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研究生:胡碧嬋
研究生(外文):Hu, Pi Chan
論文名稱:當模糊遇上精確:刑法的語言使用分析
論文名稱(外文):When vagueness meets precision: an analysis of the language used in the criminal law
指導教授:張郇慧張郇慧引用關係段重民段重民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Hsun HueiTuan, Chung Min
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:286
中文關鍵詞:模糊精確法律語言學刑法釋義歸類
外文關鍵詞:vaguenessprecisionforensic linguisticsCriminal Lawinterpretationcategorization
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  • 被引用被引用:1
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模糊是語言的主要特色之一,這與法律語言的終極目標—精確恰恰相反。在追求精確的過程中,在法律制度裡的某字或某術語該做何解釋,往往有許多爭議。法官如何在模糊與精確當中取得平衡?又如何確保每項法律公正地適用於每個人與每起個案?本文試圖探討這兩個極端—模糊與精確—如何交織與競合,從法律語言學的觀點對爭議個案提供解釋,並進一步解決法律制度中各種語言詮釋的問題,其中以刑法的語言為主要研究標的。為了闡釋文字的意義,本文嘗試以框架語意學、檢查表理論和原型理論來架構出法律語言的框架。本文之另一項目的是要觀察刑法法條中的語言現象,是否能反映出刑法的精神與特質。
Vagueness is one of the major characteristics of language, which happens to be contradictory to the ultimate goal of legal language—precision. In the process of pursuing precision, there are a variety of disputes over what interpretations words or terms in the legal system should be made. How do judges strike the balance between vagueness (uncertainty) and precision (certainty) and affirm that every rule be justly applied to every individual and every case? This research attempts to explore how these two extremes interweave and compete and to provide explanations for some controversial cases and offer a perspective from forensic linguistics to solve the problems among the various interpretations of the language used in the legal system, in this case, the Criminal Law. To elucidate the meaning of words, this study tries to construct the frame of legal language with linguistic approaches such as frame semantics, checklist theory, and prototype theory. Another objective of the research is to see whether the linguistic phenomena observed in the system can reflect and convey the spirits and essences behind the Criminal Law.
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation for the research 1
1.2 Purpose of the research 3
1.3 Methodology 4
1.4 Organization of the research 7

2. Language and the law 9
2.1 Literature review 9
2.1.1 Shuy 11
2.1.2 Coulthard 12
2.1.3 Gibbons 13
2.1.4 Solan & Tiersma 14
2.1.5 Endicott 16
2.1.6 Tsai & Huang 17
2.1.7 Other researchers 18
2.2 The relationship between language and the law 19
2.3 Characteristics of legal language 20
2.3.1 The normative nature of legal language 20
2.3.2 The performative nature of legal language 21
2.3.3 The technical nature of legal language 22
2.3.4 Legal style 24
2.3.4.1 Passive voice 25
2.3.4.2 Negation 27
2.3.4.3 Tautology 30
2.3.4.4 Archaism 33
2.4 Summary 35

3. Background information of the Criminal Law 37
3.1 The history of the Criminal Code 38
3.2 The principles of the Criminal Law 39
3.3 The functions of the Criminal Law 42
3.4 The essence of the Criminal Law 45
3.5 The interpretation theories of the Criminal Law 46
3.6 Summary 49

4. The semantics of the Criminal Law 51
4.1 Vagueness 52
4.1.1 Definition of vagueness 52
4.1.2 Soritex paradox 54
4.1.3 Vagueness in application 57
4.2 Precision 71
4.2.1 Definition of precision 71
4.2.2 Precision in application 76
4.3 Definition 79
4.3.1 Words and terms 79
4.3.2 Problems of legal definitions 91
4.4 Interpretation 94
4.4.1 Restricted interpretation 95
4.4.2 Expanded interpretation 99
4.4.3 Analogical application vs. Expanded interpretation
104
4.5 Frame of legal language 120
4.5.1 Frame semantics 122
4.5.2 Checklist theory 129
4.5.3 Prototype theory 131
4.5.4 Cases 134
4.5.5 Discussion of cases 138
4.5.6 The construction of legal frame 146
4.5.7 A better definition 159
4.5.8 The overlapping categories 166
4.6 Summary 170

5. Some aspects of the syntax in the Criminal Law 175
5.1 Introduction 176
5.2 Topicalization 183
5.3 Serial verb construction 192
5.3.1 The SER system 196
5.3.2 The order of criminal acts 205
5.3.3 The timing point 207
5.4 Summary 210

6. Conclusion 213
6.1 Findings 213
6.2 Future research 215

Reference 218

Appendix A The Criminal Code of the Republic of China 227
Appendix B The questionnaire of the survey regarding
public insult 273
Appendix C The questionnaire of the survey regarding obscene 274
Appendix D The taxonomy of the specific rules of the
Criminal Code 275
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