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研究生:王雅君
研究生(外文):Ya-Chun Wang
論文名稱:以PTFE中空絲纖維膜去除地下水中鐵錳之操作效能研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study on Operation Performance of PTFE Hollow Fiber Microfilter for Iron and Manganese Removal in Groundwater
指導教授:謝永旭謝永旭引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:微過濾地下水中空絲纖維膜
外文關鍵詞:Micro filtrationground waterironmanganesehollow fiber membrane
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在地表水資源有限情況下,台灣地區需藉助地下水來供給民生用水,而鐵、錳普遍存在於地下層中,往往也造成處理地下水時的困擾,鐵錳的去除首先必須將還原態的離子氧化成金屬顆粒,再進行固液分離。近年來薄膜的成本有顯著減少,且薄膜系統中亦有節省空間之優點,可作為台灣淨水設施之選擇。本研究以彰化淨水場含鐵、錳的地下水,經過曝氣及氧化後,再以PTFE中空絲纖維膜(hollow fiber micro-filter)實驗模組進行分離鐵錳氧化顆粒,並比較以傳統錳砂(greensand)過濾之效益。
實驗以中空絲纖維膜過濾後的清水(After membrane,AM)中剩餘之鐵的濃度與經過錳砂處理後的情況相同,但是錳的去除狀況卻差異甚大,初期經過薄膜後之錳的濃度高達0.066mg/L高於水質標準(0.05mg/L),但經過一週的操作薄膜後之錳的濃度呈現逐步遞減,錳濃度降至0.02 mg/L以下,我們發現存在於薄膜間的鐵錳污泥扮演了重要的角色,藉由電子顯微鏡及EDS之觀察分析,這些污泥成分以鐵錳為主,且以錳的含量較高,說明了中空絲纖維薄膜間的鐵錳污泥提供了一個截流、沉澱、吸附及氧化作用的空間,使含鐵錳地下水有很好的去除效益。
In the surface water finite condition, Taiwan has to use ground water supply people to use. But the iron and the manganese widespread exist in ground water; usually bring persecution process ground water. Removal the iron and manganese, first processing is the reduction states ion to oxide ion become oxidization metal particle then carries on the liquid-solid separation. In recent years, the costs of membrane system have decreased significantly. The membrane system becomes an available choice for Taiwan water supply facility especially in the reason of space-save.
In this research by the Chang-hua water treatment plans’ ground water, after passing the aeration and the oxidation, by PTFE hollow fiber micro-filter experiment mold train carries on the separation the iron and the manganese oxidation particle, and compares benefit of by the greensand filtration.
After PTFE hollow fiber membrane filtration clear water (After membrane, AM), the iron’s concentration after undergoing manganese ore processing the situation is the same. But the manganese removal condition is difference. In experiment initial period, the surplus manganese density reaches as high as 0.066mg/L in the water after PTFE hollow fiber membrane filtration, Surpasses the water standard (0.05mg/L). But after one week operation, the surplus manganese concentration reduces gradually in the AM water. The manganese concentration drops to below 0.02 mg/L. We discovered that the existed iron-manganese sludge has acted the important role in hollow fiber. Observation and analysis by electron microscope and EDS, these sludge principal constituent is the iron and manganese, the manganese content is high. Explained outside the thin film iron and manganese sludge to provide a interception, precipitation, adsorption and oxidation space. Enables to have the very good elimination benefit including iron and manganese ground water.
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1-1研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1鐵、錳簡介 3
2- 1.1 鐵、錳來源 3
2-1.2 鐵、錳對人體健康及給水影響 3
2-1.3 鐵、錳飲用水水質規定 6
2-1.4 鐵、錳水化特性 7
2-1.5 鐵、錳氧化動力學 10
2-1.6 鐵、錳去除方法 11
2-2 薄膜簡介 15
2-2.1薄膜分離技術 15
2-2.2薄膜過濾機制及原理 16
2-2.3薄膜種類及應用 18
2-2.4 薄膜操作方式 21
2-2.5 薄膜材質 22
2-2.6 薄膜模組 23
2-2.7薄膜程序之操作限制及影響因子 25
2-2.8薄膜積垢種類 31
2-3 錳砂過濾 35
2-3.1 快濾 35
2-3.2 實場操作中含鐵錳淨水場普遍存在問題 37
第三章 研究方法 38
3-1 研究內容 38
3-2 實驗材料 40
3-2.1 地下水原水 40
3-2.2 PTFE中空絲纖維膜 42
3-3 實驗方法 45
3-3.1 薄膜分離實驗 45
3-3.2 實驗參數 45
3-4 水質分析方法 47
第四章 結果與討論 50
4-1 薄膜水質分析 50
4-1.1 鐵的去除 50
4-1.2 錳的去除 55
4-1.3 pH 59
4-1.4 濁度 60
4-1.5 餘氯 63
4-1.6 氨氮 66
4-1.7 其他水質項目 68
4-1.8 掃描式電子顯微鏡與能量散射光譜儀的分析 73
4-2 薄膜機組效益 80
4-2.1 每日產水量 80
4-2.2耗水量 82
4-2.3 耗電量 84
4-2.4 循環次數 86
4-3 成本分析 87
第五章 結論與建議 88
5-1結論 88
5-2建議 90
參考文獻 91
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