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研究生:許豪麟
研究生(外文):Hao-Lin Hsu
論文名稱:多壁奈米碳管表面改質與插層黏土成長奈米碳管於葡萄糖感測器之應用
論文名稱(外文):Modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and application of glucose biosensors based on the composite films of MWCNT/Clay
指導教授:鄭紀民
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:化學工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:152
中文關鍵詞:奈米碳管氧化法黏土葡萄糖生物感測器
外文關鍵詞:Carbon nanotubesoxidationclay mineralglucose biosensor
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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本研究使用醇還原法進行製備介金屬合金觸媒,並藉由化學氣相沉積法進行成長單支狀與束狀多壁奈米碳管,以Mg28-Ni68-Mo4合金觸媒成長得到的多壁奈米碳管經過鹽酸酸洗後,再以體積比為2/1的硝酸/過氧化氫混合溶液進行氧化步驟,使奈米碳管管壁上產生羧基(-COOH)的官能基,即可得到親水性的碳管(MWCNT-COOH),而MWCNT-COOH再分別與不同分子量的的聚乙二醇(Polyethylene Glycol,PEG)及氯化甲基苯乙烯(Chloromethyl Styrene,CMS)進行反應,以驗證羧基(-COOH)官能基是否產生於碳管管壁上,進而得到較高親水性的奈米碳管,利用熱重損失分析來進行分析多壁奈米碳管經表面改質後之無機分子與官能基分子之莫耳含量比例的關係,將官能基化改質後的奈米碳管,以FT/IR、EA、FE-SEM與HR-TEM等儀器分析其構造、元素含量與外觀情形,並以TGA與Raman光譜分析其純度、有機與無機物之比例,進而確定奈米碳管及其官能基的結構。此外,將親水性碳管與poly(n,n-dimethylamino propylsilsesquioxane,SXNR)高分子混合於THF溶液中,利用Air Spray方式以氮氣作為夾帶氣體,將混合後的高分子薄膜噴塗於表面聲波(Surface Acoustic Wave,SAW)元件上而形成薄膜狀的的感測膜,以振盪頻率為156 MHz的表面聲波振盪器作為氣體感測器,進行吸附乙醇氣體分子的感測,氣體感測器摻混MWCNT-COOH的高分子膜可得到較佳的應答頻率及靈敏度,此特性將有助於SAW氣體感測器之應用。

此外,也驗證使用插層黏土進行成長奈米碳管,以及Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au與Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au-Glucose oxidase (GOD)薄膜修飾玻璃碳電極分別偵測過氧化氫(H2O2)與葡萄糖(Glucose)之電化學分析。以鎳離子插層黏土進行成長奈米碳管,可發現是由片狀黏土表面上成長出奈米碳管,經由FE-SEM的影像觀察奈米碳管的外觀與結構、X光繞射(XRD)分析碳管結構與黏土層間距之關係及利用FTIR與TGA鑑定奈米碳管的界面活性劑與碳管在層狀黏土上的重量比例等分析結果,經過成長奈米碳管之後的片狀黏土會形成脫層的現象。而在生物感測器的應用部分,將葡萄糖氧化酵素(GOD)、膠體金與以Ni+/clay觸媒成長之奈米碳管(CNT/Clay)摻混於稀釋之全氟磺酸聚合物(Nafion)高分子水溶液後,將其混合溶液滴於玻璃碳電極(Glassy Carbon Electrode,GCE)上形成一層修飾薄膜後,再分別進行偵測H2O2與Glucose。使用NCCA薄膜修飾GCE偵測過氧化氫濃度,其偵測電流的線性範圍及靈敏度分別為5.0 × 10–5 M與2800 nA mM–1;使用NCCAG薄膜修飾GCE偵測葡萄糖濃度,添加2.0 mg/ml的GOD時,其靈敏度為620 nA mM-1,及電流應答線性範圍為25~1850μM,而當GOD添加量較大時,則可得到較小的線性範圍與較高的靈敏度,加入10.0 mg/ml的GOD可得到最大靈敏度為2032 nA mM-1;CNT/Clay/Nafion為具有高靈敏度的傳導媒介,可應用於生物感測器的領域上。
In this study, intermetallic alloy catalysts had been prepared by the polyol method, and used for the growth of the individual- or bundle-shaped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by thermal chemical vapor deposition method. The purified MWCNTs catalyzed by Mg28-Ni68-Mo4 alloy catalyst were oxidized with the nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide solution (volume ratio = 2/1) to generate carboxylic acid groups. The oxidized MWCNTs (MWCNT-COOH) were further modified with different molecular weights of polyethylene glycols and chloromethyl styrene, respectively, to verify carboxylic acid groups and achieve higher hydrophobic property. Contents of organic functional groups grafted on MWCNTs were estimated with thermogravimetric analysis experiments. Furthermore, the analysis of the structure and the functional groups of the modified CNTs are obtained by FT/IR, EA, FE-SEM, HR-TEM, TGA and Raman microscopy. In addition, the MWCNT-COOH and poly(n,n-dimethylamino propylsilsesquioxane) (SXNR) were mixed in the THF solvent, and sprayed onto the surface of SAW crystal gas sensor. The MWCNT-COOH is employed to the 156 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) quartz crystal sensor for the adsorption of ethanol vapor. The SAW quartz crystal gas sensor coated with the MWCNT-COOH/SXNR was exhibited a high response for ethanol vapor efficiently.

Besides, we demonstrate the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on clay minerals, and the development of biosensors based on Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au and Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au-Glucose oxidase (GOD) composite films for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose, respectively. The CNTs are synthesized on nickel cation exchanged clay mineral platelets. From field-emission scanning electron microscope images, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transfer infrared and thermogravimetric analysis results, the clay layers are exfoliated and delaminated after the growth of CNTs on them. The mixed hybrid film of Nafion, CNT/Clay, HAuCl4 and GOD is coated on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode to detect H2O2 or glucose. This film exhibits a detection limit of 5.0 × 10–5 M for H2O2 with a sensitivity of 2800 nA mM–1. In addition, the amperometric response for glucose containing 2.0 mg mL-1 GOD in the Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au-GOD modified GC electrode exhibits a sensitivity of 620 nA mM-1 with a linear range up to 1850 μM. A higher sensitivity and shorter response time are observed with increasing GOD content in the composite matrix film. Besides, the highest sensitivity of 2032 nA mM-1 is obtained with the addition of the 10.0 mg mL-1 GOD in the composite film. Consequently, the CNT/Clay/Nafion medium can probably be a useful electrode for the development of sensors due to its high sensitivity and applicability.
口試論文通過書--------------------------------------- I
中文摘要--------------------------------------------- II
英文摘要--------------------------------------------- IV
誌 謝--------------------------------------------- ⅤI
目 次--------------------------------------------- ⅤII
表 目 次--------------------------------------------- XIII
圖 目 次--------------------------------------------- XIV
第一章 前言----------------------------------------- 1
一、研究緣起與目的---------------------------------- 1
二、研究架構流程圖---------------------------------- 6
第二章 文獻回顧------------------------------------- 7
ㄧ、奈米碳管之簡介---------------------------------- 7
二、醇還原法與介金屬合金觸媒之簡介------------------ 11
三、合成奈米碳管之方法------------------------------ 13
(ㄧ)電弧放電法(Arc-Discharge Method)---------- 13
(二)雷射蒸發法(Laser Ablation Method)--------- 15
(三)化學氣相沉積法(Chemical Vapor Deposition Method,
CVD)--------------------------------------- 16
四、奈米碳管之生長機制------------------------------ 17
五、黏土(Clay)之簡介------------------------------ 20
六 奈米碳管之純化及官能基改質---------------------- 24
七、生物感測器(Biosensor)------------------------- 28
(ㄧ)生物感測器之感測原理------------------------ 29
(二)生物感測器之組成元件------------------------ 30
1. 生物辨識元件------------------------------- 30
2.信號轉換器--------------------------------- 31
3.信號處理器--------------------------------- 33
八、電化學式生物感測器------------------------------ 33
(ㄧ)電流式生物感測器---------------------------- 34
(二)電位式生物感測器---------------------------- 35
(三)阻抗式(電阻式)生物感測器------------------ 36
九、酵素電極及酵素固定法---------------------------- 36
(ㄧ)葡萄糖酵素電極------------------------------ 37
(二)電極表面之酵素固定法------------------------ 39
1. 物理吸附法--------------------------------- 39
2. 化學鍵結法--------------------------------- 39
3. 包埋法------------------------------------- 40
4. 混合法------------------------------------- 41
5. 電沈積法----------------------------------- 41
6. 電聚合法----------------------------------- 42
(三)化學修飾電極(Chemically Modified Electrodes,
CME)---------------------------------------- 42
- 1. 共價鍵結合法修飾電極----------------------- 43
2. 吸附法修飾電極----------------------------- 43
3. 金屬顆粒修飾電極--------------------------- 43
4. 聚合物薄膜修飾電極------------------------- 44
十、電化學分析原理---------------------------------- 46
十一、酵素反應動力學-------------------------------- 49
第三章 研究方法與分析儀器--------------------------- 51
一、實驗藥品---------------------------------------- 51
二、實驗步驟與方法---------------------------------- 53
(ㄧ)不同成份奈米介金屬合金粉末觸媒之製備及奈米
碳管之成長--------------------------------- 53
1. 雙成份與三成份奈米介金屬合金粉末觸媒之製備 54
2. 奈米碳管之成長----------------------------- 54
(二) 奈米碳管之酸化氧化及官能基改質------------- 56
(三) 電化學感測器之電極修飾製備方法------------- 59
1.氧化之奈米碳管/膠體金/聚全氟磺酸離子交換樹脂薄膜修
飾玻璃碳電極(CNT-COOH/Au/Nafion modified GCE)之
製備---------------------------------------- 59
2.氧化之奈米碳管/膠體金/葡萄糖氧化酵素/聚全氟
磺酸離子交換樹脂薄膜修飾玻璃碳電極 (CNT-
COOH /Au/GOD/Nafion modified GCE)之製備------60
3. 以CNT-COOH/Au/Nafion modified GCE偵測H2O2
之試驗-------------------------------------- 60
4. 以CNT-COOH/Au/GOD/Nafion modified GCE偵測 Glucose
之試驗------------------------------------- 61
(四) 實驗分析儀器-------------------------------- 62
1.場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡(Field-Emission
Scanning Electron Microscope,FE-SEM)------ 62
2.高解析度穿透式電子顯微鏡(High-Resolution
Transmission Electron Microscopy,HR-TEM)--- 62
3.BET表面積分析------------------------------- 62
4.X光繞射(X-ray Diffraction)分析------------ 63
5.拉曼光譜(Raman Microscopy)分析------------ 64
6.穿透式電子顯微鏡(Transmission Electron
Microscopy,TEM)--------------------------- 65
7.熱重分析儀(Thermogravimetry Analyzer,TGA)-- 66
8.傅立葉紅外線光譜儀(Fourier-Transform Infrared
Spectrometry,FT/IR)----------------------- 66
9.電化學系統之設備(Electrochemical System)--- 68
10. 氣體感測器之設備(Gas Sensor)------------- 69
三、實驗流程圖-------------------------------------- 72
第四章 實驗結果與討論------------------------------- 77
第一部分:奈米介金屬成長多壁奈米碳管之特性分析-------- 77
ㄧ、雙成份與三成份奈米介金屬合金粉末觸媒之製備及其成長
奈米碳管之FE-SEM及HR-TEM分析-------------------- 77
二、親水性多壁奈米碳管之TEM分析--------------------- 86
三、親油性多壁奈米碳管之穿TEM分析------------------- 88
四、以三成份奈米介金屬合金觸媒Mg28-Ni68-Mo4成長奈米碳管
之XRD分析--------------------------------------- 90
五、多壁奈米碳管經表面改質後之元素分析(E.A.) ------- 91
六、多壁奈米碳管經表面改質後之Raman光譜分析--------- 91
七、多壁奈米碳管經表面改質後之FTIR光譜分析---------- 93
八、多壁奈米碳管經表面改質後之TGA分析--------------- 96
九、親水性多壁奈米碳管於SAW氣體感測器之試驗--------- 99
第二部分:鎳離子插層黏土觸媒成長多壁奈米碳管之特性分析 101
ㄧ、鎳離子插層黏土觸媒之製備及其成長奈米碳管之FE-SEM及
TEM分析----------------------------------------- 101
二、以Ni+/Clay觸媒成長奈米碳管之XRD分析------------- 105
三、以Ni+/Clay觸媒成長奈米碳管之FTIR分析------------ 106
四、以Ni+/Clay觸媒成長奈米碳管之TGA分析------------- 108
第三部分:鎳離子插層黏土觸媒成長多壁奈米碳管於葡萄糖感測器之
電化學分析-------------------------------------- 109
ㄧ、酵素反應動力學模式推導-------------------------- 109
二、以CNT/Clay/膠體金(Au)/Nafion薄膜修飾玻璃碳電極偵測
過氧化氫之電化學分析---------------------------- 114
(ㄧ)循環伏安法及安培伏安法---------------------- 116
三、以CNT/Clay/Au/Nafion/葡萄糖氧化酵素薄膜修飾玻璃碳電極
偵測葡萄糖之電化學分析-------------------------- 122
(ㄧ)循環伏安法及安培伏安法---------------------- 124
(二)反應溶液的攪拌轉速、膠體金溶液添加量、pH值與葡萄糖
氧化酵素濃度等操作條件之探討及其對靈敏度之影響-128
第五章 結論與建議------------------------------------ 135
第六章 參考文獻-------------------------------------- 141
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