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研究生:林怡秀
研究生(外文):Lin, Yi Hsiu
論文名稱:非語言敏感度的性別差異:權力差異與不同社會角色期待的效果探討
論文名稱(外文):Gender difference on nonverbal sensitivity: Due to power differentials or different social role expectations?
指導教授:李怡青李怡青引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee, I Ching
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:非語言敏感度性別差異權力社會角色預期狀態理論
外文關鍵詞:nonverbal sensitivitygender differencepowersocial rolesexpectation states theory
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
非語言敏感度(nonverbal sensitivity)指正確察覺與解釋他人非語言訊息的能力。過去研究發現女性的非語言敏感度優於男性,可以權力取向或社會角色理論解釋。權力取向認為女性在社會上缺乏權力,故需展現良好的非語言敏感度保障自己權益。社會角色理論認為女性擔任,或被期待擔任照顧者,因此培養良好的非語言敏感度。本研究同時探討權力取向與社會角色理論,嘗試比較兩個理論對非語言敏感度性別差異的解釋。本實驗採用兩人互動,透過權力差異的操弄與不同的議題(經濟提供者議題或照顧者議題)討論,探討互動時的非語言敏感度。每位受試者還觀看四部影片,測量無動機影響的非語言敏感度。結果顯示權力差異可解釋兩人互動的非語言敏感度,且資料型態符合權力差異者的動機解釋。而觀看影片時,相較於探討經濟提供者議題受試者,探討照顧者議題受試者有較佳的非語言敏感度。此外我們亦發現性別、權力與社會角色三因子交互作用,非語言敏感度會受到實驗分派的社會角色是否符合生理性別的傳統作業影響,符合預期狀態理論的觀點。
Nonverbal sensitivity refers to the ability to accurately detect and decode nonverbal cues communicated by others. Past research showed that women enjoy superior nonverbal sensitivity over men. Power perspective and social role theory each provides explanations for women's superior nonverbal sensitivity. Power perspective suggests that due to the lack of power in the society, women count on their nonverbal sensitivity to get what they want and for protection. Social role theory suggests that women are more likely to be in or are usually expected to be in caretaker roles, which require their attending to others' verbal or nonverbal cues. As a result, women develop superior nonverbal sensitivity compared to men. We designed an experimental study to test explanations offered by power perspective and social role theory. In the experiment, two individuals were told to collaborate on a task either required them to be in the provider role mode (focusing on earning money) or caretaker role mode (focusing on taking care of others). Power difference was manipulated by assigning one of the two individuals to be a leader and the other follower in this task. Interactions were recorded upon participants’ consent. After interaction, the participants were asked to interpret nonverbal cues in their interaction. They were also told to view four video clips, and then report and interpret nonverbal cues in each video clip. The results suggest that nonverbal sensitivity in interaction can be best accounted for by explanations consistent with the power perspective. The powerful was better at “B sees Self” nonverbal sensitivity, and the powerless was better at “B sees Me” nonverbal sensitivity, consistent with motivational explanations. In addition, we found a three-way interaction of participant sex, power, and social role, suggesting that women had the best “B sees Me” sensitivity when they had no power and were in the provider role. And men showed the best “B sees Self” sensitivity when they had power and were in the provider role. The three-way interaction finding is consistent with predictions made by expectation states theory. However, when viewing four video clips, participants in the caretaker role had better nonverbal sensitivity than those in the provider role. Motivation was offered to account for the differential effects of power and social roles. By analyzing clips of the dyadic interactions, we found that the powerful showed more leader behavior such as deciding discussion direction, and the powerless showed more follower behavior such as stammering. However, the results of the clips did not account for the aforementioned findings of nonverbal sensitivity.
第一章 緒論-P.1
研究動機-P.1
第二章 文獻探討-P.3
第一節 非語言敏感度-P.3
第二節 權力差異對非語言敏感度的影響-P.6
第三節 社會角色對非語言敏感度的影響-P.12
第四節 非語言敏感度的研究方法與種類-P.16
第五節 研究假設-P.20
第三章 預試-P.24
第四章 研究方法-P.25
第一節 研究設計與研究對象-P.25
第二節 研究程序-P.26
第三節 研究工具-P.28
第四節 非語言敏感度的計算方式-P.32
第五章 結果-P.34
第一節 受試者基本資料與統計分析方法-P.34
第二節 實驗操弄檢核-P.35
第三節 權力感分析與其他可能影響依變項因素-P.36
第四節 四種非語言敏感度指標的分析結果-P.37
第五節 兩人互動階段的受試者影片分析-P.42
第六章 綜合討論-P.44
參考文獻-P.52
表1 受試者組成-P.61
表2 受試者各項特質性別差異-P.63
表3 研究假設與實驗結果一覽表-P.64
表3 本研究各依變項在各實驗情境中的平均數與信賴區間-P.66
圖1 社會角色理論-P.67
圖2 權力感上的三因子交互作用-P.68
圖3 察覺你如何看我敏感度上的三因子交互作用-P.69
圖4 察覺你如何看你自己敏感度上的三因子交互作用-P.70
圖5 察覺你如何看你自己敏感度上的二因子交互作用-P.71
附錄1 實驗同意書-P.72
附錄2 社會角色實驗操弄-P.73
附錄3 權力差異實驗操弄-P.77
附錄4 人際特質量表-支配人格分量表-P.79
附錄5 李氏性別特質問卷-P.80
附錄6 情緒智力量表-他人情緒評估分量表-P.83
附錄7 量表A、B、C、D-P.84
附錄8 自我介紹影片-P.92
附錄9 判斷情緒與回憶非語言行為題目-P.96
附錄10 人口學變項問卷-P.98
附錄11 評估者問卷(JA、JB)-P.99
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