萃取液。
以多侖試劑(銀鏡反應)測定醛類,定量的部分則以糠醛標準品經UV-light Box定量且做成標準曲線後,作為其比對的標準。
由實驗數據中得知其中萃取效率較好的農作物廢棄物中以植株的上段為最高、其次為中段最差則為中段,農作廢棄物種類則以玉米桿效果最佳;萃取酸類為硫酸(H2SO4)>鹽酸(HCl)>磷酸(H3PO4),硝酸(HNO3)在水解的過程中會裂解出二氧化氮(NO2)的刺激性紅棕色氣體,較不適合做為萃取的酸類;濃度則是3N>1N>0.5N,5N並不利於做為水解糠醛的適合濃度。
在石油短缺的時代中,石油所衍生出的石化材料也跟著短缺,石化材料其價格也隨著石油水漲船高,本研究的目的將以較簡單且有效率的水解方式找出最適合的農作廢棄物以及最有效的萃取的部位、酸類與濃度,降低生產成本進而可做為替代的生質材料為最大目標。
The purpose of this research is using the farm crop residue feed stocks, heats with acids extract Furfural ingredient and prepared the furfural-phenol plastics. We take the paddy rice pole, the corn stalk and the bagasse which the juice is left over, after drying divide into the upper, middle and lower three parts, used as the experimental material. The acids take sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid which concentration are 5N, 3N,1N and 0.5N , heat with the farm crop residue with excitement for 4 hours and takes extracted liquid which the distillation condensation . The quantitative and the qualitative analysis by used UV-light and silver mirror reaction.
The experimental result extraction yield is best by corn stalk's lower segment. In the different acid, the best of extract effect is 3N sulfuric acid. The nitric acid can decompose the nitrogen dioxide irritant reddish brown gas in the hydrolisis process, does not suitably for the extract.
In the oil shortage time, the petrified material also with short and its price is high along with the petroleum. This research evaluate the most suitable farm crops residue as well as the most effective extract process, the acids and the concentration, will reduce the production cost then to be possible to do for the substitution fresh nature material.
目錄
摘要 ....... ........................................ I
Abstract ............... .......................... III
目錄 ............... ................................ V
圖目錄 .............. ............................ VIII
表目次 ............... .............................. X
第一章 緒論 .................. ...................... 1
1.1 動機 ........................................... 1
1.2 目的 ........................................... 2
第二章 文獻探討 .. .................................. 4
2.1 梅納反應(Maillard reaction) .................. 4
2.2 糠醛 ........................................... 5
2.3 常見的呋喃類與使用 ............................. 8
2.4 呋喃醛類的分析與測定 .......................... 10
2.5 酚醛樹脂(PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN,PF) ..... 11
第三章 材料與方法 .................................. 16
3.1 實驗材料與實驗設備 ............................ 16
3.1.1 實驗藥品 .................................... 16
3.1.2 實驗設備 .................................... 18
3.1.3 實驗材料前處理與藥品配製 .................... 18
3.1.3.1 實驗材料前處理 ............................ 18
3.1.3.2 萃取藥品配製 .............................. 19
3.1.4 酸水解農作廢棄物萃取糠醛之方法 .............. 21
3.1.4.1 玉米梗與稻米桿 ............................ 21
3.1.4.2 甘蔗渣 .................................... 21
3.1.5 醛類的定性與定量分析......................... 23
3.1.5.1 醛類氧化還原定性法 ........................ 23
3.1.5.2 還原醣化學定量法 .......................... 23
3.1.5.3 多倫試劑與斐林試劑試藥製備與測定步驟 .... ..25
3.1.6 紫外光/可見光光譜儀(UV/VISIBLE)分析與測定 . 29
3.2.1 糠醛苯酚樹酯聚合方法......................... 30
3.2.1.1 酸性催化 .................................. 30
3.2.1.2 鹼性催化 .................................. 30
3.2.2 尿素糠醛樹脂接著劑 .......................... 31
3.2.2.1 尿素-糠醛樹脂的製備 ...................... 31
第四章 結果與討論 .................................. 35
4.1 農作廢棄物萃取液定性結果 ...................... 35
4.2 分光光度計圖譜比較 ............................ 41
4.3 糠醛含量比較 .................................. 46
4.4 酚-糠醛樹脂 .................................. 53
4.5 酸加熱水解時所發生的情況 ...................... 57
第五章 結論與建議 .................................. 59
5.1 結論 .......................................... 59
5.2 建議 .......................................... 60
第六章 參考文獻 .................................... 61
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