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研究生:李路得
研究生(外文):Lee, Lu De
論文名稱:由實境學習觀點探討英語課堂中的電影配音活動
論文名稱(外文):Toward an Understanding of the Use of Film Dubbing Activities in the EFL Classroom through Situated Learning Perspectives
指導教授:林伯英林伯英引用關係招靜琪招靜琪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, Po YingChao, Chin Chi
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:英國語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:248
中文關鍵詞:英語口語溝通電影低程度英語學習者電影配音設計型研究實境學習觀點
外文關鍵詞:English oral communicationfeature filmslower-level EFL learnersfilm dubbingdesign-based researchsituated learning
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本論文探討以實境學習觀點來培訓技職校院學生英語口語溝通能力的教學設計與實施。由於技職校院學生英語程度較弱,乃根據實境學習理論中的認知學徒見習期 (cognitive apprenticeship)的二個階段:觀察期(observation)及實作期(practice)來設計教學。在觀察期階段中,藉由觀賞英文電影讓學生觀察英語母語使用者之真實口語溝通情境及技巧;在實作期階段中,則指導學生為電影片段配音,目的在以影片做為前導與幫助(scaffold),使學生在真實語言情境中建立英語口語溝通能力。本研究設計採用設計型研究(Design-based research)探討學生在此電影教學中的知覺及反應,研究結果顯示學生對電影配音活動的反應良好,例如能在其中觀摩英語母語使用者之口語技巧,較容易記得影片中英文單字及句子,以及建立開口說英語的自信與勇氣。
This study is a design-based research focusing on the application of situated learning perspectives to the EFL classroom for the development of English oral communicative competence. Situated learning theory features cognitive apprenticeship, a learning process in which an apprentice learns a skill or knowledge from a master through the observation of expert process and practice with scaffolds (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Lave & Wenger, 1991). In this study, a teaching project based on film dubbing activities was designed and implemented to 39 vocational college students, who were classified as lower-level EFL learners due to their limited English proficiency, with the purpose of developing their English oral communicative competence through cognitive apprenticeship. Film clips were viewed and instructed in class to provide the students with access to the social context of oral communication by native English speakers. After the students observed the expert process in the film clips, they were instructed to execute film dubbing tasks, in which they practiced oral skills with the scaffolds of the audio-visual presentation in the film clips. As a qualitative case study, the purpose of this study is to explore the students’ learning experiences, including their perceptions and reactions, in the teaching project. The research results reveal the students’ overall positive reactions to the film dubbing activities; for example, they were impressed by the opportunities to make close observation of real English use by native English speakers; they found it easier to remember English vocabulary and sentences through film dubbing activities; and they became more confident in speaking English.
Acknowledgements....................iv
Chinese Abstract.....................x
English Abstract.....................xi
Chapter
1.Introduction.............................................1
2.Backgrounds and Literature Review.......................12
Debate between Cognitive Perspectives and
Sociocultural Perspectives..........................12
Situated Learning Theory..............................14
Situated learning and the Instruction of Oral
Communication for Lower –Level EFL Learners........35
Design-based Research.................................47
Definitions of Terms......................................49
3.Methodology.............................................50
Context...............................................50
Participants..........................................54
Teaching Materials....................................55
Pilot Study.................................58
Instructional Design..................................68
Data Collection.......................................74
Data Analysis.........................................77
Summary and Schedule..................................81
4.Findings................................................82
Critical Events........................................82
First Meeting: A Stagnant Atmosphere in the Laboratory 83
First Dubbing: Silence in the Initial Practice for
Film Dubbing.........................................89
Second Dubbing: Distraction in Viewing Film before
Transcript Explication...............................97
Second Dubbing: Fast Speech Rate as the Major
Difficulty in Dubbing................................99
Third Dubbing: Better Concentration in Film Viewing
after Script Explication............................102
Third Dubbing: Enjoying Exciting Plot and Easy Language
in Film Dubbing.....................................104
Fourth Dubbing: Poor Performance in the Student-
selected Dubbing Task...............................107
The Participants’ Overall Perception of the Teaching
Project..............................................110
Overall Positive Reactions to Film Dubbing Activities 110
Minor Doubt of the Authenticity of Fairy Tale.........118
Perceived Increase in English Language Knowledge......119
Perceived Improvement in English Listening and
Speaking Skills.....................................123
Opportunities to Observe NESs in Authentic Oral
Communication.......................................126
Positive Affective Reactions in the Teaching Project..129
Recognizing Film Dubbing as an Effective Way to Learn
English.............................................133
Focus Cases.............................................136
Cherry: “I Made It!”................................137
Shane: “I Didn’t Get Sleepy in Class Anymore!”.....142
Joanne: “I Got Interested!”.........................146
Vincent: “I Found It!”..............................150
Ian and James: “I Don’t Like It!”..................153
5.Discussion............................................158
Question # 1........................................158
The Participants as a Whole.......................158
Opportunities to Observe Expertise-in-use through
Audio-Visual Technology.......................159
Context-dependent Memory and the Story of the
Film..........................................161
The Focused Cases.................................163
Observation of English Oral Skills..............163
Observation of the Social Context of Oral
Communication................................164
Question # 2..........................................168
The Participants as a Whole.........................168
Scaffolds from the Video..........................168
Coaching by the Instructor........................170
Lack of Autonomous Learning.......................171
Meaningful Goal for Repetitive Practice...........172
Cognitive Apprenticeship..........................174
Reflection........................................176
The Focused Cases...................................177
Collaboration.....................................177
Scaffolding.......................................178
Question # 3..........................................180
The First Dubbing Task............................. 181
The Second Dubbing Task.............................181
The Third Dubbing Task..............................182
Comparison among the Dubbing Tasks..................183
Two Related Issues....................................184
Conditions of Cognitive Apprenticeship for EFL Oral
Communicative Competence............................188
Theoretical Development...............................191
6.Conclusions...........................................198
Significance of this Study..........................198
Summary of this Study...............................199
Pedagogical Implications............................202
Suggestions for Future Research.....................204
Limitations of this Study...........................206
References..............................................208
Appendix
1.Before-instruction Questionnaire.....................219
2.Interview Protocol...................................223
3.Journals............................................ 225
4.After-instruction Questionnaire......................238
5.Results of After-instruction Survey..................242
6.Coding Schemes.......................................244
7.Vita.................................................248














LISTS OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Table

1.Distinction among JPF, Practitioner, and Student Activity made by Brown, Collins, and Duguid (1989, p. 35)........17
2.The Participants’ Learning Attitudes and Preferences in EFL Classroom...........................................54
3.Four Procedures of Film Instruction and Viewing in the Pilot Study.............................................62
4.Means of the Participants’ Grades on the Two Film Dubbing Tasks in the Pilot Study........................67
5.Video and Language Characteristics of the Three Teacher-Selected Film Clips.....................................72
6.Timeline of the Teaching Project......................81
7.Critical Incidents Identified in the Instructor’s Teaching Journal........................................82
8.The Frequencies of Students’ Preference of Film Instruction Procedures.................................103
9.Participants’ Reasons for Selecting the Fourth Dubbing Film Clips.............................................109
10.Percentages of Positive Responses to the Question “Do you like the film clip for dubbing, why or why not?” in the Three Dubbing Tasks...............................111
11. Percentages of Negative Responses to the Question “Do you like the film clip for dubbing, why or why not?” in the Three Dubbing Tasks...............................113
12. Percentages of Positive Responses to the Question “Did you like your dubbing role? Why or why not?” in the Three Dubbing Tasks........................................ 114
13. Percentages of Negative Responses to the Question “Did you like your dubbing role? Why or why not?” in the Three Dubbing Tasks.........................................117
14.Frequencies of the Participants’ responses regarding Perceived Increase in English Language Knowledge......120
15.Frequencies of the Participants’ Responses regarding Perceived Improvement in Listening and Speaking Skills.124
16.Frequencies of the Participants’ Responses regarding Opportunity to Observe NESs in Authentic Oral
Communication..........................................127
17.Frequencies of the Participants’ Responses regarding Positive Affective Reactions in the Teaching Project...130
18.Frequencies of the Participants’ Responses regarding the Recognition of Film Dubbing as a Refreshing and Effective Way to Learn English.........................131
19.Means of the Participants’ Grades in the Four Film Dubbing Task ..........................................180
20.Cognitive Apprenticeship Applied to the EFL
Classroom..............................................192


Figure

1.The Illustration of Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP).................................................30
2.The Difference between EFL Oral Communication Training according to Cognitive Apprenticeship and that in Conventional EFL Conversation Textbooks................175
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